| Forestry training manual Inter-America Region |
|Information collection & exchange|
|Training program overview|
|Training program goals:|
|Forestry observation guide for site visit|
|1. Stock the library|
|Reference material listing|
|2. The training site|
|3. Plan the field trip|
|4. Tree planting site|
|5. Soil erosion site|
|Conducting the training program|
|Weekly evaluation form|
|Session I day one|
|Daily schedule for technical training|
|Session II special projects|
|Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles|
|Session IV Language class|
|Session V Exercise I: Record keeping|
|Session VI Exercise II|
|Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning|
|Session VIII Spanish language class|
|Session IX Non-verbal communication|
|Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery|
|Session XI Spanish language class|
|Session XII Cultural values|
|Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings|
|Session XIV Spanish language|
|Session XV Communication through illustration|
|Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers|
|Session XVII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Protection and record keeping|
|Session XIX Individual interviews|
|Session XX Planting trees|
|Session XXI Spanish language session|
|Session XXII Introduction to extension|
|Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning|
|Session XXIV Spanish language|
|Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist|
|Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass|
|Session XXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Forestry extension|
|Session XXIX Forest menstruation|
|Session XXX Spanish language|
|Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker|
|Can farming and forestry coexist in the tropics?|
|Some observations about agricultural plantations and agri-silviculture|
|Session XXXIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching|
|Session XXV Small research projects|
|Session XXXVI Individual interviews|
|Session XXXVII Soils|
|Session XXXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction|
|Session XL Soil erosion|
|Session XLI Spanish language|
|Session XLIII Watershed management|
|Session XLIV Spanish language|
|Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way|
|Session XLVI Spanish language|
|Session XLVII Species report|
|Session XLVIII Forestry issues|
|Exotic vs indigenous species|
|Exotics vs indigenous - Ecuador|
|Exotic vs. indigenous species - Paraguay|
|Session XLIX Spanish language|
|Session L Field trip overview|
|Session LI Ecology teams give presentations|
|Session LII Individual interviews|
|Session LIII Review of field trips|
|Session LIV Project planning: goal setting|
|Session LV Spanish language|
|Session LVI Resources|
|Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps|
|Session LVIII Spanish language|
|Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?|
|Session LX Grafting and fruit trees|
|Session LXI Spanish language|
|Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials|
|Session LXIII Final interviews|
|Session LXIV Graduation|
- To instruct trainees in procedures for presenting lesson of charlas;
- For trainees to practice setting up simple lesson plans to demonstrate to group;
- To discuss method for making and presenting a slide show.
During this session, trainees present special projects on lesson plans and slide presentations. This is a fun time and trainees enjoy making up lesson plans. A short slide show is also presented (if slides are available).
1. How to make a lesson plan.
2. How to make a slide show.
Materials: Flip chart, marker pens, tape, crayons, old magazines, scissors, paste, material scraps and slide projector.
Exercise I: How to make a Lesson Plan
Total Time: 1 ½ hours
In this exercise trainee for whom lesson plans has been a special project gives a lecture on making lesson plans by demonstrating one he/she has made up using "Teaching Conversation in Developing Nations" as a guide. Trainees then make up a simple lesson plan and give one minute demonstration of lesson plan either by actually presenting lesson or describing lesson plan they have developed.
1. Trainee responsible for lesson plans as special project gives lecture covering:
a. Stated objectives
b. Present information
Sample of trainees lecture follows
2. Trainer now gives assignment (or can have trainee give assignment) that everyone is to give a one minute lesson to group. They now have 30 minutes to plan using outline and prepare lesson plan.
3. Trainees give either short lesson or they have option of describing a lesson plan they might use in campo. List of lessons given are included for reference.
Short break for setting slide presentation.
List of Lessons
Proper way to use a knife
Proper way to tie a figure 8 knot
Having children draw leaves
Sample drum roll
Soil erosion work
5 senses in the environment
Proper way to cut a tree
Extension of our bodies
How to plant a terrarium
Names of Spanish tools
Lesson plan on pollution
Lesson plan on insects
Lesson plan demonstration on trees to control erosion
Lesson plan on parts of plant
Lesson plan on identification of tree species
Demonstration on how to play drums
lNTRODUCTION - You do not have to be a school teacher to teach basic conservation education. while the school system is the most centralized and organized medium for reaching communities, conservation education should not end there. Simple projects around your home in the backyard are just as effective and serve as an important educational tool when shared with neighbors.
Resources: The background you already have based on your education, readings and experiences should be taken seriously as resource materials. Of special importance is the manual "Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations. which can be ordered from Peace Corps at the following address:
Information Collection and Exchange
806 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20526
Other resources include:
Basic Education Outline - a syllabus outline of basic goals and topics in a logical progression.
I. Looking at the environment
To Develop an awareness of the environment, To understand some interelationships, To learn how people use and abuse their environment .
Rocks and soils,
Relationships and man in the environment
Identification - Collections
Planting trees and gardens
II . Changes in the natural world
To understand life of plants and animals, To develop an awareness of ones impact, etc.
