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close this book Measuring drought and drought impacts in Red Sea Province
close this folder 6. The nutritional status of children in Red Sea Province, July-October 1989: a supplement to the November 1985-November 1987 results. Mary L. Cole and Roy Cole
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View the document Introduction
View the document Methods
View the document Results
View the document Conclusions
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Results

All results refer to children 75.1-115 cm in height unless otherwise specified.

1. Description of the sample.

Table 6.1. Sample size, nutritional surveillance Red See Province 1989.

 

<= 75 CM

 

> 75 CM

     
 

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

DERUDEB

22

33

55

100

93

193

HALAIB

21

22

43

103

97

200

HAYA

35

30

65

100

97

197

N.TOKAR

40

28

68

108

101

209

R.P.S

25

27

52

107

82

189

SINKAT

29

29

58

91

91

182

S.TOKAR

39

33

72

147

140

287

TOTAL

11

202

413

756

701

1457

There has been no significant increase in the percentage of the sample less than or equal to 75 cm in height since 1987 (figure 6.1).


Figure 6.1. Percentage of sample less than or equal to 75 cm in height, 1986, 1987, 1989.

Table 6.2. Ratios of males to females, nutritional surveillance Red Sea Province, 1989.

 

<=75 CM

>75 CM

DERUDEB

0.67

1.08

HALAIB

0.95

1.06

HAYA

1.17

1.03

N.TOKAR

1.43

1.07

R.P.S

0.93

1.30

SINKAT

1.00

1.00

S.TOKAR

1.18

1.05

TOTAL

1.04

1.08

There was no significant difference between the percentage of males and females in the sample. None of the ratios of males:females were significantly different from 1.00 (50% males, 50% females). In the samples for both 1986 and 1987 there was a significantly higher percentage of males than females.

2. Percentage of malnourished children (less than 80% reference median weight for height).

The percentage of malnourished children (less than 80% reference median weight for height) in the summa seasons of 1986, 1987 and 1989 by sex, district and for the total province, together with the 95% confidence interval for the population estimate, are shown in Table 6.3. These results are presented graphically in Figures 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4.

Table 6.3. Percentage of children less than 80% weight for height (malnourished) by district and for the total province, with 95% confidence Interval for the population estimate, children >75 cm.

   

CYCLE 3

CYCLE 6

1989

DISTRICT

 

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

DERUDEB

MEAN

28.15

22.76

25.58

15.74

28.40

21,16

15.00

10.75

12.95

 

CI

7.74

7.56

5.43

7.01

10.0

5.94

7.14

6.42

4.83

HALAIB

MEAN

11.61

13.45

12.55

6.45

9.28

7.89

16.50

12.40

14.50

 

CI

6.05

6.26

4.36

5.09

6.02

3.49

7.31

6.69

4.98

HAYA

MEAN

26.61

25.78

26.19

26.81

20.00

23.79

23.00

8.45

15.74

 

CI

7.94

7.73

5.54

7.54

7.63

5.41

8.42

5.59

5.19

N.TOKAR

MEAN

16.79

20.83

18.68

16.80

13.08

15.09

14.81

6.93

11.00

 

CI

6.39

7.41

4.86

6.69

6.58

4.70

6.84

5.05

4.33

RPS

MEAN

7.45

10.48

8.65

10.95

10.26

10.63

18.69

6.09

13.23

 

CI

4.14

5.97

3.45

5.34

5.61

3.87

7.54

5.28

4.93

SINKAT

MEAN

29.66

28.06

28.79

21.21

13.85

17.56

7.69

10.99

9.34

 

CI

8.41

7.62

5.65

7.12

6.06

4.70

5.59

6.56

4.31

S.TOKAR

MEAN

42.74

25.81

34.02

19.58

18.38

19.00

19.05

19.29

19.16

 

CI

9.15

7.86

6.10

6.64

6.64

4.70

6.48

6.67

4.65

TOTAL

MEAN

20.74

20.24

20.38

17.97

16.03

17.05

17.90

8.98

13.69

PROVINCE

CI

2.70

2.74

1.92

2.59

2.63

1.85

2.79

2.16

1.80


Flqure 6.2 Percent of sample less than 80% reference median weight for he/glut, summer season 1986, 1987, 1989. Males 75.1-115 cm in height.


Figure 6.3. Percent of sample less than 80% reference median we/glut for he/glut, summer season 1986, 1987, 1989. Females 75.1-115 cm In height.


Figure 6.4. Percent of sample less than 80% reference median weight for height, summer season 1986, 1987, 1989. Children 75.1-115 cm In height.

TOTAL PROVINCE: The percentage of malnourished children in the total province decreased significantly between 1987 and 1989. When the results were broken down by sex, however, the decrease in malnutrition was restricted to females. There was no significant decrease in the percentage of malnourished males between 1987 and 1989. In 1989 a significantly higher percentage of males than females were malnourished.

DERUDEB: The percentage of malnourished children in Derudeb has decreased significantly since 1987. When the results were broken down by sex, however, the decrease was found to be restricted to females. The percentage of malnourished male children has not changed significantly since 1987. In 1987 the percentage of malnourished females was higher than the percentage of malnourished males. The net result of the decrease in the percentage of malnourished females was that in 1989 there was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished males and malnourished females.

HALAIB: The percentage of malnourished children in Halaib district was significantly higher in 1989 than in 1987. When broken down by sex, however, the increase was restricted to males. There was no significant difference in the percentage of malnourished females in 1987 and 1989. There was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished males and the percentage of malnourished females in 1989. The percentage of malnourished children in 1989 was not significantly different from the percentage of malnourished children in 1986.

