| Forestry training manual Inter-America Region |
|Information collection & exchange|
|Training program overview|
|Training program goals:|
|Forestry observation guide for site visit|
|1. Stock the library|
|Reference material listing|
|2. The training site|
|3. Plan the field trip|
|4. Tree planting site|
|5. Soil erosion site|
|Conducting the training program|
|Weekly evaluation form|
|Session I day one|
|Daily schedule for technical training|
|Session II special projects|
|Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles|
|Session IV Language class|
|Session V Exercise I: Record keeping|
|Session VI Exercise II|
|Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning|
|Session VIII Spanish language class|
|Session IX Non-verbal communication|
|Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery|
|Session XI Spanish language class|
|Session XII Cultural values|
|Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings|
|Session XIV Spanish language|
|Session XV Communication through illustration|
|Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers|
|Session XVII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Protection and record keeping|
|Session XIX Individual interviews|
|Session XX Planting trees|
|Session XXI Spanish language session|
|Session XXII Introduction to extension|
|Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning|
|Session XXIV Spanish language|
|Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist|
|Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass|
|Session XXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Forestry extension|
|Session XXIX Forest menstruation|
|Session XXX Spanish language|
|Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker|
|Can farming and forestry coexist in the tropics?|
|Some observations about agricultural plantations and agri-silviculture|
|Session XXXIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching|
|Session XXV Small research projects|
|Session XXXVI Individual interviews|
|Session XXXVII Soils|
|Session XXXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction|
|Session XL Soil erosion|
|Session XLI Spanish language|
|Session XLIII Watershed management|
|Session XLIV Spanish language|
|Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way|
|Session XLVI Spanish language|
|Session XLVII Species report|
|Session XLVIII Forestry issues|
|Exotic vs indigenous species|
|Exotics vs indigenous - Ecuador|
|Exotic vs. indigenous species - Paraguay|
|Session XLIX Spanish language|
|Session L Field trip overview|
|Session LI Ecology teams give presentations|
|Session LII Individual interviews|
|Session LIII Review of field trips|
|Session LIV Project planning: goal setting|
|Session LV Spanish language|
|Session LVI Resources|
|Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps|
|Session LVIII Spanish language|
|Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?|
|Session LX Grafting and fruit trees|
|Session LXI Spanish language|
|Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials|
|Session LXIII Final interviews|
|Session LXIV Graduation|
Total Time: 2 hours
- To introduce extension work. O To give historical overview. O To look at specific goals of extension. O To begin the process of developing an extension agent.
Overview Each trainee regardless of their job assignment will eventually become involved in forestry extension work. This session begins by giving the historical overview of extension work in North America; then goes into "Six Axioms of Forestry Extension."
1. Historical overview and some techniques used in the past. Lecture.
2. Six Axioms for forestry extension; small group discussions.
Materials Flip charts, marker pens, tape.
Exercise II Six Axioms of Forestry Extension
Total Time 1 hour 10 minutes
In this exercise participants become familiar with the basic rules of extension work. Since extension work is such an unstructured activity, the extension worker will find that there are long periods of time when he/she feels as if he/she is not doing anything and is tempted to do more; he/she may also wonder, from time to time, if what he/she is doing is actually advancing or retarding extension work in the community. In extension work the temperament and sensitivity of the worker influence to a large degree how effective the work will be.
1. The trainer posts on newsprint the following axioms and speaks about each one.
- The forestry extensionist should never do anything for people that they are able to do for themselves.
- The forestry extensionist should never encourage the use of resources from outside the community until all the resources within the community have been exhausted.
- The forestry extensionist should never try to organize people to deal with a need they don't themselves recognize (may have to educate first).
- The forestry extensionist's most important dedication must be to the sound local progress of his/her community.
- Forestry extension must be carried out from an understanding of the host culture and in terms of that culture.
- The forestry extensionist role in his/her community is transitory.
It is tempting to add a seventh axiom, which says that the above six should not be taken too seriously. If there is one single encompassing rule in extension work, it is that given the basic goals, the means ultimately are flexible - subject to variations according to specific conditions. The extensionist should understand the axioms of an extension worker well enough to follow them when possible and break them, if necessary.
20 minutes-small group
3 minutes-large group
2. Trainer now asks participants to break into groups of five and discuss ways in which they can be successful extension workers. Ideas are recorded on newsprint and presented to the entire group. The following are some examples that came out of our groups.
Ways to Be Successful Extension Workers
We are not alone
know when to compromise
know where to start
be aware of problems
don't push own
ideas keep it simple
be a Mr. Tree
work with counterpart
be a resource
be a good example
get along with officials
follow up on what you do
do not spread yourself too thin
follow the six points of extension
be aware of external and internal resources
transfer a system
work with people
have a good reputation
help others make decisions; do not do it for them
build extension bridges
action speaks louder than words
maintain a sense of humor
quality vs. quantity (do a few things well)
be aware of group dynamics
3. Trainer now does summary of session: Emphasizing that trainees are becoming members of a historical tradition - extension.
Historical Overview and Some Techniques Used in the Past
Total Time: 40 minutes
During the introduction to extension it is important for trainees to understand that the extension movement has 100 years of history. Though it may be a new concept in developing countries it comes as a tried and true system for helping farmers. Experiences are shared to help trainees get a picture of an extension worker as one who must interact on a one to one basis in order to help a community develop.
Lecture on history of extension outline:
- 1862 Morrill Act - Land Grant Colleges
- 1887 Research - Experimentation
- 1914 Extension
- 1940 - 1950 - Good Neighbor Policy of Harry S. Truman, "Partners in Progress."
For extension to be most effective, it must achieve:
1. National concern to improve agrarian structures.
2. Rural population with high level of self esteem.
3. Active participation in significant development programs, i.e., agrarian.
Specific Goals of Extension:
1. Significant objectives - precise, measurable, realistic.
2. Appropriate image.
3. Power - legal, money, political.
4. Institutional mystique.
5. Internal efficiency.
6. Effective communication with public.
7. Coordination with other agencies.
8. Democratic procedures.
2. Be a Mr/Ms Tree. In order for people in a community to know you and why you are in the community you must identify yourself. Any opportunity which arises, you should give away a tree. Some examples are:
2. thank you for any kindness
3. p.r. for yourself
5. just to be friendly
Trainer asks for suggestions from group at this point.
Trainer's Note: This concept really catches the imagination of the participants. If you know the story of "Johnny Appleseed,. it fits in well here. Trainer makes point that in order for people to associate you with trees you must advertise . It is important to remind trainees that any trees given should be personal gifts, never use trees from nursery stock. This is also a good time for trainer to talk about their own experiences as extension agents or community development workers.