Cover Image
close this book Local Experience With Micro-Hydro Technology
close this folder ANNEXES
View the document ANNEXE I :ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF BIBLIOGRAPHY
View the document ANNEXE II GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS USED
View the document ANNEXE III ALPHABETICAL MANUFACTURER'S LIST (updated 1985)
View the document ANNEXE IV ALPHABETICAL LIST OF INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN HYDRO DEVELOPMENT
View the document ANNEXE V STANDARD ENERGY CONVERSIONS

ANNEXES

 

ANNEXE I :ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adam, C., BYS Cross-Flow Turbine, Project Design and Manual, Kathmandu 1974

Adam, C., Study for the Electrification of the Chialsa Handicraft Center, Kathmandu 1974

ADB/N, Agricultural Development Bank Nepal, Lift Irrigation Project for the Development of Bhorletar Area, Kathmandu 1978

Alward, R. et al, Micro-Hydropower, Reviewing and old Concept, DOE, Washington, D.C., 1979

Amann, H., Energy Supply and Economic Development in East Africa, Weltforum Verlag, Munich 1969

Arter, A., Diplomarbeit: Durchströmturbine, Zurich 1980

ATDO, Appropriate Technology Development Organisation, 12th six-monthly Report, Islamabad 1980

Bossard, W.E., Vorläufige Mitteilung über die ausgenutzten Wasserkräfte der Schweiz, Abteilung für Landeshydrographie, Berne 1914

Brenken, G., Versuch einer Klassifikation der Flüsse und Ströme der Erde nach wasserwirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten, Karlsruhe 1959

Breslin, W.R., Small Michell (Bank)) Turbine: A Construction Manual, VITA, Mt. Rainier

Buchanan & Somers, Discharge Measurement at Gaging Stations, 1969

Creager, W.P. & Justin, J.D., Hydro-Electric Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, New York 1927

Dillo, H.-G., Ein Beitrag zur Energieversorgung in Entwicklungsländern, in Mitteilung Nr. 51 des Franzius-Instituts, University of Hannover 1980

Dumol, P.G. & Denton, F.H., Mini-Hydro Application in the Philippines, UNIDO, Vienna 1980

ESCAP, Electric Power in Asia and the Pacific 1975 and 1976, United Nations, New York 1978

Falkenmark, M. & Lindh, G., The Global Freshwater Circulation, in AMBIO, Vol. 3. No. 3-4. 1974

French, D., The Economics of Renewable Energy Systems for Developing Countries, Washington, D.C., 1979

GATE, Statusbericht Biomasse II, Direkte und reduzierte Verbrennung, PN. 78.2247.1 -01.100, Eschborn 1980

Gautschi, C., Gloor, W., Wong, T.M., Diplomarbeit 1980: Experimentelle Untersuchung einer Durchströmturbine des Typs 8anki, HTL Brugg Windisch 1980

Gladwell, J.S., Hydrologic Studies for Hydropower Assessment, in NRECA, Small Hydroelectric Powerplants, p 22 ff.

Gladwell, J.S. & Warnick, C.C., Low-Head Hydro, Moscow, Idaho 1979

Guerrero, J.L., Turbines: Pelton Wheel Governors, VITA 002178, Mt. Rainier

Grainger, L., Energy Resources: Availability and Rational Use, A Digest of the 10th World Energy Conference, Science and Technology Press, New York 1978

Grummann, H.R., Mean Velocity of Flow of Water in open Channels, St. Louis 1928

Haimerl, L.A., The Cross-Flow Turbine, in "Water Power", january 1960

Hamerak, K., Elektrische Energie aus kleinen Wasserkräften, in "technica" Nr. 5, 1966

Hamerak, K., Die Ossbergerturbine: die geeignete Antriebsmaschine fur bedienungslose Asynchronkraftwerke, in "Energie und Technik", No. 15, May 1963

Hassanaly, M.G. & Reichel, R., Exploiting Mini-Hydropower Stations for Rural Development in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam 1979

Hiller, B., Manual Calculation of Check Dams, Kathmandu 1979

Howe, J., et al., Energy for Developing Countries, (draft), Report to the Rockefeller Foundation, 1977

How Things Work, The Universal Encyclopedia of Machines, Bibliographisches Institut Mannheim, London 1967

Integration GmbH, Statusbericht Laufwasserenergie, Kleinwasserkraftanlagen, PN. 78.2247.1 -01.100, Eschborn 1980

Jackson, B. & Evans, L., Distribution Considerations for Mini/Micro Hydro Projects, in NRECA. Small Hydroelectric Powerplants, p 214 ff.

