Cover Image
close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 33 : Agro-forestry

Total time 4 hours


- To introduce agro-forestry,

- To explore the concept of forestry in combination with agriculture or livestock,

- To explore the reason why agro-forestry is a good concept,

- To explore agro-forestry as an extension technique,

- To look at elements necessary in planning an agro-forestry project.


Agro-forestry, as a sub-discipline of forestry, has been recognized for the last ten years; however, it should be emphasized that farmers have been practicing agro-forestry for hundreds of years. As a new discipline, there is not yet a great deal written about the subject. Currently, there are thousands of projects being researched and investigated throughout the world.

In this session we explore the concepts of agro-forestry and examine the extension work. Each participant's agro-forestry plan is evaluated to date and questions answered. It should be pointed out that the participants in this training program are undoubtedly the pioneers in this discipline who will write the books on agro-forestry.


1. Agro-Forestry


Flip charts, marker pens, tape, article "Can Farming and Forestry Coexist in the Tropics?" (Optional).

Exercise 1 Lecture on Agro-Forestry

Total time 1 hour


This new discipline in forestry is introduced and the concepts of agro-forestry as related to the Peace Corps Volunteer are presented. It is pointed out that this field, although not entirely new, is new in academic instruction of forestry and, as such, there has not been many books written on the subject to date. Perhaps the future authors are present here as participants in this session.



1. Two sample lectures follow. The first was written by Bruce Burwell and the second by William E. Prentice.


1 hour


2. Following the lecture, the trainees are given the next two hours to work on their own agro-forestry projects which will be presented in later sessions:

Things to consider are:

A. Make a fiat of possible crops from which to choose and learn about each one,

B. Seek out local expertise and experience,

C. Do not jump to conclusions,

D. If the crop needs pampering in your area, leave it alone,

E. Shade tolerance is related to soil fertility, F. Grow what you like to grow.

Trainer’s Note: If a local expert is available, a presentation from that expert can be substituted for this session.


The agro-forestry approach to land management and use is not a new one; in fact it is used in many countries around the world and has been used for hundreds of years. In the United States, "progress" in crop production has lead us to the growing of large areas of single crops. Recently, however, there has been renewed interest in the agro-forestry approach, especially in those areas where the monocultures have proven difficult to manage or on sites that do not lend themselves easily to single cropping.

Underlying the agro-forestry approach is the concept that the production of crops, fruits, animals and forest products can be compatible if the right mix of species is chosen and production carefully monitored. This mix could essentially be any two or more of the above. An example would be the pasturing of sheep in an orchard: animal and fruit production. Another example could be apple trees bordering a field of mint where geese are used to weed the mint: fruit, crops and animals. The actual mix could be essentially anything that is compatible.

This compatibility of production also implies another facet of the agro-forestry approach. Wherever possible, the plant and animal association is natural and mutually beneficial. Some shrubs can provide forage to animals, fix nitrogen naturally in the soil (fertilize), and offer a cover crop for the establishment of natural grasses. Sheep can provide fertilizer to the vegetation. Trees can provide shade to the animals, cover for the lower vegetation, and fruit or forest products. Thus, each segment is not only considered from the standpoint of its own production, but also in what way it can be beneficial in the production of another segment.

Although the agro-forestry approach to land use can be applied to most areas, it has generally not been accepted in the United States. There are two main reasons for this; first, the people giving technical advice have been divided in their approach. Those involved in animal production tend to be concerned with only animals. Fruit tree specialists have no interest in forest trees, animals or shrubs, and foresters have no interest in anything outside the area of forest products. This disinterest has been strengthened by the creation of separate areas of study: agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry. There is a certain amount of possessiveness by each of their specific area of specialization. None wants an "outsider" to encroach on their field and will not enter the area of another specialist.

The second reason for the non-acceptance of the agro-forestry approach has been the trend towards farming larger areas using more mechanized and specialized equipment to handle a specific crop. The introduction of several crops or types of production tends to complicate the system by requiring specialized equipment for each product.

The Possibilities for Agro-forestry in the Southwest

What can the agro-forestry approach do with the arid conditions of the Southwest? First, it can look at the whole picture; it can take into consideration the multiple interrelated possibilities of production. For example, a combination of several of the following might be tried:

Pinon pine: For the production of fuelwood and nuts.

Sheep: For the production of meat and wool.

Native grasses: For range use and soil protection.

Shrubs: For animal forage.

Junipers: For berries and wood.

Bees: For honey and pollination.

These are just examples. There are many other species that could be combined; for example, the jojoba has a nut that produces an oil that is in high demand.

An agro-forestry project should first be done on a sample area basis such that the best possible combination can be determined through measuring and monitoring. This can be done by setting out replicated areas and observing the resulting production on each area. For example, trees can be measured for height and later volume, growth and/or fruit production; grasses can be measured on a ground cover basis; and sheep on a meat and wool _ production basis. The monitoring of these sample areas should be carefully done to observe any incompatibility, especially as related to any species that are introduced into the area. Once the best productive combination is determined, the area can be expanded.

An attempt should be made to work with nature as much as possible. The mixing of species is much the way nature itself handles the vegetation on a specific site. By artificially creating a "balance", however, it is almost certain that the balance will be different than the one that nature would have planned. The point is to try and make it as close as possible, yet productive, such that nature is helping instead of trying to destroy the artificially made balance. It is much easier and more productive to have nature helping.

Lecture 2 Agro-Forestry - By William E. Prentice

We believe that it is right for a man to strive to better the world in which he lives.


Each tree you plant makes the world a better place.

As a PCV, you can have a great multiplier effect by teaching others to plant and care for trees.

I. Combining "forestry" with agriculture and livestock.

- Possible combinations,

- Why do it?

- Overcoming resistance.

II . Selecting the crops, horticultural trees and animals.

- Animals,

- Fruit and nut trees,

- The birds and the bees,

- Fowl play.

III. Land usage: Production techniques.

Production techniques

Land Usage - Various Possibilities

Agricultural - Field Crop Monoculture

- Orchard monoculture

- Mixed cropping

- Polycultures


- Reservations

- Conservation

- Plantation - single species

- Plantation - mixed species


- Ranging

- Pasturage of paddocking

- Confinement

- Forage and feed storage


- Animal under trees: regular distribution, - In relay sequence - Permanent association

- Animal under trees; irregular distribution,

- Horticultural tree with forest trees.


- Grazing under trees (fruit and nuts)

- Grazing plant residues

- Fowl with resistant crops

- Pigs and fowl (self-harvesting)


- Grazing under trees

- Planted forage for weed control


- Annuals, trees and animals

- Perennials, trees and animals

- Annuals, perennials, trees and animals