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close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contents Getting ready
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
Open this folder and view contents Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
Open this folder and view contents Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings

Total Time: Approximately 4 hours

Goals:

- To define summarizing as a communication skill, and to make this skill explicit in participants' minds.

- To give information about soil preparation, seed bed sowing and reproduction by clippings.

- Review trainees plan for vivero. Have trainees start laying out nursery.

Overview

In this session information about soils is given as a refresher for some trainees and as new information for others. Participants' vivero plan is reviewed and trainer/forester makes suggestions and gives approval for participants to start laying out nursery. Summarizing as a skill is put in this session to have participants summarize where they are technically and realize the value of this skill in technical learning.

Exercise

1. Summarizing,

2. Lecture on soil preparation, seed bed sowing and reproduction by clippings,

3. Review of trainee vivero plan and laying out of vivero.

Materials: Flip charts, marker pens, tape, stripy, shovels, rakes, "Power in the Willow" article.

Exercise I: Summarizing Total Time - 20 minutes Overview

This exercise is designed as a short, quick energizer/change of pace and is used in conjunction with the technical training session. It is done by the technical trainer as a way of integrating a skill which can be used for technical learning. This is the first introduction of this exercise and it will be used later in the program.

Procedures

Time

Activities

2 minutes

1. Technical trainer asks participants to check over the technical training of the past three days and try to prepare in their minds, a way to explain what has happened and what they have learned so that they can inform someone else about it.

5 minutes

2. Technical trainer now asks participants to form into pairs, preferably with someone who has a different technical training experience (i.e., generalist with forester). one person explains his technical training experience of the past three days while the other person listens and then summarizes his/her partner's presentation. Then people switch roles and repeat the process.

10 minutes

3. Bring the group hack together and discuss the experience by asking:

 

- what if anything caused difficulty?

 

- How did it feel after you were speaking, then hearing the other person try to summarize your content?

 

- What do you have to work on to be a better summarizer?

 

- What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of summarizing?

2 minutes

4. Technical trainer asks group: minutes

 

- What can we say about summarizing as a communication skill?

1 minute

5. Close by stating that we will return to practice summarizing as a skill from 1 minute time to time in technical training and will also use it in language training.

Exercise II Soil Preparation, Seed Bed Sowing, and Reproduction by Clipping.

Total Time: 1 1 1/2 hours

Overview

In this exercise, the technical trainer gives a lecture on soil preparation, seed bed sowing and reproduction by clipping. For many participants this will be a refresher session and the technical trainer should ask people to make comments about experiences they have had. In this session the discovery of the "willow rooting substance. is introduced. Since this was published in September 1981 the article is passed out to trainees for their information (article at end of this exercise).

Procedures

Time

Activities

 

1. Technical trainer gives lecture using the following outline. It is recommended that outline be placed on newsprint and displayed as technical trainer teaches various stages of outline during the lecture. Newsprint outline helps hold attention.

SOIL PREPARATION

1. Soil might have to be sterilized if there exists a danger of disease by:

a. boiling water

b. acid treatment

c. heating soil on steel plqte

2. Might be better to move site,

3. Chemical sterilization,

4. Fertilization medium to be mixed with soil according to need,

5. Organic material might have to be added to help retain soil moisture and/or improve texture. The following are possibilities:

a. compost

b. straw

c. chopped pine needles (dry)

d. sawdust (aged)

1. toxic effect?

2. nutrient loss?

(Organic material could contain weed seeds and/or fungi or insects).

6. Mycorrhiza,

7. pH 6.5 (slightly acid).

SOWING

1. Across the bed - facilitates weeding

2. Make your own seed "trench":

a. board

b. depth of trench (see drawing on following page)

3. Sow sand in seed trench (optional),

4. Sprinkle seed in trench,

5. Number of seeds/meter:

a. size of seedling,

b. plant species,

c. germination prospects,

d. 1 viable seed/cm.

6. Cover with sand or dirt,

7. Water heavily after sowing,

8. You may put straw over beds - for protection against birds and moisture retention.


FIGURE

REPRODUCTION BY CLIPPING

1. Sprouts cut and stuck in ground (brotes)(retonos),

2. Redwood - not effective,

3. More experimentation needed in hardwoods,

4. Rooting medium,

5. Other:

a. layering

b. moss-soil (usago) around sprout (brote).

6. willow sprout method,

7. Horticulture: roots (raices) fertilizer (abono)


FIGURE


FIGURE

Exercise III Review of Trainee Vivero Plan and Layout of Vivero

Total Time: 2 hours

Overview

In this exercise the technical trainer reviews trainees' vivero plan and provides comments about the process of arriving at the plan. Trainees will then proceed to the vivero site and start laying out their nursery.

Procedure

Time

Activities

15 minutes

1. Technical trainer reviews vivero plan. Makes recommendations and points out work that is excellent and that which is not so good. Discuss with group that this vivero will be their responsibility during the rest of training. They will layout prepare soil, sow seeds and keep the nursery watered. No one will remind them, hut trainers will check progress from time to time.

1 hour 45 minutes

2. Trainees are now instructed to go and layout nursery. They are aware of where tools are kept. No further instructions arc given. once again trainers become unavailable.

Trainer's Note: There will be more trainees than space with which to work. Groups will have to negotiate use of tools and space with each other.

5 minutes

3. Trainers arrive and check out nursery layout. Observations are made about group work at the site. Nothing is said about process at this point. Trainers collect data.