Jagdish Lal, Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, Metropolitan Book Co., New Delhi

Kadete, H. & Reichel, R., Experience with Small Hydro-electric Stations in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam 1978

Krayenbühl, L. & Ledergerber, E., SHDB -Program Evaluation, Final Report, Kathmandu/Zurich 1981

Kuntz, H., Hydro-electric Power: Rural Electrification through isolated Systems, in "gate" 1/79

Lausselet, H.R., Electrical Low Tension Installations, House and Factory Wiring, Kathmandu 1977

Litscher, J., Salleri/Chialsa Small Hydel Project, Kathmandu 1979

MacKillop, A., Hydropower, Wadebridge 1975

Mata, J., Design Criteria of Typical Civil Works for Mini-Hydropower Plant Projects, in NRECA, Small Hydroelectric Powerplants, p 145 ff.

Maucor, M., Les Microcentrales Hydrauliques, GRET, Paris 1979

Meier, U., Lausselet, H.R., Wirz, W., Salleri/Chialsa Micro-Hydel Project: Project Proposal and Report, Kathmandu 1976

Meier, U., Manual for the Design of a simple Mechanical Water-Hydraulic Governor Kathmandu 1979

Meier, U., Small Scale Water Power Development, Photo-documentation, Kathmandu 1979

Meier, U., Small Scale Water Power Development, St. Gall 1981 Mother Earth News, Cross-Flow Turbine Plans, 1980

Nakarmi, A.M., Cottage Multi-Purpose Power Unit for Rural Areas in Nepal, Kathmandu 1980

Noyes, R., (editor), Small and Micro Hydroelectric Power Plants, New Yersey 1980

NRECA, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Small Hydroelectric Powerplants, Proceedings of Workshop in Quito, Ecuador 1980, Washington 1980

OECD, The Electricity Supply Industry, 24th to 26th Enquiries, Paris 1978

OLADE, (Latin-American Energy Organisation), Regional SHPS Program: Prospects and Requirements for the Promotion of Technological Cooperation of the Latin American Energy Sector, Quito

OLADE, Requirements and Methodology for the massive Implementation of Small Hydropower Stations in Latin America, Quito

Palmedo, P.F., et al., Energy Needs, Uses and Resources in Developing Countries, U.S. A.I.D. Springfield 1978

Peck, R.B. et al., Foundation Engineering, Wiley & Sons, London 1974

Pittet, A., Study on an Electronic Load Controller, EPFL, Lausanne 1978

Reddy, A.K.N., The Design of Rural Energy Centres, in "Rural Technology", p 109, Bangalore 1980

SATA/UMN, Report on Study Tour on Water Resources Development in China, 19.8. to 12.9.1980, Kathmandu 1981

Scheurer, H., Metzler, R. & Yoder, B., Small Water Turbine, Instruction Manual for the Construction of a Cross-Flow Turbine GATE-Modul 1/13, Eschborn 1980

Smil, V., China's Energy, New York 1976

Statistik der Wasserkraftanlagen der Schweiz, Berne 1928

Statistisches Jahrbuch der Schweiz, 1950, Basle

Stern, P. et al., Gabions for Hydraulic Structures, in "Appropriate Technology" Vol. 7, No. 4, London 1981

SVMT/LAI, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Mittlere Technologie/Lateinamerikanisches Institut, Erfahrungen mit dem Einsatz von Sonnenkochern in Entwicklungslandern, St. Gall 1976

UNCNRSE, United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Conference News 1-6 in ASSET, UN-University, Tokyo 1981

UNESCO-WMO, Design of Water Resources Projects with inadequate Data, Proceedings of Madrid Symposium 1973

UNIDO, Draft Report on Seminar-Workshop on the Exchange of Experiences and Technology Transfer on Mini Hydro-Electric Generation Units at Kathmandu, Vienna 1979

UNIDO, Issue Paper for the Second Seminar-Workshop in the Development and Application of Technology for Mini-Hydro Power Generation at Hangzhou and Manila, Vienna 1980

UNIDO, Report on Second Seminar-Workshop/Study Tour in Development and Application of Technology for Mini-Hydro Power Generation at Hangzhou and Manila, Vienna 1980

