Forestry training manual InterAmerica Region 
Total Time: 3 1/2 hours
Goals:
 To have each trainee construct their own cruiser stick and learn how to use it.
 To instruct trainees in forest mensuration and provide a simple method for determining forest volume.
 To look at helping skills.
Overview
In this session participants will make a Biltmore Stick and learn how to use it in forest measurement. One of the trainees who has taken on making a Biltmore Stick instructs other trainees. Trainees look at one another's helping skills and give feedback.
Exercises:
1. Construction and use of a cruiser stick.
2. Lecture on forest mensuration.
3. Groups: Helping skills.
Materials:
Flip chart, marker pens, tape
 1 board 1 meter long X 5 cm wide X 1 or 2 meters thick for each trainee
 Number table
 Knife to scratch graduation marks
 Waterproof pen to identify graduation
 Conversion factors for U.S. and metric units
Exercise I: Construction and Use of Cruiser Stick
Total Time: 2 hours
Overview
In this exercise trainee instructs other trainees in the construction and use of cruiser stick which is an instrument that can be used as:
a) Biltmore Stick  to measure tree diameter
b) Merritt Hypsometer  to measure tree height
c) Meter Stick  to measure length
Procedures
Time 
Activities 
15 minutes 
1. Trainee/Instructor has all necessary materials assembled for this exercise. He/she then gives a brief lecture on the purpose of a cruiser stick using one he/she has made for demonstration. 
45 minutes 
2. Trainee/instructor now shows participants how to make their own cruiser stick and the participants do so. 
3. Trainee/instructor along with technical instructor takes trainees who have been divided up into small groups with a 1 hour forester in each group out to a stand of trees and trainees practice using cruiser stick for measuring trees. In turn, they calculate the volumes of trees using table provided. 
Trainer's Note: We have included here number tables or formulae to calculate graduations on cruiser stick but suggest that trainee who takes this on as a special project figure out these tables for him/herself.
We have also given conversion factors for U.S. and Metric Unit Charts to participants during this exercise.
CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF A CRUISER STICK
Cruiser Stick:
a. Biltmore stick  measure tree diameter,
b. Merritt Hypsometer  measure tree height,
c. Meter stick  measure length.
Materials:
a. Board: 1 meter long X 5 cm wide X 1 or 2 cm thick.
b. Number table or formulas to calculate graduations.
c. Knife to scratch permanent graduation marks.
d. Pen with waterproof ink to identify graduations and v rite needed information on stick.
I. BILTMORE STICK  To measure tree diameter.
A. Construction
Use hardwood board (1 meter long), knife, and marker. First determine reach. Reach is the distance from cruiser's eye to the stick held out in front of his/her hand. Find if your reach (eye to outstretched hand holding boars) is more comfortable at 57cm or 65cm. Graduations for specified reaches of 57 to 65 cm are on the number table. Starting from the left end graduate the stick using the number table. The number table provides graduations for measuring DBHs of 1  153 centimeters. DBH marks are placed every C, centimeters from the left end of the stick.
If a number table is not available for your specified reach it is possible to construct one using the following formula:
G = D2R/D + R
Where:
C = distance (cm) from zero mark (left end of stick to Dcm graduations,
D = diameter mark (cm) currently being placed on stick,
R = reach in centimeters.
B. USE of THE Biltmore STICK:
1. The Hiltmore stick is held against the tree with the line of sight to the left side of the tree crossing the zero end of the scale. The diameter of the tree is then read at the point where the line of sight, to the right side of the tree crosses the scale (see figure 1).
2. The following precautions must he observed to obtain accurate readings with the Biltmore Stick: a. The stick must be held against a tree. b. The stick must be perpendicular (at right angles) to the trunk of the tree. c. The stick must be perpendicular to the imaginary line between the observer and the tree. d. The cruiser's head must not be moved during the measuring operation. e. The stick is calibrated for a specified reach. This means that the cruiser's eye must be exactly the specified distance from the stick.
II. MERRITT HYPSOMETER  To measure tree height. A. CONSTRUCTION
The Merritt Hypsometer scale for measuring tree height in meters is placed on the back side of the cruiser stick. This scale is calibrated for the same reach as the Biltmore Stick on the other sine.
The Merritt is designed for use at a particular distance from the tree (30 meters for graduations on number chart). This base distance of 3() meters should be printed on the scale. Graduations, beginning with zero at the bottom of the stick, are found on the number table for your specified reach. Using the number table, tree heights of 1  40 meters can be measured.
If a number table is not available for your specified reach it is possible to construct one using the following formula:
L + H x R/B
Where:
L = length (cm) to be marked off on stick for each H meters of tree height,
h = tree height in meters,
B = base distance in meters,
R = reach in centimeters.
B. USE OF MERRITT HYPSOMETER:
1. The cruiser stands at a specified distance (30m) from the tree, with the hypsometer scale held vertically at arms' length. The bottom end of the scale is moved upward or downward until it is on the line of sight to the base of the tree. Tree height, in meters, is then read at the point where the line of sight to the upper limit of the stem intersects the scale (see figure 2).
2. The following precautions must be observed to obtain accurate readings with the Merritt Hypsometer:
a. The stick is designed for use at a particular base distance (horizontal distance) from a tree. This distance should be printed on the scale.
b. The stick is calibrated for a specified reach. This should be the same specified reach as for the Biltmore on the other side.
c. Failure to hold the stick vertically will cause inaccurate readings.
III. METER STICK  To measure length.
The stick for the Biltmore and Merritt should be 1 meter long. On the side one can add a centimeter scale. This will provide the cruiser with a handy measuring stick.
(m) TREE 
cm from bottom of stick 

