A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
 Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
 Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
 Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency

### Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE PIPE LENGTH ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n) water wasted (Q ) water used (Q.) water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: length of the drive pipe

Constants: frequency (f), drive head(H), delivery head (h) volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 10' - 80'

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head(H), delivery head (h) and frequency the same while changing the length of the drive pipe.

TASK: determine the effect of the drive pipe length on length on efficiency

 Experiment # h:H ratio H h Qw q Q f s w t n Notes

The effect of the drive pipe length of efficiency