United Nations, Electric Power in Asia and the Far East, ECAFE Bangkok 1957

United Nations, Proceedings of Regional Seminar on Energy Resources and Electric Power Development, ECAFE, Bangkok 1962

United Nations, Rapport du Groupe Technique de l'Energie Hydraulique, UNCNRSE secretariat, New York 1981

United Nations, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Natural Resources of Developing Countries: Investigation, Development and Rational Utilization, Report of the Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development, New York 1970

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Earth Manual: a Guide to the Use of Soils as Foundations and Construction Materials for Hydraulic Structures, Denver 1960

Vischer, D. & Huber, A., Wasserbau, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1979

VITA, The Planning, Installation and Maintenance of Low-Voltage Rural Electrification Systems and Subsystems, Mt. Rainier 1979

Viteri, H., Financial Aspects, in NRECA, Small Hydroelectric Powerplants, p 274 ff.

Water Power and Dam Construction, various articles on Mini-Hydro, January 1979

Wilson, P.N., Water-Driven Prime Movers, in Engineering Heritage, Vol. 1, VITA 001686, Mt. Rainier

World Bank, Energy in the Developing Countries, Washington, D.C. 1980

World Bank, Rural Electrification, Washington D.C. 1975

Wright, D.L., An Appraisal of Some Recent Micro-Hydro Installations in Nepal, ITIS, Rugby

 

 

ANNEXE II GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS USED

AC: Alternating Current

ADB/N: Agricultural Development Bank Nepal

ATDO: Appropriate Technology Development Organisation, Islamabad,Pakistan

BEW: Butwal Engineering Works, private limited, Butwal, Nepal

BYS: Balaju Yantra Shala private limited, Kathamodu, Nepal

CEDT: Centre for Electronics Design Technology, Bangalore, India

CMEC: China Machinery Export Corporation, Beijing, China

DC: Direct Current

DOE: U.S. Department of Energy

EAP & L: East African Power and Lighting Company, Ltd.

EPFL: Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale, Lausanne, Switzerland (Swiss Federal Institue of Technology

ESCAP: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand

ETHZ: Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology)

GATE: German Appropriate Technology Exchange, Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany

GRET: Groupe de Recherche et d'Echanges Technologiques, Paris, France

GWh: Giga Watthour (see also Annex V)

HMG: His Majesty's Government of Nepal

HP: Horsepower (see also Annex V)

HPS: Hydropower Station

H.T.: High Tension (>1000 V)

HTL: Höhere Technische Lehranstalt (Swiss Engineering College)

Hz: Hertz = cycles per second

IER: Internal Economic Rate of Return

kg: kilogram

kgce: kilogram coal equivalent (see also Annex V)

kgce/c.y.: kilogram coal equivalent per capita and year

km: kilometer = 1000 m

kVA: kilo Volt Ampere, equivalent to kW at a power factor of 1 (Apparent Power) kWh: kilo Watthour (see also Annex V)

LDC: Least Developed Country as per U.N. definition

LNG: Liquid Natural Gas

LPG: Liquid Petroleum Gas l/s: liters per second

L.T.: Low Tension (<1000 V) m: meter mm: millimeter, 1000 mm = 1 m m³/s Cubic meters per second (Unit for Mass Flow Rate)

MW: Mega Watts (see also Annex V)

NEA: National Energy Administration of Thailand, Bangkok

NRECA: National Rural Electric Co-operative Association, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

NRs: Rupees, Nepal-currency, NRs 12 = U.S. $ 1

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France

OLADE: Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia (Latin-American Energy Organisation, Quito, Ecuador)

PE: Polyethylene

PVC: Poly Vinyl Chloride

RPM: Revolutions per Minute

SATA: Swiss Association for Technical Assistance in Nepal comprising the Swiss Government Development Co-operation and HELVETAS, a non-profit organisation, Kathmandu, Nepal

SHDB: Small Hydel Development Board, Department of Electricity, Kathmandu, Nepal

SKAT: Schweizerische Kontaktstelle fur Angepasste Technik (Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology) St. Gall, Switzerland

TANESCO: Tanganyika Electric Supply Company, Ltd.

