| Forestry training manual for the Africa region |
Total time 2 hours
- To receive each participants' species report,
- To have reports presented in a creative and interesting manner,
- To review research demonstration project.
In this cession, individual species reports are received by the group. A trainee who has taken this as a special project is in charge of the session. The special project and research demonstration are presented in this session.
1. Species Reports
2. Research Demonstration
Individual species reports.
Exercise 1 Species Reports
Total time 1 hour 30 minutes
The trainee for whom this session is a special project introduces species reports. The trainee gives a brief overview of the guidelines. The trainees are asked to present their reports in an interesting and creative manner.
1. The trainee reviews the task and details the guidelines used.
2. The reports are introduced.
1 hour 25 minutes
Trainer’s Note: It is hoped that you will not have to sit through 30 or 40 species presentations: keep a list of pertinent points since everyone needs to practice making presentations. There is some risk in doing this but the creativity of the trainees in a pilot program convinced us that as long as species reports were acknowledged, presentations were effective. Included at the end of this session are a few samples of the submitted species reports.
Acacia mearnsii De Wild
Common Name: Black or tan wattle
Fruit: Seed in pod
Seed: Dormancy broken by immersing in boiling water
Leaves: Dark green, feathery.
Bark: Black appearance
Shape: Solitary trees with spreading crowns; in crowded plantations, erect, slender; can grow to 25 meters
Habitat: Native to New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria. Cultivated in New Zealand, South, Central and East Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Central America and Indonesia. Cannot tolerate calcereous soils, yet can grow on poor soils. In native range, requires 500 - 700 mm of rainfall. Higher temperatures where introduced require more rainfall. Native to areas with cool winters. Growth slows with high temperatures. Moderately frost tolerant.
Uses : In native areas, grows to 1,100 meter altitude. Used as firewood and charcoal (often grown in small woodlots and by individual farmers). Foliage for green manure, bark for tanin extraction, pulp for wrapping paper. Also grown in dense stands to improve nitrogen levels of soil.
Disease/Insects: Not a serious problem unless rainfall is greater than 3,000 mm when tree is susceptible to fungal diseases and insect attacks.
Nursery Management/ Nursery Requirements:
Main Identification Characteristics: Natural regeneration. Direct seed growth, coppices poorly.
Firewood Crops: Shrubs and Tree Species for Energy Production. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1980. pp. 72 - 73.
English - Gao
Arabic - Herraz
Wolof - Cad
French - Gao
Flower: Creamy white blossoms
Seed: Yellow pod a 8 - 15 cm long, 2 - 5 cm wide. Seeds dark brown, convex on one side concave on the other. Seeds ripen January - February (Upper Volta). Collect pods off the ground, will remain viable for a long time if kept in a dry place. Pretreatment: Soak in hot water or scarify hull.
Leaves: Grey-green, 3 - 10 pairs pinnules and 6 - 23 pairs of leaflets. Appear at start of rainy season and persist during all of the dry season.
Bark: Dull gray, fissured and scaly. Branchlets white, spines thick, white straight and points downward.
Description: Large thorny tree (10 - 20 meters) with large spreading crown. Timber rotation 30 - 40 years. Deep roots, flowers at 7 years, pods after 8 years.
Habitat: Dry savannahs throughout Western and Northern Africa to Egypt and East Africa. Annual rainfall 300-500mm. Generally below 1,200 m elevation. Grows on deep, sandy soils (similar to that in which millet grows). Will withstand heavier soils and occasional flooding.
Diseases: Seeds sometimes heavily infested with bruchid beetles. Watch for caterpillar and locust attacks which destroy young leaves. The seedlings are especially susceptable to insect damage. When collecting seeds, watch for small worm holes. Some pods may taint milk if fed to dairy cows.
Nursery Management: Direct seeding can be tried under good conditions. However, potting is recommended due to long tap root. Frequent root pruning is necessary. Seedlings reach heights of 10 - 15 cm in 14 - 16 weeks. Outplanting spacing is 10 X 10.
Uses: Good forage for areas with prolonged dry season. Good soil conservation tree (enriches soil).
Chad Arabic - Salade
Bambara - Sayele
Djerma - Bissau
Fulani - Chillukl
Hausa - Kandill
Kunouri - Kandil
Synonyms: Acacia tortilla Hayne Acacia Fascientata Guill. and Perr.
