| Wells construction: hand dug and hand drilled |
|Section one: Planning|
|Chapter 1: Introduction to wells planning|
Every well, whether drilled or dug, has three sections: top, middle, and bottom. Each of these sections varies in construction, because each must function differently. (See Figs. A and B.)
• Top section - That part of the well at or above the ground surface level. It should be designed to allow people to get water as easily as possible, and, at the same time, to prevent water, dirt, and other contaminants from entering.
• Middle section - That part of the well which is between the ground surface and the water, This section is usually a circular hole. It is reinforced with some kind of lining to prevent the walls from caving in.
NOTE: Lining and casing refer to the same part of the well (see Figs. A and B). Lining is used to refer to that part of the dug well, while casing refers to the pipe used to reinforce a drilled well.
• Bottom section - That part of the well that extends beneath the water table into the aquifer. It should be designed to allow as much water as possible to enter, and yet prevent the entrance of any soil from the aquifer. Its lining will have holes, slots, or open spaces, allowing water to pass through.