UEB: Uganda Electricity Board

UMN: United Mission to Nepal

UNCNRSE: United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy (to be held August 81 in Nairobi, Kenya)

UNESCO: United Nations, Economic, Social and Cultural Organisation

UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, Vienna, Austria

U.S. A.I.D.: United States Agency for International Development

VITA: Volunteers in Technical Assistance, Mt. Rainier, U.S.A.

W: Watt (see also Annex V)

WMO: World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland

 

 

ANNEXE III ALPHABETICAL MANUFACTURER'S LIST (updated 1985)

Aebi Hans

Tavelweg

4914 Roggwil, Switzerland

·Manufactures small turbines (Kaplan, Pelton) upto 160 kW

Atlantic, Gulf + Pacific Company of Manila, Inc.

P.O.Box 69 MCC

Makati

Metro Manila, Philippines

· Manufacture Francis, Pelton and propeller turbines in the range from 10-500 kW

Balaju Yantra Shala private limited

P.O.Box 209, Balaju

Kathmandu, Nepal

· General engineering firm specialising in the manufacture of Cross-Flow turbines and related equipment. Standardised turbine program within output capacity of max. 70 kW/unit.

Barata Metalworks & Engineering P.T.

Jalan Kaplen P. Tendean 12-14

Jakarta, Indonesia

· Heavy Industry and general engineering firm. Manufacture Francis-and Cross-Flow turbines occasionally upto 450 kW capacity.

Bell, Maschinenfabrik AG

6010 Kriens/Lucerne, Switzerland

· Highly specialised firm with a standard range of newly developed S-Propeller turbines from 0.1 -1 MW capacity. Also manufacture large units of Francis and Pelton.

Butwal Engineering Works

P.O.Box 1

Butwal, Nepal

· General engineering firm specialising in the manufacture of Cross-Flow turbines and related equipment. Standardised turbine program within output capacity of max. 70 kW/unit.

Canyon Industries, Inc.

5346 Mosquito Lake Road

Deming, Washington 98244, USA

· Manufacture Cross-Flow and Pelton turbines in the range from 1-over 100 KW

J.M. Chappalaz

Mini centrales hydroélectrique

1445 Vuiteboeuf, Switzerland

· Manufacture small Pelton and CF turbines 5 -50 kW, undertake consultancies for design + development of sites

China National Machinery Imp & Exp Corporation

12 Fu Xing Men Wai Street

Beijing, PR China

· Exporters of Small Hydro turbines 12 to 12'000 kW of Francis, Pelton, Kaplan and Turgo-type. also:

-Alternators upto 12 MW capacity

-Speed governors of various types and other accessories.

Cornell Pump Co.

2323 S.E. Harvester Drive

Portland, Oregon 97222, USA

· Manufacture complete turbo-generating sets in the range from 5 -20 kW, using reversible pump-turbines.

CP Electronics

Hydro Division

Pottery Road

Bovey Tracey, Devon TQ 139 DS U.K.

· Manufacture electronic load controllers single and three phase versions up to max 120 kW capacity.

Disag Dieselmotoren AG

7320 Sargans, Switzerland

· Manufacturer of Cross-Flow turbines and Pelton turbines in the small range. Also produce a small governor.

Drees GmbH

Postfach 43

4760 Werl, Federal Republic of Germany

·Manufacture a variety of Pelton and Francis turbines in the small range.

Markus Eisenring

Engineering

Bienenstr. 21

9244 Niederuzwil, Switzerland

· Undertakes consultancies for design and development of sites

Elektro GmbH

St. Gallerstrasse 27

8400 Winterthur, Switzerland

·Manufacture small Pelton sets with output upto 27 kW beside non-related other equipment.

Enterprise électrique S.A.

Avenue de France 13

1951 Sion, Switzerland

· Offer compact Pelton units (vertical axis) with topmounted alternators in the range from 1 to 200 kW.

F. Enzfelder

Eichengasse 597

2551 Enzesfeld-Lindabrunn, Austria

· Manufacture compact smallest range Pelton units upto 4 kW

F. Bamford + Co Ltd.

Ajax Works, Whitehill

Stockport, UK

· Manufacture propeller turbines 100-2000 kW

Fuji Electronic Co.

New Yurokucho Bldg.

Yurokucho 1-chome

Chiyodaku

Tokyo 100, Japan

· Manufacture tubular turbines above approx.400 kW

GEC Machines Limited

Mill Road

Rugby, Warwickshire, England CV21 1BD

· Manufacturer of complete electrical generating equipment with capacities from approx. 500 kW to 10 MW

Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon Ltd.