Medium tree 4 - 15 meters tall, sometimes with several trunks that spray upwards and outwards fountain-like, that support a flat-topped umbrella of feather foliage. Under extreme aridity, it becomes a small shrub, often barely one meter tall. Under heavy grazing it is frequently reduced to a number of trailing, seemingly unconnected branches radiating from a low sand mound. Its thorns are a distinguishing feature; there are two kinds, long, straight and white, and small brownish and hooked. The fragrant white flowers are borne singly or in clusters. Pids are controlled or spiraled like a coil spring.
Uses: As firewood, the dense, red heartwood of this species has high calorific value and makes superior firewood (and charcoal). The plant coppices well, so there is no need to replant trees after every harvest. Other uses include fence posts and for manufacturing small implements and articles. Fodder - Pods are produced prodifecially. They fall to the ground and are eaten by goats, sheep, wild her bivores and other domestic livestock. The thorny branches are used to pen cattle, goats, and sheep. Sand stabilization.
Habitat: Temperature grows well in hot, arid climates with maximum temperature as high as 50°C; grows where minimum temperatures are close to 0°C. Plants less than 2 years old are easily damaged by frost and require protection. Altitude; beat adapted to the lowlands. Rainfalls it is extremely drought resistant and can survive in climates with less than 100mm of rainfall and long, erratic dry seasons.
Chad Arabic - Salade
Bambara - Sayele
Djerma - Bissau
Hausa - Kandill
Kunouri - Kandil
Synonyms: Acacia tortilla Hayne Acacia Fascientata Guill. and Perr.
Medium tree 4 - 15 meters tall, sometimes with several trunks that spray upward a and outwards fountain-like, that support a flat-topped umbrella of feather foliage. Under extreme aridity, it becomes a small shrub, often barely one meter tall. Under heavy gracing it is frequently reduced to a number of trailing, seemingly unconnected branches radiating from a low sand mound. Its thorns are a distinguishing feature; there are two kinds, long, straight and white, and small brownish and hooked. The fragrant white flowers are borne singly or in clusters. Pids are controlled or "spiraled like a coil spring.
Uses: As firewood, the dense, red heartwood of this species has high calorific value and make a superior firewood (and charcoal). The plant coppices well, so there is no need to replant trees after every harvest. Other uses include fence posts and for manufacturing small implements and articles. As fodder pods are produced prodifecially. They fall to the ground and are eaten by goats, sheep, wild herbivores and other domestic livestock. The thorny branches are used to pen cattle, goats, and sheep. Sand stabilization.
Habitat: Temperature, grows well in hot, arid climates with maximum temperature as high as 50°C; grows where minimum temperatures are clone to 0°C. Plants less than 2 years old are easily damaged by frost and require protection. Altitudes best adapted to the lowlands. Rainfall' it is extremely drought resistant and can survive in climates with leas than 100mm of rainfall and long, erratic dry seasons.
Soil: The tree favors alkaline soils. It grows fairly well in shallow soils, less than 0.25 meters deep, though it develops long lateral roots that become a nuisance in nearby fields, paths and roadways. In shallow soil, the plant remains shrubby.
Establishment: Easily raised from seed and the seedlings can be established in plantations with less loss.
Seed Treatment: Seeds are dipped in hot water and soaked overnight to ensure quick uniform germination. Seed can also be treated to facilitate faster growth.
Pests and Diseases: Seed production is often severly reduced by insects (bruchids). Trees are susceptible to attacks by caterpillars, beetles, and blight diseases that infest other Mimosoideae in an area. Wild her bivores graze new shoots and young seedlings.
Firewood Crops: Shrubs and Tree Species for Energy Production. National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C. 1980.
Action/Peace Corps Program and Training Journal. Manual Series Number 5.
Reforestation in Arid Lands. Appropriate Technologies for Development
Other Names: Acacia adansonii; A. arabica var. nilotica; A. nilotica; A. scorpioides var. adstringens; A. scorpioides var. nilotica; Mimosa nilotica.
Common Names: Gonakier (F), Egyptian thorn, Red-heat, Kudupod.
Flower: Sweet-scented balls of yellow flowers 5/8" diameter, on stalks 1/2 - 1" long.
Seed: Sweet-smelling, gray-black, round but flattened. Ripen November - January. Pre-treatment; a) fresh seeds plant right away; b) older seeds - soak over night or feed pods to goats; seed is scarified and either collected from dung or goats are confined to an area.
Leaves: Alternate or opposite, bi-pinnate, 2 - 6" long, 3 - 8 pairs of side axes, 10 - 30 pairs narrow oblong leaflets 1/8 - 1/4" long. Paired whitish spines at leaf base 1/2 - 1(1/2)" long.
