Cover Image
close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
close this folder Training program overview
View the document Training program goals:
View the document Advance information
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
close this folder Getting ready
View the document 1. Stock the library
View the document Reference material listing
View the document 2. The training site
View the document 3. Plan the field trip
View the document 4. Tree planting site
View the document 5. Soil erosion site
View the document 6. Transportation
View the document 7. Materials
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
close this folder Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
close this folder Unasylva
View the document Can farming and forestry coexist in the tropics?
View the document Some observations about agricultural plantations and agri-silviculture
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
close this folder Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Exotic vs indigenous species
View the document Exotics vs indigenous - Ecuador
View the document Exotic vs. indigenous species - Paraguay
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session XXII Introduction to extension

Total Time: 2 hours


- To introduce extension work. O To give historical overview. O To look at specific goals of extension. O To begin the process of developing an extension agent.

Overview Each trainee regardless of their job assignment will eventually become involved in forestry extension work. This session begins by giving the historical overview of extension work in North America; then goes into "Six Axioms of Forestry Extension."


1. Historical overview and some techniques used in the past. Lecture.

2. Six Axioms for forestry extension; small group discussions.

Materials Flip charts, marker pens, tape.

Exercise II Six Axioms of Forestry Extension

Total Time 1 hour 10 minutes


In this exercise participants become familiar with the basic rules of extension work. Since extension work is such an unstructured activity, the extension worker will find that there are long periods of time when he/she feels as if he/she is not doing anything and is tempted to do more; he/she may also wonder, from time to time, if what he/she is doing is actually advancing or retarding extension work in the community. In extension work the temperament and sensitivity of the worker influence to a large degree how effective the work will be.




30 minutes

1. The trainer posts on newsprint the following axioms and speaks about each one.


- The forestry extensionist should never do anything for people that they are able to do for themselves.


- The forestry extensionist should never encourage the use of resources from outside the community until all the resources within the community have been exhausted.


- The forestry extensionist should never try to organize people to deal with a need they don't themselves recognize (may have to educate first).


- The forestry extensionist's most important dedication must be to the sound local progress of his/her community.


- Forestry extension must be carried out from an understanding of the host culture and in terms of that culture.


- The forestry extensionist role in his/her community is transitory.

It is tempting to add a seventh axiom, which says that the above six should not be taken too seriously. If there is one single encompassing rule in extension work, it is that given the basic goals, the means ultimately are flexible - subject to variations according to specific conditions. The extensionist should understand the axioms of an extension worker well enough to follow them when possible and break them, if necessary.

20 minutes-small group

3 minutes-large group

2. Trainer now asks participants to break into groups of five and discuss ways in which they can be successful extension workers. Ideas are recorded on newsprint and presented to the entire group. The following are some examples that came out of our groups.

Ways to Be Successful Extension Workers

We are not alone

communication -contacts

know when to compromise

positive attitudes


know where to start

cultural sensitivity

technical competence

be objective

be aware of problems

don't push own

ideas keep it simple

be a Mr. Tree

work with counterpart

be a resource

be a good example

get along with officials

impart knowledge

follow up on what you do

do not spread yourself too thin

follow the six points of extension

be aware of external and internal resources

transfer a system

work with people

have a good reputation

help others make decisions; do not do it for them

build extension bridges

action speaks louder than words

maintain a sense of humor

quality vs. quantity (do a few things well)

be aware of group dynamics

5 minutes

3. Trainer now does summary of session: Emphasizing that trainees are becoming members of a historical tradition - extension.


Exercise I

Historical Overview and Some Techniques Used in the Past

Total Time: 40 minutes


During the introduction to extension it is important for trainees to understand that the extension movement has 100 years of history. Though it may be a new concept in developing countries it comes as a tried and true system for helping farmers. Experiences are shared to help trainees get a picture of an extension worker as one who must interact on a one to one basis in order to help a community develop.





Lecture on history of extension outline:


- 1862 Morrill Act - Land Grant Colleges


- 1887 Research - Experimentation


- 1914 Extension


- 1940 - 1950 - Good Neighbor Policy of Harry S. Truman, "Partners in Progress."

For extension to be most effective, it must achieve:


1. National concern to improve agrarian structures.

2. Rural population with high level of self esteem.

3. Active participation in significant development programs, i.e., agrarian.

Specific Goals of Extension:

1. Significant objectives - precise, measurable, realistic.

2. Appropriate image.

3. Power - legal, money, political.

4. Institutional mystique.

5. Internal efficiency.

6. Effective communication with public.

7. Coordination with other agencies.

8. Democratic procedures.


2. Be a Mr/Ms Tree. In order for people in a community to know you and why you are in the community you must identify yourself. Any opportunity which arises, you should give away a tree. Some examples are:


1. birthdays


2. thank you for any kindness


3. p.r. for yourself


4. christenings


5. just to be friendly


Trainer asks for suggestions from group at this point.

Trainer's Note: This concept really catches the imagination of the participants. If you know the story of "Johnny Appleseed,. it fits in well here. Trainer makes point that in order for people to associate you with trees you must advertise . It is important to remind trainees that any trees given should be personal gifts, never use trees from nursery stock. This is also a good time for trainer to talk about their own experiences as extension agents or community development workers.