Kendal, Cumbria LA9 7BZ England

· Manufacturer of Francis, turgo and Pelton-turbines with capacity upto 350 kW Also manufacture control equipment beside other non-related products.

Hugentobler Maschinenbau

Rüteli

9249 Algetshausen, Switzerland

· Manufacture Pelton turbines and small Cross-Flow turbines.

Hydro Electra

P. von Rotz

Postfach

9435 Heerbrugg, Heerbrugg, Switzerland

· Offer a large range of used turbines and complete hydro generating sets for sale. Also undertake consultancy.

Hydro Sistems (Tasmania) pty.ltd.

G.P.O. Box 536F

Hobart, 7001, Australia

· Manufacture electronic load controllers standard 12 kW units Delphi Constant Load Governors

James Leffel & Co.

P.O.Box 1607

426 East Street

Springfield, Ohio 45501 USA

· Manufacturer of a large range of Kaplan, Francis and Pelton turbines from a few kW upto the MW range

Jyoti Limited

Bombay Shopping Centre

R.C. Dutt Road

Baroda, 390 005, India

· Manufacturer of a range of water turbines more or less according to the program of Gilkes, including alternators and associated equipment.

KMW AB

Box 1010

S -68101 Kristinehamn, Sweden

· Manufacture S-Turbines 100 -1500 kW

Koessler GmbH

St. Georgener Hauptstrasse

3151 St. Pölten, Austria

· Manufacture Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines in the small range.

Leroy-Somer

Boulevard Marcellin Leroy

B.P. 119

16004 Agouleme Cédex, France

· Manufacturer of a large range of standard alternators from 4 kW to 1'200 kW. Also produce a bulb turbine with built-in alternator for low-head installations upto 34 kW output.

Mitsubishi electric Corporation

Nagasaki, Japan

· Manufacture a very small bulb turbine with 4 kW output for very low-head application.

Neypric SA

Rue Général Mangin

38100 Grenoble, France

· Manufacture axial turbines 100 -1300 kW

Nikki Corporation, Engineering Company

2940 Shin Yoshidamachi

Koohoku

Yokohama, Japan

· Have recently started manufacture of Cross-Flow turbines upto 800 kW output.

Ossberger-Turbinenfabrik

Postfach 425

8832 Weissenburg, Bavaria, Federal Republic of Germany

· Longtime producer of Cross-Flow turbines. Have delivered equipment up to 1'000 kW per unit.

Peltech Hydraulic Turbines

5141 Wickersham, Acme, Washington 98220, USA

· Manufacture small Pelton turbine-sets.

Sorumsand Verksted A/S

1920 Sorumsand, Norway

· Manufacture different turbine types 100 -10'000 kW.

Sukarja, C.V.

Jalan Kom. Ud.

Supadio 98

Bandung, Indonesia

· Manufacture Cross-Flow turbines of local design.

Tamar Designs Ptv. Ltd.

Deviot, Tasmania 7251, Australia

· Manufacture Francis, Turgo and Pelton turbines upto about 100 kW capacity.

Tampella

P.O.Box 616

SF 33101 Tampere 10/Finland

· Manufacture S-turbines 100 -10'000 kW

Thomson and Howe Energy

Systems Inc.

Site 17, Box 2 S.S.1

Kimberley, British Columbia

Canada VIA 2Y3

· Manufacture electronic load controllers, 8 kW, 24 kW, max 48 kW standard units.

Voit GmbH

Postfach 1940

7920 Heidenheim, Federal Republic of Germany

· Manufacture Vertical Francis turbines 50 to 2'000 kW.

Woodward Governor Company

5001 North Second Street

Rockford

Illinois, 61101/USA

· Manufacture a variety of speed governors of high quality. W.

Würsch Apparate und Maschinenfabrik AG

Laubgasse 57

8500 Frauenfeld, Switzerland

· Manufacture Cross-Flow turbines upto 800 kW

 

ANNEXE IV ALPHABETICAL LIST OF INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN HYDRO DEVELOPMENT

ADB/N, Agricultural Development Bank

Putali Sadak

Kathmandu, Nepal

· Local financing agency for a large number of small productive-use, hydro-projects.