Bark: Very dark, almost black, fissured, with long white or grey spines.
Shape: Height determined by site - may be 3 - 20 meters tall. Umbrella shaped crown or flattish.
Habitat: 500 meters altitude. May be found near water or moist soils, in areas of periodic flooding (Acacia scorpioides var. nilotica) or in drier highlands (Acacia scorpioides var. adstringens). Soils may be poor to alluvium.
Use: Live fences, windbreaks, fodder (leaves and pods), tanning material (pod & bark), honey, carving, gum arable.
Disease/Insects: Wood borers, bruchid beetles attack seeds in pods, pathogenic fungi.
Nursery Management Needs:
Rarely use seedlings. Direct seed in pots ready in 14 - 18 weeks. Direct seeding common but have poor results due to browsing, low soil moisture, weeds.
Nursery Requirements: Heavy soil, lots of water.
Natural Regeneration: Seeds, sprouting.
Four Identifying Characteristics:
1. Spines at leaf base,
2. Bipinnate feathery leaves,
3. Balls of yellow flowers,
4. Narrow whitish grey pods.
Firewood Crops: Shrubs and Tree Species for Energy Production. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C. 1980.
Reforestation in Arid Lands. Fred Weber. Action/Peace Corps Programming & Training Journal Manual. Series 5.
Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Elbert L. Wadsworth. 2nd Volume. Forest Service - United States Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 449. 1974.
Pinus radiata D. Don
Flower: Flowers in late winter or early spring, monoecious -- male and female strobili borne separately.
Body: Cones mature in autumn of second season: 3 - 7 cones on main stem or branches size varies -- young trees bear larger cones than older trees brown color.
Seeds: One cone produces 120 to 200 seeds viability between 70 and 80% - regardless of size: pretreatment by cold stratification increases rate and amount of germination (33 - 41°F for 35 - 40 days): temperature
of 86°F during the day and 68°F at night best for germination; seeds often released from cone after fire or when exposed to hot, dry winds sooner than the average dispersal which may take between 2 and 6 years.
Shape: In natural stands, reaches height of 70 to 110 feet, 2 - 3 feet in diameter; often taller in introduced areas, roots shallow (not deeper than 2 feet) and wide spreading. Not self-pruning.
Habitat: Three native stands along California coast and one native stand on Guadaloupe Island off the coast of California. Introduced to Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Soils are coarse, deep sandy loams, acidic, permeable and well drained. Rainfall required varies with elevation, minimum of 5.68 inches to a maximum of 50.41 inches; most moisture should occur between December and March or the coolest months with humid, foggy summers. Temperature range is 48° - 52°F in January, 60°-64°F in July. Gentle moderate slopes at an altitude from 0 to 1,000 feet (500 feet is best) hot and dry exposures not favorable.
Uses: Used for timber, shelterbelts, and environmental forestry.
Disease/Insects: Seventy different pathogens found on North American stand et 86 pathogens on exotics -- 44% are saprophytes, 31% wound parasites, 10% obligate parasites, 15% not classified; diseases affects stem, root, foliage.
Nursery Management Requirements:
Season for sowing is spring at a depth of 1/8 - 3/4"; peat moss 1/2 - 1/4" deep often used, outplanting after a year.
Main Identification Characteristic: Similar to Knobcone pine (Pinus attenuata)
Natural Regeneration: No sprouting in native stands; easily established after fire or clear-cut.
Silvics of Forest Trees in the United States. Fowells, H.A., US Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C. 1965. pp. 390 - 397.
Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Schopmeyer, C.S., US Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. 1974. pp. 598 - 563.
Exercise 2 Research Demonstration
Total time 30 minutes
The trainee for whom this session is a special project introduces the research demonstration. The trainee gives a brief overview of the guidelines which were used and proceeds in his/her demonstration.
1. The trainee reviews the task and guidelines used. He/she proceeds to explain the demonstration.
Trainer’s Note: The following is a basic outline prepared by the trainees during the pilot test. It is included in this manual as an example of what the Volunteer should expect.
[Project supplement to Peace Corps Volunteer Training Manual]
The purpose of this supplement is to illustrate benefits to be derived from the use of a specific research project in a Volunteer's work. More specifically, how can the Volunteer use a particular experiment designed by him/her to solve some of the problems they may face in the technical aspect of their work as foresters .
Much of our work as Peace Corps Foresters will involve the implementation of a particular system (village tree nursery, vegetable garden, community agro-forestry project, etc.) in our community. Whatever it may be, the Volunteer will be confronted by any number of unforeseen technical pitfalls in his/her work. By performing a simple, yet basic experiment to try to solve a particular problem or to test a particular component of the system, certain questions may be answered that were otherwise unanswerable.
