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close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contents Getting ready
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
Open this folder and view contents Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
Open this folder and view contents Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session XXXVII Soils

Total Time:

Goals:

- To introduce varieties of soils found in host country.

- Soil fertility is explained.

- To discuss fertilization of soils.

- To go through steps for taking soil samples.

- Techniques to be used in soil conservation extension are explored.

Overview

Technical trainer introduces the subject of soil in host country(ies). Talks about different types, fertility, and fertilization as a means of improving soil quality. Explains steps for taking soil samples. Discusses techniques to be used in soil conservation extension work.

Trainer's Note: It may be possible to get a local soil expert to give presentation during this session.

Exercise

I: Lecture on Soils

II: Movies

Materials: Flip charts, magic marker, tape, movies

Exercise I: Soil Lecture

Total Time: 1 hour

Overview

Technical trainer introduces soil section of training, covers varieties found in host country (ies), fertility of soils, and fertilization of soils. Explains steps for taking soil samples. Gives examples of: techniques to be used in soil conservation extension work.

Procedures

Time

Activities

 

1. Technical trainer gives lecture on soils. This lecture must he country specific and if not, trainees must know how to find specifics on host country. Following is a sample outline for use by technical trainer,

 

2. Slide show.

 

3. Field trips - visit to poor and good soil management and the affects on crops.

I. Soils of Ecuador

A. Sierra Soils

1. Volcanic origin.

2. Hardpan (cangahua) at varying depths below top soil; hardpan compressed fine (powder like) particles with little structure.

3. High elevation - there are deep soils of volcanic origin which are very feral.

4. In the valleys, the soil is sedimentary from the effects of erosion.

B. Coastal Soils

1. Provencia los Rios - Best soil in the country is of volcanic origin; two to three harvests per year.

2. Rio Guayas - Sedimentary soil from the river delta; fertile and good rice land.

C. Oriente Soils

1. Generally poor soils.

2. Most nutrients locked up in the biomass.

3. Nutrients (especially nitrogen) are quickly leached from the soil.

4. Two areas suitable for crops - soil of volcanic origin:

a. Lago Aqua - Coco

b. Southern Sector - Zamora

5. Silvo-Agro-Pastoral Systems can be used (Trees - Crops - Pasture) on a rotational basis.

Soil fertility

A. Generally soil is:

1. of low fertility in the orient,

2. of high fertility along the coast.

B. Problems:

1. Phosphates: Fixes in the soil and becomes unavailable to plants; in places must add up to 300 Kg/ha of P2O5,

2. Potassium: Also fixes in soil and is unavailable to plants,

3. Nitrogen: Easily leached out of soil in areas of high rainfall.

III. Fertilizers

A. Generally, the campesino does not have much knowledge or understanding in the use of chemical fertilizers and/or composting.

B. Organic Fertilizer: Material generally not available for use as fertilizer; needs more fuel, and/or food for animals and man.

C. Some soils lack certain nutrients.

a. zinc (in) - needed in corn production in the highlands,

b. sulphur (S) - needed in legume production in the highlands.

D. Most common fertilizer used is super-phosphate simple (P + sulphur).

IV. Soil Samples

A. To determine nutrient needs, soil sample should be taken.

B. Sub-samples of soil should be taken throughout the area of same soil; then mix subsamples and take a 1 - 2 pound


Fig. 55

C. In Ecuador, samples can be sent into INIAP Santa Catalina (10 km south of Quito); free analysis.

D. Analysis is free and usually takes 15 days (from time of delivery), but can take up to 3 months. Analysis will include: a. N. P. K b. pH, or soil acidity

E. Analysis of trace minerals can be requested (cost 20() sucres). (Ca, Zn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, B).

V. Soil Conservation Extension

A. Techniques

1. Two boxes of soil, one covered with mulch, tilt boxes and put jars at lower end of box. Pour water over boxes and observe how clear water fills jar at lower end of mulchified box.

 


(Fig. 56 )


(Fig. 57)

Exercise ll Movies pertaining to Soil, Soil Erosion and Watershed Management

Total Time: 2 hours

Overview

Since it would not be possible to have trainees see every kind of soil erosion, soil management and watershed management, we showed movies which did give trainees a broad picture.

Procedure

Time

Activities

 

1. The following movies are shown; technical trainer makes comments and answers questions after each film.

14 minutes

 

a. Soil Erosion

12 minutes

 

b. What is Soil?

25 minutes

 

c. hater movement in soil

11 minutes

 

d. What is Ecology?

Questions and comments take between 5 and 10 minutes

Trainer's Note: You will want to look around for good movies on soil. We only went to one source and found later that there were several we could have used.

SOIL CHART OF ECUADOR


Fig 58