Height Mark 
57 cm reach 
65 cm reach 
1 
1.90 
2.17 
2 
3.80 
4.35 
3 
5.70 
6.50 
4 
7.60 
8.67 
5 
9.50 
10.83 
6 
11.40 
13.00 
7 
13.30 
15.17 
8 
15.20 
17.33 
9 
17.10 
19.50 
10 
19.00 
21.67 
11 
20.90 
23.83 
12 
22.80 
26.00 
13 
24.70 
28.17 
14 
26.60 
30.33 
15 
28.50 
32.50 
16 
30.40 
34.67 
17 
32.30 
36.83 
18 
34.20 
59.00 
19 
36.10 
41.17 
20 
38.00 
43.33 
21 
39.90 
45.50 
22 
41.80 
47.67 
23 
43.70 
49.83 
24 
45.60 
52.00 
25 
47.50 
54.17 
26 
49.40 
56.33 
27 
51.30 
58.50 
28 
53.20 
60.67 
29 
55.10 
62.83 
30 
57.00 
65.00 
31 
58.90 
67.17 
32 
60.80 
69.33 
33 
62.70 
71.50 
34 
64.60 
73.67 
35 
66.50 
75.83 
36 
68.40 
78.00 
37 
70.30 
80.17 
38 
72.20 
82.33 
39 
74.10 
84.50 
40 
76.00 
86.67 
DBH 
cm from left end of stick 

Mark (cm) 
57 cm reach 
65 cm reach 
1 
0.99 
0.99 
3 
2.92 
2.93 
5 
4.79 
4.82 
7 
6.61 
6.65 
9 
8.36 
8.43 
11 
10.07 
10.17 
13 
11.73 
11.87 
15 
13.25 
13.52 
17 
15.13 
15.14 
19 
16.45 
16.71 
21 
17.95 
18.26 
23 
19.41 
19.77 
25 
20.84 
21.25 
27 
22.24 
22.69 
29 
23.61 
24.12 
31 
24.95 
25.51 
33 
26.26 
26.88 
35 
27.55 
28.22 
37 
28.81 
29.54 
39 
30.05 
30.83 
41 
31.27 
32.11 
43 
32.46 
33.36 
45 
33.64 
34.59 
47 
34.80 
35.81 
49 
35.93 
37.00 
51 
37.05 
38.18 
53 
38.15 
39.34 
55 
39.24 
40.48 
57 
40.31 
41.61 
59 
41.36 
42.72 
61 
42.40 
43.81 
63 
43.42 
44.89 
65 
44.43 
45.96 
67 
45.43 
47.02 
69 
46.41 
48.06 
71 
47.38 
49.08 
73 
48.34 
50.10 
75 
49.28 
51.10 
77 
50.22 
52.10 
79 
51.14 
53.08 
81 
52.06 
54.05 
83 
52.96 
55.01 
85 
53.85 
55.95 
87 
54.74 
56.89 
89 
55.61 
57.82 
91 
56.47 
58.74 
93 
57.33 
59.65 
95 
58.18 
60.55 
97 
59.01 
61.44 
99 
59.84 
62.33 
101 
60.66 
63.20 
103 
61.48 
64.07 
105 
62.28 
64.93 
107 
63.08 
65.78 
109 
63.87 
66.62 
111 
64.66 
67.46 
113 
65.43 
68.28 
115 
66.20 
69.11 
117 
66.97 
69.92 
119 
67.72 
70.73 
121 
68.47 
71.53 
123 
69.22 
72.32 
125 
69.95 
73.11 
127 
70.69 
73.89 
129 
71.41 
74.67 
131 
72.13 
75.44 
133 
72.85 
76.20 
135 
73.56 
76.96 
137 
74.26 
77.71 
139 
74.96 
78.46 
141 
75.65 
79.20 
143 
76.34 
79.94 
145 
77.02 
80.67 
147 
77.70 
81.40 
149 
78.38 
82.12 
151 
79.05 
82.83 
153 
79.71 
83.54 
Conversion Factors for U.S. and Metric Units
To convert column 1 into column 2. multiply by 
Column 1 
Column 2 
To convert column 2 into column 1 multiply by 
Length 

