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close this book Measuring drought and drought impacts in Red Sea Province
close this folder 3. Drowght, food stress, and the flood and rainfall record for Red Sea Province. Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Precipitation In Red Sea Province
View the document Flood and rainfall records: problems and possibilities
View the document A definition of drought
View the document The flood record
View the document Drought and the flood record
View the document The rainfall record
View the document Drought and the rainfall record
View the document Conclusion
View the document Discussion
View the document Limitations of the study
View the document References
View the document Appendix 3.1. Annual floods for nine khors In Red Sea Province and Khor Gash in Kassala Province.
View the document Appendix 3.2. Annual flood 2 scores for nine khors in Red Sea Province and Khor Gash in Kassala Province.
View the document Appendix 3.3. Annual rainfall in mililmetres for 19 gauging stations in eastern region, Sudan.
View the document Appendix 3.4. Annual rainfall z scores for 19 gauging stations in eastern

The rainfall record

Data is available for 19 gauging stations around Red Sea Province: 17 within the boundaries of Red Sea Province itself and 2 near the province (Refer to the Map 3.1 of the flood and rainfall gauging stations). The record, as the table below indicates, is far from complete. Only nine of the 19 stations are still functioning today. The remainder stopped collecting data in the early 1980s, probably as a result of budgetary problems with the then Numeiry government.

Table 3.5. Location and years of record for 19 rainfall gauging stations in and around Red Sea Province.

Station

Lat.

Long.

Elev.

Location

Years of Record

'Agig

18 14

38 11

5

Coast

1921-38, 1944-88

Arba'at

19 49

37 20

120

Mountain

1943-62, 1964-68, 1973-87

'Atbara

17 39

33 58

348

Interior

1907-88

Delay

17 23

36 05

500

Interior

1975-84

Derudeb

17 35

36 06

510

Interior

1944-77

Erba

19 04

36 48

680

Mountain

1943-72, 1975-81

Erkowit

18 46

37 06

1095

Mountain

1943-52, 1965-72, 1977-78, 1981-1983

Gebeit

18 57

36 51

795

Mountain

1908-24, 1928-80

Gebeit Mine

21 03

36 20

640

Mountain

1944-78, 1980-81

Halaib

22 13

36 39

12

Coast

1953-88

Haya

18 20

36 22

640

Interior

1940-81

Kassala

15 28

36 25

NA

Interior

1901-39, 1942-88

Mohammed Qul

20 54

37 06

5

Coast

1953-75, 1978-80

Musmar

18 13

35 38

495

Interior

1948-76, 1980-82

Port Sudan

19 37

37 13

5

Coast

1941-88

Sinkat

18 50

36 50

870

Mountain

1920-82

Suakin

19 07

37 20

5

Coast

1890-1988

Tahamyam

18 20

36 32

690

Interior

1909-40, 1942-50, 1952, 1956-72, 1974-80

Tokar

18 26

37 44

20

Coast

1913-18, 1920-36, 1939-88

Table 3.6 below presents the mean annual rainfall coefficients of variation for the eight gauging stations with complete records. Only two stations have coefficients of variation that are greater than 100 percent. As a general rule for reasons mentioned above in the section concerning rainfall and the movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, the more southerly the location of the gauging station, the lower the coefficient of variation.

Table 3.6. Years of record, mean annual rainfall, standard deviations, and co_ coefficients of variation for eight rainfall gauging stations In and near Eastern Region, Sudan.

Station

Years of

Mean Annual

Standard

Coefficient

 

Record

Rainfall

Deviation (mm)

of Variation

'Agig

63

136

85

63

Arba'at

40

39

51

105

'Atbara

82

68

50

74

Halaib

36

33

37

112

Kassala

86

307

84

27

Port Sudan

48

90

63

70

Suakin

99

157

127

81

Tokar

73

73

50

68

Table 3.7 below presents the decadal means for the eight gauging stations for which we have complete records. A general downward trend in the data is not clear. For three of the stations, Kassala, Port Sudan, and Suakin, a downward trend is evident. For the others the trend is upward or not clear.

Table 3.7. Decadal means from 1988 to the earliest complete decade for eight gauging stations In and around Red Sea Province.

Station

     

Decade

 

1988-79

78-69

68-59

58-49

48-39

38-29

28-19

18-09

08-99

'Agig

109

157

117

166

134

139

128

na

na

Arba'at

40

31

35

19

87

na

na

na

na

'Atbara

62

60

60

87

59

69

82

65

na

Halaib

28

6

57

48

na

na

na

na

na

Kassala

240

264

279

367

314

328

319

347

na

Port Sudan

53

66

115

103

116

na

na

na

na

Suakin

49

97

300

113

128

145

155

170

172

Tokar

64

55

98

77

83

45

70

91

na

These data are presented in the following figures to clarify trends. Figure 3.4 illustrates the downward trend of three stations while Figure 3.5 presents the upward or indeterminate trends of five stations.


Figure 3.4. Decadal rainfall means exhibiting a downward trend for three rainfall gauging stations In or near Red Sea Province.


Figure 3.5. Decadal rainfall means exhibiting an upward or indeterminate trend for five rainfall gauging stations in or near Red Sea Province.