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close this book Measuring drought and drought impacts in Red Sea Province
close this folder 1. Introduction to Red Sea Province
View the document Physical Geography
View the document Precipitation
View the document Political organisation
View the document Infrastructure, economic activities, and employment
View the document Agriculture
View the document Pastoralism
View the document Drought-coping strategies
View the document Population and human geography
View the document Land Tenure
View the document Gender Relations in Beja society
View the document Overview of famine relief in Red Sea Province
View the document References
View the document Appendix 1.1.
View the document Appendix 1.2.

Appendix 1.1.

Other current research in Red Sea Province

This section is a summary of the current research undertaken by the Environmental Research Group Oxford (ERGO), and research in preparation or currently under way by the Universities of Khartoum and Bergen collectively called the Red Sea Areas Programmed (RESAP). The ERGO research is presented first abstracts of the RESAP research follow. More detailed information about the research is available in ERGO (1989) and RESAP (1989).

Environmental Research Group Oxford (ERGO)

The Environmental Research Group Oxford was commissioned in 1988 by Oxfam United Kingdom to conduct a two-season aerial survey of livestock, human population, vegetation and agriculture in Red Sea Province and in adjacent areas that are used heavily by residents of Red Sea Province. At present, only a preliminary report of phase one of the survey has been prepared It is envisioned that the final report will be finished in December 1989.

Red Sea Areas Programme Research (RESAP)

Eleven Masters and Ph.D students are involved in the RESAP programme. The research topics are listed first and then a brief description of each topic is presented at the end of the list.

Assessment of resource use and management activities in arid lands and reflections on the human and natural environments: a study from the Red Sea Region of Eastern Sudan. Omer Abdalla M. Egemi.

Biotic and abiotic factors in the secondary succession in Erkowit, Red Sea Province. Ole Reidar Vetaas.

Dockers of Port Sudan. From pastoralists to urban workers. Omyma Said Ahmed Gutbi.

Land rights systems in the Red Sea Hills and their compatibility with a sustainable development in the area Ingunn Notoy.

Landscape ecology and vegetation history in the Red Sea Area, Sudan. Ylva Blomberg and Gunnar Alstad.

Land tenure among the Hadendowa of the Red Sea Hills. Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Osman Abdel-Rahim.

Red Sea District women in processes of marginalization. Vibeke Vagenes.

The impact of drought on Beja women. Amal Hassan Fadlalla.

The impact of drought on the demographic structure of three Eastern Sudanese settlements. Mohammed Osman Omer.

Commercial fuelwood production. Anne Christensen.

Vegetation in the Red Sea Hills. Alawia Abdalla El-Awad.

Biotic and abiotic factors in the secondary succession in Erkowit, Red Sea Province. Ole Reidar Vetaas.

The purpose of this research is to determine whether secondary succession vegetation in the Erkowit area will continue to degrade or reach an equilibrium. TO do this the author uses work done by Kassas in the 1950s in the Erkowit area for a comparative study. Three stages in the author's research must be accomplished to realize the main research purpose: quantify the change in floristic composition from 1953 to the present, analyze the physical and chemical qualities of the soil, and quantify moisture accumulation under tree canopies. Preliminary findings of this research are that there have been significant changes in the vegetation (particularly the trees) in the Erkowit area since 1953. The principal factor identified as responsible for the changes is human land use: tree harvesting for fuelwood, charcoal or other uses and grazing.

Botanical research Babiker Fadlalla

The purpose of this research is to augment our understanding of vegetation and vegetation change in the Erkowit area. The study has the following objectives.

1. To collect plant material for identification.

2. To identify and map natural vegetation.

3. To compare present vegetation maps with those made in the past.

4. To photograph the natural vegetation and the different ecological zones.

5. To produce descriptions and illustrations of the vegetation.

6. To examine several possible causal factors that may be responsible for the distribution and type of natural vegetation. For example, altitude, temperature, atmospheric humidity, rainfall, wind direction and human activities such as fuelwood production and pastoralism.

7. To measure the seasonal change frequency of occurrence and density of ground cover and forage composition.

8. To study the life cycle of grazing species.

9. To collect seeds for experiments under controlled conditions in the greenhouse.

10. To investigate local cultivated crops and fodders and to submit them to chemical analysis to determine their nutritive value.

11. To collect soil samples for chemical analysis and greenhouse experiments.

12. To estimate the seasonal yield in dry matter of the main pasture plants and to determine from this carrying capacity.