0.621 
kilometer, km 
mile, mi 
1.609 
1.094 
meter, m 
yard, yd 
0,914 
0 394 
centimeter, cm 
inch. in 
2.54 
Area 

0.386 
kilometer^{2}, km^{2} 
milch, mi^{2} 
2 590 
247.1 
kilometer^{2}, km^{2} 
acre, acre 
0.00405 
2.471 
hectare, ha 
acre, acre 
0.405 
Volume 

000973 
meter^{3}, m^{3} 
acreinch 
102.8 
3.532 
hectoliter, hl 
cubic foot, ft^{3} 
0.2832 
2.838 
hectoliter, hl 
bushel, bu 
0.352 
0.02X4 
liter 
bushel, bu 
35.24 
1.057 
liter 
quart (liquid), qt 
0.946 
Mass 

1.102 
ton (metric) 
ton (U.S.) 
0.9072 
2.205 
quintal, q 
hundredweight, 
0.454 cwt (short) 
2.205 
kilogram. kg 
pound, lb 
0.454 
0.035 
gram, g 
ounce (avdp), oz 
2X.35 
Pressure 

14.50 
bar 
lb/inch^{2}, psi 
0.06895 
0.9869 
bar 
atmosphere, atm 
1.013 
0.9678 
kg(weight)/cm^{2} 
atmosphere. atm 
1.033 
14.22 
kg(weight)/cm^{2} 
lb/inch^{2}, psi 
0.07031 
14.70 
atmosphere, atm 
lb/inch^{2}, psi 
0.06805 
Yield or Rate 

0.446 
ton (metric)/hectare 
ton (U.S.)/acre 
2.240 
0.892 
kg/ha 
lb/acre 
1.12 
0.892 
quintal/hectare 
hundredweight/acre 
1.12 
Temperature 

( 9/5 °C ) + 32 
Celsius 
Fahrenheit 
3/9 ( °F 12) 
17.8C 
0F 

0C 
32F 

20C 
68F 

100C 
212F 

Water Measurement 

8.108 
hectaremeters. ham 
acrefeet 
0.1233 
97.29 
hectaremeters. ham 
acreinches 
0.01028 
0 08108 
hectarecentimeters. hacm 
acrefeet 
12.33 
0.973 
hectarecentimeters, hacm 
acreinches 
1.0:8 
0.00973 
meters^{3}, m^{3} 
acreinches 
102.8 
0.981 
hectarecentimeters/hour. hacm/hour 
feet^{3}/sec 
1.0194 
440.3 
hectarecentimeters/hour hacm/hour 
U.S. gall./min 
0.00227 
0.00981 
meters3/hour, m3/hour 
feet^{3}/sec 
101.94 
4.403 
meters3/hour, m3/hour 
U. S. gall./min 
0.227 
Exercise II: Forest Mensuration Lecture
Total Time: 1 hour
Overview
The purpose of this lecture is to acquaint the trainees with forest mensuration and provide a simple method for determining forest volume.
Procedures
Time 
Activities 
1. Technical trainer gives following lecture posting lecture outline on newsprint. 
OBJECTIVES: To acquaint the trainees with forest mensuration and provide a simple method for determining forest volume.
Trainer explains how volume is determined and diagrams instructions.
Draw in how many boards can be produced out of each log depending on diameter of small end of 109.
VOLUME = end area in hoard feed/12 X length How Volume is determined  Formula rules
Diameter small end of log
V = Area small end/12 • Length
V = 06545(D2)(Length)
Less Slab  Deduct 2"  4" from Diameter (Variable X)
V = U6545(D  X)length
Less kerf = K/(K +/ T)
Explanation of what is saw keft
A=% of volume deduced for saw kerf
K = Thickness of saw kerf
T = Thickness of board
V= (1A).06545(PK)2L
Standard Volume Table
Sample trees
 Trees felled and bucked into logs
 "DAP" and "altura" taken
 calculation of volumes made by log and totaled for each tree sampled
 Volumes of trees in same DAP and altura class averaged and put in tabular form
DAP 
Altura 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

