Cover Image
close this book Development in practice - Rural energy and development
View the document Foreword
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document Abbreviations and acronyms
View the document Executive summary
View the document The new agenda
View the document The role of the world bank
close this folder Chapter one - Introduction
View the document The challenges ahead
View the document Past responses
close this folder Chapter two - The rural energy situation
View the document Effects of biofuel use by the poor
View the document Pollution and health
View the document Ecological damage
View the document Energy efficiency
View the document The transition to modern fuels
close this folder Chapter three - Emerging practices and policies
View the document Enabling people to choose from among alternative forms of energy
View the document Avoiding unnecessary subsidies
View the document Addressing market failures
View the document High start-up costs and risks
View the document External costs and benefits
View the document Emphasizing participation and institutional development
View the document Participation?
View the document Local institutional development
View the document Decentralization
View the document Recognizing the central role of good enabling conditions for development
close this folder Chapter four - Options for rural electrification
View the document Progress to date
View the document Pricing and financial policies
View the document Cost-effectiveness and the choice of alternatives
View the document Costs of grid supplies
View the document Reducing initial investment costs by using appropriate design standards
View the document Micro-grids supplied by diesel generators
View the document Electricity supplies from renewable energy sources
View the document Regulatory and price reforms, unbundling, and privatization
View the document Implication for rural electrification
View the document Approaches
close this folder Chapter five - Innovations in renewable energy
View the document Technical progress in using the solar resource
View the document Policies toward new renewable energy sources in rural areas
View the document Program development
View the document Prices
View the document Credit
View the document Taxes and subsidies
close this folder Chapter six - Cooking fuels: toward more sustainable supply and use
View the document Improving end-use efficiency with biomass stoves
View the document Improving charcoal efficiency
View the document Developing more sustainable ways to supply biomass
View the document Agro-forestry and farm forestry
View the document Participatory to forest management
View the document Improving access to kerosene and gas
View the document Subsidies versus price liberalization
View the document Distortionary effects of high taxes on cooking fuels
close this folder Chapter seven - The role of the world bank group
View the document Policies and operations since the 1970s
View the document Rural electrification
View the document The sustainable in a production and use of wood-fuels
View the document Renewable energy
View the document Project innovations and advisory services
View the document The way forward: a renewed commitment by the world bank group
View the document Broadening the scope of energy sector reform
View the document Investments
View the document Opportunities for partnerships
close this folder Appendix
View the document World bank lending for rural and renewable energy projects, fiscal 1980-95
View the document Methodology for estimation of world bank lending to rural and renewable energy projects
View the document Notes
View the document Bibliography

Notes

 

Chapter One: Introduction

1. The term traditional fuel refers to such fuels as wood, charcoal, agricultural residues. dung. grass. leaves. and other biomass materials using open fires. "three-stone" stoves, and wood and charcoal stoves. These are sometimes also called biofuels. The term modern includes liquid fuels. such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and Kerosene, electricity: coal. modern biomass. including improved stoves and bagasse gasification and co-generation and innovative renewable energy technologies. such as those that use wind, solar. and small-scale hydroelectric resources The term commercial energy is sometimes used instead of modern energy.

2. This was a recurrent question members of the World Bank's Board posed during the discussions of the policy papers in 1992 and during a review of progress with these policies in 1994.

Chapter Two: The Rural Energy Situation

3. The term lower-income developing countries refers to the classification in the WDR's statistical annexes. This group had per capita incomes of less than US$695 in 1993.

Chapter Three: Emerging Practices and Policies

1. The distinction between subsidies and financial support is not always clear-cut. Some programs may require subsidies in the short term to absorb start-up costs. but mote than compensate for this by their revenues and profitability in the long-term. The topic is discussed further in relation to rural electrification anti renewable energy.