13. To examine the possibilities for the introduction of exotic plant species.

14. To examine the human-environment relationship in the study area This includes vegetation use and annual transhumance.

The impact of drought on the demographic structure of three Eastern Sudanese settlements. Mohammed Osman Omer.

Three settlements in the Sinkat area were selected to examine drought and family structure. The author has identified three factors which relate to the impact of drought and the degree of change in family structure. These factors are:

1. The Environment and location.

2. Diversification of the economy.

3. Occupational linkage to urban areas.

The impact of drought on Beja women. Amal Hassan Fadlalla.

This study uses life histories of female migrants to Sinkat in reconstructing the lives of these women prior to the drought and making the comparison with their present circumstances. This work is in its early stages and results are forthcoming.

Dockers of Port Sudan. From pastoralists to urban workers. Omyma Said Ahmed Gutbi.

In this study dockworkers in the Port Sudan port were interviewed using questionnaires and informal techniques. Preliminary findings indicate that droughtinduced impoverishment in the rural areas has increased migration to Port Sudan dramatically. People are increasingly replacing seasonal migration to Port Sudan with permanent settlement.

Assessment of resource use and management activities in and lands and reflections on the human and natural environments: a study from the Red Sea Region of Eastern Sudan. Omer Abdalla M. Egemi.

The purpose of this research is to study the use of natural resources in Red Sea Province, to evaluate present development activities in the Province, and to investigate the social and cultural factors that influence the use and management of natural resources.

The author hypothesizes that:

1. Resource degradation did not suddenly occur in the early 1980s as a consequence of drought. Instead, it is the result of a long process of degradation.

2. Successful development builds and improves on what people are already doing.

3. The traditional territorial system in the area is a major barrier to development.

4. Relief food offers no long-term hope for the area and instead may form an obstacle to efficient management and development.

Land tenure among the Hadendowa of the Red Sea Hills. Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Osman Abdel-Rabim.

The purpose of this study is to describe the Hadendowa land tenure system. The following topics provide the focus for the research.

1. The evolution of the Hadendowa customary land use law.

2. The system used by the Hadendowa to manage land-use conflict.

3. Continuity and change in the land tenure system and the role of local, regional and national institutions.

4. The appropriateness of the Hadendowa land tenure system in development planning.

This study is in its preliminary stages and no results have been made available to date.

Vegetation in the Red Sea Hills. Alawia Abdalla ElAwad.

This study is in its preliminary stages and no results have been made available to date, however, the purpose of this study is to:

1. Obtain a reference collection of the flora of Red Sea Province for the herbarium in Khartoum.

2. Examine and map the distribution of vegetation types using aerial photographs and satellite images.

3. Identify plant species to serve as indicators of environmental change.

4. Document the status of post-drought vegetation in Red Sea Province.

Commercial fuelwood production. Anne Christensen.

In this study the impact of Port Sudan demand on charcoal production in Red Sea Province is examined. Areas studied include Khor Dahant, Khor Agwamt, Khor Udrus, and the coastal plain. This study is in its preliminary stages and no results are as yet available.

Land rights systems in the Red Sea Hills and their compatibility with a sustainable development in the area Ingunn Notoy.

In this study the impact of the national government on traditional land ownership. In the precolonial and colonial periods, tribal shaykhs were responsible for land allocation and the resolution of land disputes. In 1970 the Unregistered Land Act was passed. This Act stipulated that all land not registered belonged to the national government. In 1971 the Local Government Act was adopted by the Sudanese government. This Act removed the power of tribal shaykhs to allocate land and adjudicate ownership disputes. This power was given instead to civil servants at the District Council and Village Council levels.

Red Sea District women in processes of marginalization. Vibeke VÃ¥genes.

The purpose of this research is to describe the current and past status of women in Red Sea Province with particular emphasis on their involvement in the market. Three areas are to be examined in the study:

1. Women in the traditional female structure.

2. Women in the female-headed household.

3. Women involved in the Sinkat Centres for Women.

There are as yet no results from this research.

Landscape ecology and vegetation history in the Red Sea Area, Sudan. Ylva Blomberg and Gunnar Alstad.

The focus of this research is on the quantitative study of the present vegetation of Red Sea Province, vegetation history and soil analysis. LandSat data, aerial photographs, and ground data will be used in the study. The study is in its preliminary stages and no results have been made available to date.