| A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams |
|Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)|
Glossary Of Terms For Session 2
Accumulator - (air dome) the air chamber on the hydram which cushions the water hammer, eliminating delivery pulsations and helps provide rebound.
Check Valve - (non-return valve, secondary valve, internal valve) the internal valve in the hydram that prevents the delivery head pressure from forcing water back through the hydram body.
Delivery head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the storage tank that the hydram is pumping to.
Delivery pipe - the pipe which connects the output of the hydram to the storage tank.
Drive head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the supply system.
Drive pipe - a rigid pipe usually made of galvanized steel that connects the hydram to the source reservoir or stand pipe.
Efficiency - (n) the ratio of the energy input to the energy output; a measure of how well a hydram functions;
Frequency - (f) the number of times a hydram cycles in one minute.
Hydram - (hydraulic ram, hydraulic ram pump, automatic hydraulic ram pump, ram) an ingenious device that uses the force of water falling through a drive pipe to pump water to a height greater than its source, making use of hydraulic principles and requiring no fuel.
Impulse Valve - (clack valve, out-side valve, impetus valve, waste valve) the valve on the hydram that creates and controls the water hammer.
Potential energy - energy derived from position or height; is equal to the height that a mass can fall times its weight.
Rebound - the flow of water in the ram reversing direction due to the air pressure in the accumulator, closing the check valve.
Settling basin - a small tank usually made of steel or concrete that is used in place of a stand pipe in an installation where additional settling is necessary.
Snifter valve - (air valve, spit valve) the small valve just below the check valve that allows air to enter the hydram.
Spring box - a concrete box built around a spring to facilitate water collection and to protect the water source from surface contaminates.
Stand pipe - an open-ended, vertical pipe sometimes used at the beginning of the drive pipe.
Supply pipe - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some but not necessarily all of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.
Waste water - (Qw) the water coming out of the impulse valve and the snifter.
Water delivered - (q) the rate at which water is delivered to the storage tank;
Water flow to the hydram - (Q.) all the water used by a hydram which is equal to the waste water (Qw) plus the water delivered (q)
Water hammer - the effect created when water flowing through a pipe is suddenly stopped. In a hydram this causes the closing of the impulse valve and opening of check valve.