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close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contents Getting ready
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
Open this folder and view contents Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
Open this folder and view contents Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session LX Grafting and fruit trees

Total Time: 3 1/2 hours

Goals:

- To acquaint foresters with fruit tree care and grafting techniques.

Overview

Foresters are often expected to be experts in all trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of fruit tree culture.

Exercise I: Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.

Materials: Fruit trees for thinning, grafting, sharp knife, sharpening stone, plastic tape (grafting tape), bees wax.

Exercise I Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.

Total Time: 3 1/2 hours

Overview

In this exercise trainees learn about fruit trees and fruit tree reproduction.

Procedures

Time

Activities

 

1. Trainer gives the following lecture on fruit trees.

Grafting and Fruit Trees

FRUIT TREES AND FORESTRY

Foresters are often expected to be experts in all kinds of trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of some of the basics of fruit tree culture.

I. Differences between forestry for wood products and for fruit

A. Short term, usually annual production cycle.

B. Intensive cultural practices; fertilization, pruning, grafting, disease and pest control.

C. In summary, fruit trees are domesticated trees needing a series of special treatments.

II. Critical Cultural Practices in detail

A. Pruning

1. Specific systems vary according to the crop

2. Some basic rules are generally valid a. space for every branch and a branch for every space. b. watch the timing - generally in the lowest growth period (dormancy) of the tree. c. prune in a way that the tree can heal over clear cuts, no projecting stumps - so that rain will not collect in the cut.

B. Grafting

1. What?

- The union of the cambium layers of a parent tree (stock) and a desired variety (scion) in such a way that the two form a solid, growing unit.

a. continued growth from the scion is true to the scion's characteristics and is not a combination of stock and scion.

b. essential to protect grafts of all types with wax and/or by wrapping to prevent drying out or mechanical damage.

2. Why?

a. to achieve desired variety of fruit with root stock adapted to local conditions.

b. to gain time - multiplying a desired variety; faster than plants from seeds.

c. to assure genetic purity.

d. to have several varieties on one tree for pollination purposes.

e. for repair purposes - renewing an old tree or repairing girdled trunks - rodents or mechanical damage.

3. When?

- Beginning of the growth period.

4. Types

a. top working - renewing of a tree

- cleft graft,

- whip graft,

- bark graft.

b. repair

- bridge graft

c. budding

- most practical and reliable,

- demonstrations and practice of cutting bud shields,

- T-cuts, inserting and wrapping.

3 hours

2. Trainer now demonstrates grafting technique and trainees practice techniques.

Trainer's Note: During pilot we were able to arrange for some trainees to observe beekeeping during this same time. We gave trainees the choice between fruit tree grafting and beekeeping.