14 
0.081 
0.103 
0.126 
 
 
16 
0.098 
0.128 
0.159 
 
 
Forest Area
Important: Determine area of forest
If it is done first or last: You have to know area of forest to compute the total volume.
Forest stand area for purposes of example calculated to be 6.5 hectares.
Planning the Field Work (Planificacion de trabajo de terreno)
 Delineate Forest Types
 Make types as homogenous as possible
1 monoculture
Planted 
planted 
planted 
1952 
'52 
'55 
70% stocked 
30% stocked 
100% 
Planted 1955
70% stocked
2 monocultures (native)
Major species X, Y and Z 70% stocked 
Major Species A,B and C 30% stocked 
Major species A,B and C 70% stocked 
Plot Layout
(Sistema de Ubicacion de parcelas)
Plots rayed out at set distance from one another along a straight line: lines evenly spaced, and should cross drainages
Plots located randomly  no pattern
1. Lay out on graph paper with X & Y coordinates; pick random numbers for X and Y coordinates to plot.
2. Throw beans or rice over map of area.
Plots (Parcelas)
Circular
1/10 Hectares
A= r^{2}
r^{2}=A/ r= 100m2/3.14169
Square (cuadrado)
10 meters
Diameters DBH=DAP
Heights For "shooting" tree heights all measurements are.....
HORIZONTAL DISTANCE
Tree Height = HD X %
Tree Height = 40 X 1.10
Tree Height = 44 meters
Field Notes
Species 
Plot 
DAP 
ALTURA 
DEFECT 
Notes Volume* 
1 
14 
42 
0 

18 
46 
10% 

26 
69 
0 

2 
22 
61 
0 

28 
75 
10% 

32 
79 
0 
Determining Volume of a Tree (Determinacion de Volumen de un arbol)
Height (Altura) = 20m
DAP 
Altura en Metras 

10 
15 
20 

14 
0.084 
0.108 
0.133 
16 
0.099 
0.131 
0.163 
Total Volume Cruised by Forest Type
Plot No. 
Total volume for each plot 
1 
8.172 m^{3} 
2 
12.101 
3 
15.111 
4 
11.002 
5 
10.301 
6 
9.221 
Total Cruise Volume 
65.908m^{3} 
Total Volume of Stand 

Total cruise volume 
= 65.908m^{3} 
Total no. of plots 
= 6 
65.908m^{3}/6 
= 10.985m^{3}/Plot (Average) 
1 ha size of plot 
= /10 
10.983m^{3}/plot x 10 Plots/ha 
= 109. 85m^{3}/hectare 
Area Estimation 
= 6.5 has 
109.85m^{3}/Ha x 6.5Has 
= 714.025m^{3} 
= Total Volume of Stand 
Exercise III Group Helping Skills
Total Time: 1 hour
Overview
During this session, it has been necessary for generalist trainees to lean on forester trainees for help in understanding and using a cruiser stick. The generalist trainees will need further help understanding the intricacies of forest mensuration. The trainees will give feedback to forester trainees and vice versa.
Procedures
Time 
Activities 

½ hour 
1. Technical trainer asks groups formed earlier to use cruiser sticks to regroup. Technical trainer asks forester trainees to go over forest mensuration with generalist trainees and to answer questions they may have about forest mensuration and clear up any misunderstandings. Technical trainer floats during this period and can be called on as a resource person. 

2. Groups are now asked to give each other feedback on skills transference during session: The following guidelines are posted on newsprint. 

Forester Trainee: 

2.1 Ask for feedback from others on your ability to help them. 

15 minutes 
 What did it feel like to be a giver of help and what can we learn from this? 

 What may be different about helping others in host country? 

 How might cultural variables affect 

 Helping relationship? 

15 minutes 
Generalist Trainees: 

 How can I approach others for help (Be it PCVs or HCNs)? 

 How was I perceived as a helpee during this session? 

 What did it feel like to he helped and what can I learn from this? 

 Putting myself in a HCN's shoes, what might it feel like to get technical help? 

2.3 All Trainees 

 How can we apply the helping relationship to extension work in forestry? 

 What things have we learned in this exercise that might help or hinder us as extension workers? 

15 minutes 
2.4 Trainer asks groups for their findings on things that help/ hinder and writes them on newsprint. Forester trainer now summarizes the learnings about helping relationships. 