How can the Peace Corps Volunteer set-up an experiment to solve a technical problem? our first step is basically to define the problem and then develop a coherent hypothesis to enable us to start solving it. One of your beet tools for coming up with a clear hypothesis is a complete definition of the technical problem. How do we test this hypothesis once it is made? Design an experiment or test to determine the validity of your hypothesis. This test may include a control to test experimental components against natural conditions or parallel comparisons of different effects. Remember, as a PCV researcher, resources are limited so keep your experimental design simple and basic.
Once the experiment is designed and then set-up, your next step is to implement it. Carrying out the experiment may involve actual implementation within your work. A good example might be a test of soil sterility in your area by testing the soil within the community tree nursery in which you are working. Another example would be to test for insect damage in your vegetable garden using different plant seedlings from your cold-frame surplus. The possibilities are only limited by the available resources and the feasibility of the experiment within the context of your project.
The experiment/test can be done outside the context of your work, but having it integrated within your own project can aid you greatly in relating the specific problem to your work. An important point to keep in mind is retesting. If time is not a crucial factor in solving your problem, carrying out the experiment/test more than once can help to establish the validity of your experimental results. If a number of trials are performed and consistent results obtained, you know that a specific component you are testing actually acts in that particular manner when subjected to standards within your test.
After the experimental results are obtained and verified through retesting, you can then draw preliminary conclusions based upon your results These conclusions may or may not answer your original hypothesis, and in some cases may even ask more questions than they answer In this cave you may want to perform another experiment/teat of a similar but slightly different nature Your options at this point are experiment specific and depend upon the particular situation Was the experiment able to confirm the hypothesis or reject it? Did the experiment confirm or deny already established information? What new questions did the experimental results raise?
If the experiment was able to solve your original problem, you have accomplished your objective If it did not, do not get discouraged. Possibly an improvement in your experimental design can act to more clearly incorporate a teat of the hypothesis. Retesting or performing the experiment again may be another option to consider at this point Further research is more than likely the path one will take at this point Perform another experiment to test other hypotheses you may have related to the problem
I have designed and carried out a very simple experiment to give you an idea of the option of implementing an experiment/test to help answer technical problems you may face in your work.
In setting up the community tree nursery, no one in your area is sure what soil typo to use for growing a tree species that is similar yet slightly different from the indigenous species. (The people of the community wish to plant this species since it is resistant to a fungal disease that has wiped out the indigenous tree species. )
Step 1 - Define the Problem
What soil typo do you use in the nursery that best works for the plant? In this cave the plant needs a soil that has a strong water holding capacity
Stop 2 - Develop a Hypothesis
A wolf mixed soil containing mineral matter, organic matter, and good aeration will give the best water holding capacity (Elements: clay, organic matter, sand. )
Step 3 - Design an Experiment to Test the Hypothesis
In this case, soil water holding capacity wee tested through a rather simple procedure for testing water retention in a variety of soils
Step 4 - Implement the Experiment
Different soil types were each plated in a similar size container (46 fl. oz. cans) and weighed. Prior to filling with sail, holes were punched in the bottom of the soil cans for water drainage. Different soil types were then placed in each can and the soil was saturated with water. Time for water drainage through each can was measured and the weight of each can was taken again after saturation with water. The percent of water retained by each soil type was calculated in contrast to the original eight of the soil sample. Five different soil types were tested including : sand, loam, garden mixture (containing organic matter), clay, and a mixture of clay, sand, organic matter and dirt. Without detailing the individual results for each sample, the mixture sample (clay, sand, organic matter and dirt) turned out to be the best for water retention. While the clay had a great water holding capacity, it presented inherent drawbacks (infiltration into clay was very slow). The sand mixture turned out to e the poorest for water retention.
Step 5 - Draw Conclusions Based on Results Obtained
In this case, we can conclude that the evenly mixed soil sample is best for planting tree seedlings requiring good water retention properties in your nursery.
Not all of your problems will be as simple and the experiment you design to test a particular hypothesis may be more complex with multiple components, a control, and other factors. The pain to keep in mind is that experimentation is a definite tool one can use to solve technical problems in your work. One point not mentioned previously is the importance of keeping accurate records of experimental data and observations made during the five research steps.
In conclusion, one may consider their entire work as a PCV as a sort of experiment in itself. The work may not seem experimental but the results can be thought of in the light of ongoing research in the country of PCV service.