ATDA, Appropriate Technology Development Association

Projects Division

P.O. Box 311, Gandhi Bhawan

Lucknow 226001, India

· Have taken up integrated village development projects, based on hydroelectricity plants.

ATDO, Appropriate Technology Development Organisation

1-B, 47th Street, F-7/l

Islamabad, Pakistan

· Work on more than twenty small hydro projects using local Cross-Flow turbines in the output range from 3 to 20 kW

DEH, Directorate for Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Aid, of the Swiss

Government

Eigerstrasse 73

3003 Berne, Switzerland

· Sponsoring agency for hydro development activities (among other things) in Nepal and elsewhere.

DIAN DESA, Appropriate Technology Organisation

Jalan Kaliurang km7,

Juruksari, P.O. Box 19, Bulaksumur

Yogjakarta, Indonesia

. Work on village electrification projects with their own design of Cross-Flow turbine.

ETHZ, Institute for Fluid-Technology Sonneggstr. 3, 8092 Zurich,

Switzerland

· Technical consulting in small hydro development.

GATE, German Appropriate Technology Exchange

Dag Hammerskjöld-Weg 1

6236 Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany

· Have published a manual on Cross-Flow turbine construction and other related manuals. Maintain an enquiry-service and information network.

GRET, Groupe de Recherche et d'Echange Technologiques

34, rue Dumont-d'Urville

75116 Paris, France

· Have published an introductory manual on micro-hydro generation. Maintain an enquiry-service and information network.

HELVETAS

St. Moritz Strasse 15

8042 Zurich, Switzerland

· Sponsoring and executing agency of Cross-Flow turbine development at

BYS in Nepal.

ITB, Institute of Technology Bandung

Departemen Mesin

Jalan Ganesha 10

Bandung, Indonesia

· Have implemented about ten small hydro-projects so far, with their own design of Cross-Flow turbine.

ITDG, Intermediate Technology Development Group

9 King Street

London WC2E 8HN, U.K.

· Technical consulting and development activities in small hydro projects. Have collaborated in electronic load controller development.

ITIS, Intermediate Technology Industrial Services

3rd floor Mayson House, Railway Terrace

Rugby, CV21 3HT, U.K.

· Project executing agency of ITDG collaborating with BEW in Nepal (among others).

ITINTEC, Division de Energia

Apartado 145

Lima, Peru

· Have developed a range of Cross-Flow turbines and associated equipment for local manufacture.

NEA, National Energy Administration of Thailan

Pembultan Villa, Yose

Bangkok 5, Thailand

· Have developed Cross-Flow turbines for local manufacture and implement hydro projects in the small range.

NERD-Centre, National Engineering Research and Development Centre

Ekala Ja Ela, Sri Lanka . Have developed Cross-Flow turbines for local manufacture.

NRECA, National Rural Electric Co-operative Association

1800 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20036, U.S.A.

· Assisting in small hydro development in developing countries on behalf of U.S. A.I.D.

Have organised a workshop in Quito 1980 on small hydro and have published proceedings thereof. Further workshops are to follow elsewhere.

OLADE, Organicacion Latineamericana de Energia

Casilla 119-a

Quito, Ecuador

· Are promoting and disseminating small hydro technology in Latin America.

RCTT, Regional Centre for the Transfer of Technology

Manickveen Mansions, Box 115

49 Palace road

Bangalore 560052, India

· Are disseminating small-hydro technology in the ESCAP region. Have collaborated in organising the Kathmandu 1979 workshop on small-hydro with UNIDO.

RECAST, Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology

Tribhuvan University

Kirtipur Campus

Kathmandu, Nepal

· Are collaborating in the local development of improved water-wheels such as the Multipurpose Mini-Power Unit.

SATA, Swiss Association for Technical Assistance

P.O. Box 113

Kathmandu, Nepal

· Is the local agency of DEH and HELVETAS collaborating with BYS and SHDB on small hydro development (among other activities).

SHDB, Small Hydel Development Board

Bagh Bazaar

Kathmandu, Nepal

· Project implementing agency of HMG Electricity Department.

SKAT, Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology, at ILK, Institute for Latin-American Research and for Development Co-operation, University of Saint-Gall Varnbüelstrasse 14 9000 St. Gall,

Switzerland

· Technical documentation and consulting in small hydro development (among other activities). Development of Cross-Flow turbine T3 in collaboration with other institutions in Switzerland.

