A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
 Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
 Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
 Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency

### Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE SNIFTER ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: time of experiment, water wasted (Qw) water used (Q.), water delivered (q), efficiency

Controlled Variables: Snifter open, snifter closed, one way snifter

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: sucking air and spitting water

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q), and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency.

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head (H), delivery head (h), and frequency the same while changing the snifter from an open snifter, a one way snifter to no snifter at all.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT SNIFTER HAS ON EFFICIENCY

 Experiment # h:H ratio H h Qw q Q f s w t n Notes