| Development in practice - Rural energy and development |
|Abbreviations and acronyms|
|The new agenda|
|The role of the world bank|
|Chapter one - Introduction|
|The challenges ahead|
|Chapter two - The rural energy situation|
|Effects of biofuel use by the poor|
|Pollution and health|
|The transition to modern fuels|
|Chapter three - Emerging practices and policies|
|Enabling people to choose from among alternative forms of energy|
|Avoiding unnecessary subsidies|
|Addressing market failures|
|High start-up costs and risks|
|External costs and benefits|
|Emphasizing participation and institutional development|
|Local institutional development|
|Recognizing the central role of good enabling conditions for development|
|Chapter four - Options for rural electrification|
|Progress to date|
|Pricing and financial policies|
|Cost-effectiveness and the choice of alternatives|
|Costs of grid supplies|
|Reducing initial investment costs by using appropriate design standards|
|Micro-grids supplied by diesel generators|
|Electricity supplies from renewable energy sources|
|Regulatory and price reforms, unbundling, and privatization|
|Implication for rural electrification|
|Chapter five - Innovations in renewable energy|
|Technical progress in using the solar resource|
|Policies toward new renewable energy sources in rural areas|
|Taxes and subsidies|
|Chapter six - Cooking fuels: toward more sustainable supply and use|
|Improving end-use efficiency with biomass stoves|
|Improving charcoal efficiency|
|Developing more sustainable ways to supply biomass|
|Agro-forestry and farm forestry|
|Participatory to forest management|
|Improving access to kerosene and gas|
|Subsidies versus price liberalization|
|Distortionary effects of high taxes on cooking fuels|
|Chapter seven - The role of the world bank group|
|Policies and operations since the 1970s|
|The sustainable in a production and use of wood-fuels|
|Project innovations and advisory services|
|The way forward: a renewed commitment by the world bank group|
|Broadening the scope of energy sector reform|
|Opportunities for partnerships|
|World bank lending for rural and renewable energy projects, fiscal 1980-95|
|Methodology for estimation of world bank lending to rural and renewable energy projects|
The following is a full list of references cited in the text along with other pertinent publications. Also influential were the reports of the World Bank energy sector project missions and of the joint United Nations Development Programme/World Bank Energy Assessment Program and Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP). Some are cited below, but as there are roughly 200 studies from 90 countries plus project appraisal reports for nearly 11)0 projects in more than 40 countries. they are too numerous to list here. A separate list of Energy Assessment and ESMAP studies that have dealt with general aspects or specifics of rural energy policies and projects. together with some World Bank studies has been prepared. and can be obtained on request from the World Bank's Industry and Energy Department.
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