SPATF South Pacific Appropriate Technology Foundation

P.O. Box 6937

Boroko Papua New Guinea

· Work on village electrification projects based on hydropower.

THE, Technical University of Eindhoven

Den Dolech 2

Postbus 513

5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

· Development of Cross-Flow turbine in collaboration with ITB, Bandung. Also thesis work on other turbine types and load controllers.

UMN, United Mission to Nepal

Thapathali

Kathmandu, Nepal

· Sponsoring agency for small hydro development activities in BEW, Butwal and other local organisations.

UNIDO, United Nations Development Organisation

Lerchenfeldstrasse 1

P.O. Box 707

1011 Vienna, Austria

· Are promoting and disseminating small hydro technology. Have organised workshop and study tour on small hydro at Hanghzhou, Manila 1980

VITA, Volunteers in Technical Assistance

3706 Rhode Island Ave.

Mt. Rainier 20822, Maryland, U.S.A.

· Information and documentation on small hydro technology within a comprehensive renewable energy program.

 

ANNEXE V STANDARD ENERGY CONVERSIONS

Unit

Abbreviation

(Equivalent Values Lie in Vertical Columns)

Barrels per Day

BDOE

               

.013

1

1.6

2.74

Oil Equivalent (a)

                         
                           

Metric tons of

Mtce

           

0.05

0.21

1

77.5

125

212

Coal Equivalent (b)

                         
                           

Barrels of Oil

BOE

         

.0047

0.25

1

4.7

365

586

10³

Equivalent (c)

                         
                           

Kilograms of

kgce

       

1

 

53.5

212

103

77.5

125

212

Coal Equivalent

                   

x10³

x10³

x10³

                           

Kilocalories

           

18.7

1000

3970

18.7

1.45

2.33

3.97

per Day (a)

                 

x10³

x106

x106

x106

                           

Kilowatthours

kWh

0.28

     

1

8.0

428

1700

8000

0.62

106=

1.7

(10³ watt-hours)

                   

X106

1GWH

X106

                           

Kilocalories

kcal

240

0.24

0.25

1

860

6.9

3.65

1.45

6.9

530

860

1.45

(10³ calories)

           

x10³

x105

x106

x106

x106

x106

x109

                           

British Thermal

BTU

950

0.95

1

4.0

3413

27.3

1.46

5.8

27.3

2.12

3.4

5.8

Units

         

x10³

X106

X

106

X106

x109

x109

x109

                           

Kilojoules

kJ

 

1

1.06

4.2

3600

28.8

1.54

6.1

28.8

2.24

3.6

6.1

(10³ joules)

           

x10³

X106

x106

x106

x109

x109

x109

                           

Megajoules

MJ

1

0.001

0.0011

0.0042

3.6

28.8

1.54

6.1

28.8

2.24

3.6

6.1

               

x10³

x10³

x10³

x106

x106

106

(a) Equivalents in other units are shown on a per annum basis. For example, one barrel per day of oil, maintained for a year, equals 2.24 x 10 kilojoules.

(b) One metric ton = 1000 kilograms = 2202 pounds = 1.1 short tons.

(c) One barrel of oil = 5.8 million BTU.

 

STANDARD POWER CONVERSIONS

Unit

Abbreviation

(Equivalent Values Lie in Vertical Columns)

                     

Watt

W

1

1000

106

109

9.81

735.5

1

4185.9

1055.1

kilo Watt

kW

0.001

1

1000

106

0.0098

0.736

0.001

4.19

1.06

                     

Mega Watt

MW

 

0.001

1

1000

     

0.0042

0.0011

                     

Giga Watt

GW

   

0.001 1

           
                     

Meter-kilogram

mkp/s

0.102

102

1.02

1.02

1

75

0.102

427

107.6

- force per second

     

x105

x108

         
                     

Horse power

HP

0.0014

1.36

1359.6

1.36

0.0133

1

0.0014

5.69

1.43

         

x106

         
                     

Joule per second

J/s

1

1000

106

109

9.81

735.5

1

4185.9

1055.1

                     

kilo Calorie per

kcal/s

 

0.24

238.9

2.4

0.0023

0.1757

1

0.2521

 

second

       

x105

         
                     

British Thermal

BTU/s

0.0001

0.95

947.8

9.5

0.0093

0.6971

0.0001

3.97

1

Unit per second

       

x105