MAYA: The percentage of malnourished in Haya district has decreased significantly since 1987. As in Derudeb district, the decrease was restricted to females. The net effect in Haya district was that in 1989 a significantly lower percentage of females than males were malnourished.

NORTH TOKAR: There was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished children in 1987 and 1989. The percentage of malnourished children in North Tokar had decreased significantly from the 1986 figures. There was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished males and the percentage of malnourished females in 1989.

RURAL PORT SUDAN: There was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished children in 1986, 1987 or 1989. When broken down by sex, however, the percentage of malnourished males was significantly higher in 1989 than in 1986. The percentage of malnourished females remained unchanged since 1986. In 1989 the percentage of malnourished males was significantly higher than the percentage of malnourished females.

SINKAT: There was a significant decrease in the percentage of malnourished children between 1987 and 1989. When broken down by sex, however, the decrease in percentage of malnourished children was found to be restricted to males. There was no significant decrease in the percentage of malnourished females between 1987 and 1989. In 1989 there was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished males and the percentage of malnourished females.

SOUTH TOKAR: There was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished children in 1987 and 1989. The percentage of malnourished children in South Tokar has decreased significantly since 1986. There was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished males and the percentage of malnourished females in 1989.

The range of percentage of malnourished children between districts was smaller in 1989 than in 1986 and 1987. With the exception of South Tokar, no districts had a percentage of malnourished children that was significantly different from the province-wide mean in 1989. In South Tokar the percentage of malnourished children was significantly higher than the province-wide mean.

3. Health characteristics of malnourished children.

Diarrhoea and vomiting were the most frequently observed characteristics of poor health in malnourished children (Table 6.4). However, over 40% of all malnourished children had no outstanding health problems that could be identified by the field workers.

Table 6.4. Health characteristics of malnourished children (less than 80% reference median weight for height) In Red Sea Province.

Characteristic*

% of malnourished affected

No outstanding characteristic

40.7

Diarrhoea and vomiting

22.1

Fever

27.5

Anaemia

1.8

Mother dead

1.8

Mother anaemic

4.6

Mother has fever

6.8

Father dead

3.2

Father "sick"

1.8

"Sick from birth"

0.7

Skin disease

0.7

TOTAL

111.7**

* AS observed by field workers - no clinical or biochemical confirmation.

** Total more than 100% as some children displayed more than one characteristic.

4. Percentage of severely malnourished children (less than 70% reference median weight for height).

No significant difference was found between the percentage of severely malnourished males and severely malnourished females in any of the districts. No significant difference was found in the percentage of severely malnourished children between any of the seven districts. Aggregated province-wide results for the percentage of severely malnourished children are presented in Table 6.5.

Table 6.5. Percentage of children less than 70% weight for height (severely malnourished) for the total province, with 95% confidence Interval for the population estimate, children >75 cm by sex.

   

SEX

 

YEAR

 

MALES

FEMALES

TOTAL

1986

MEAN

2.28

3.73

3.00

 

CI

0.99

1.29

0.81

1987

MEAN

2.36

1.27

1.87

 

CI

1.03

0.80

0.67

1989

MEAN

2.19

0.62

1.44

 

CI

1.06

0.59

0.62

There has been no significant change in the percentage of severely malnourished males since 1986. Although there has been a steady decrease in the percentage of severely malnourished females between 1986, 1987 and 1989, this decrease was statistically significant between 1986 and 1987 only. In 1989 there was a significantly higher percentage of severely malnourished males than severely malnourished females. This is a reversal of the situation in 1986, when there was a significantly higher percentage of severely malnourished females than severely malnourished males in the total samples of cycles 1-3.

5. Health characteristics of severely malnourished children.

Table 6.6. Health characteristics of severely malnourished children (less than 70% reference median weight for height) in Red Sea Province, 1989.

Characteristic*

% of malnourished affected

Diarrhoea and vomiting

39.0

Fever

30.0

Anorexia and weakness

30.0

Not weaned (child over 18 months)

9.0

Whooping cough

9.0

Tuberculosis

4.0

Skin disease

4.0

TOTAL

125. 0**

* As observed by field workers - no clinical or biochemical confirmation.

** Total more than 100% as some children displayed more than one characteristic.

All severely malnourished children examined had one or more illnesses (although "anorexia and weakness" is a very general symptom which would be expected in all severely malnourished. Diarrhoea and vomiting and fever were the most frequently reported illnesses in severely malnourished children (Table 6.6).

6. Percentage of malnourished children <=75 cm in height.

As in 1986 and 1987, the highest rates of malnutrition in 1989 were found in children less than or equal to 75 cm in height (Table 6.7). These rates have not changed significantly since 1987.

Table 6.7. Percentage of ma/nourished children by height category, summer season, Red Sea Province 1986, 1987, 1989.

   

HEIGHT CATEGORY

 

YEAR

 

<=75 CM

>75 CM

1986

MEAN

39.74

20.38

 

CI

5.40

1.92

1987

MEAN

24.34

17.05

 

CI

4.14

1.85

1989

MEAN

25.09

13.69

 

CI

4.27

1.80

In view of the technical limitations of the data collection for children under 75 cm in height outlined in the previous paper, considerable caution needs to be exercised when interpreting these results. The nutritional status of children under one year old should, however, continue to be a cause for concern.