Products from plants and animals
Everyday activities and how they affect the environment,
What plants need to survive and produce.
Keep a diary of changes in environment,
Erosion Control project - i.e., curves de nivel,
Water collection and conservation,
Establish a community,
III. Responsibility for Environment Conservation
To understand responsibilities for use and management of natural resources,
to learn conservation practices,
to learn what local government and national programs are doing.
conservator practices and alternatives,
sewage and solid waste disposal,
chemicals in everyday life.
presentations (store windows),
contact and work with local agencies,
map community and do,
develop a park with teachings signs.
1. State objectives
2. Present information using visual aids - pictures, slides, etc.
3. Activity -
4. Summary - repeat main points
5. Follow-up and evaluation
Usos de bosque
Demonstrar various finificios de las arboles
paper pare posters
cinta adnesive o masking
Exercise II Slide Show Presentation
Total Times 30 minutes
Trainee(a) who has taken on slide presentation as special project presents lecture on steps involved. Possibly the(se) trainee(s) could present a short slide show.
1. Trainee(s) for whom slide show presentation is-a special project gives lecture including the following steps:
a. Before you take pictures
b. Taking pictures
c. Organizing the presentation
e. Slide show topics
f. Photo reproduction stand
2. Trainee gives short slide presentation to demonstrate lecture.
GUIDE FOR MAKING A SLIDE SHOW
For a presentation on almost any subject, a slide show with pictures of good quality is an excellent medium. The following was written as a guide to producing a slide show.
I. BEFORE YOU TAKE PICTURES
A. Planning is very important. State objectives of the presentation. Keep it as specific as possible. Make a list of what you want to show. Research your subject and define specific scenes needed.
B. Complete charts, posters and book materials to use in the program.
C. Buy quality film from a reputable dealer.
D. Know your camera and be sure to clean lenses, etc. before beginning.
II . TAKING PICTURES
A. Action shots showing specific activities involving local people are ideal. Be sure the subjects are willing and explain why you are taking the shots.
B. Watch the background. Keep the focus of the shot on your specific subject.
C. Lifting graphs and charts from hooks can be very useful. Also, original drawings can he changed to slides simply. Excellent title slides and conclusions with written summaries can be made by taking a photo. A simple stand can be made to hold your camera above the page or book (see sketch #1). Close up tubes (automatic extension tubes) can be used to lift photographs for slide production. The slides can be made to look as it they were taken on location. For copying slides, attachments are available which mount onto a 35mm camera. This process reduces the need to rely on costly slide reproduction processes. In essence, you are taking a slide of a slide.
III . ORGANIZING THE PRESENTATION
A. Written script - Scripts should be direct and concise. The presenter should take the time to review the presentation several times prior to the show (practice makes perfect!). Lither an entire script can be written or note cards utilized.
B. Tape recording accompaniment - There are troth pros and cons to a slide show including a tape recorded script and/or music. On the positive side is the ease of presentation. A taped script with music background may he more interesting to the viewers and appear more professional. A recording made by a local speaker may also alleviate language difficulties.
A few problems could arise due to:
1) difficulty in stopping to answer questions,
2) possible difficulty in coordination of tape with slides,
4) more equipment and electrical outlets needed.
It you decide to use a tape system, make sure that the speaker has good diction and uses the language indigenous to the area (In Ecuacor, costar Spanish differs from that of the Sierra).
The list or equipment needed can vary with the needs and resources available for slide show production.
Some equipment to consider is:
1. Reliable 35mm camera - Although not necessary, many options are available to a user of a SLR 35mm camera such as:
a. telephoto lenses
b. macro lenses
c. automatic extension tube sets
d. slide copiers
e. light filters - from skylight to polarized to infrared
f. wide angle and fish-eye lenses
2. Slide projector - A carousel type with a remote slide advancer is best. It would be easier to have enough carousels to enable you to store the slide show directly in the carousel.
3. Tape recorder - if you prefer "canned" slide shows a tape recorder which is easy to transport and use is needed.
4. Quality film and tapes - If the project is a large one, you may want to consider buying in bulk from a photo outlet. This would be cheaper in the long run and the majority of times results in the best quality (fresh) film available.
5. Extension cords - Many slide presentations have been inconvenienced or even ruined due to the lack or nonexistence of electrical outlets and extension cords.
V. SLIDE SHOW TOPICS
Following is a list of slide show topics which we feel would be useful to Peace Corps foresters.
1. Starting a nursery - The following factors could be used as individual slide shows or incorporated into a single presentation.
a. site selection
b. seedbed preparation
2. Agro-silvicultural systems - Specific systems could be handled as individual shows or could be used to present an overview of agro-forestry for any given area of the world.
3. Planting and transplanting a tree.
4. Types and uses of various tree species - Trees provide much more than just wood; from oils and resins to wildlife, food and cover. This show could cover specific species or present an overview.
5. Pest control - Forest pests throughout the world cost millions of dollars annually in terms of wood products lost and the associated costs of their supression. This presentation could deal with identifying when there is a problem, the causitive agent and possible remedies.
6. Exotic tree species - In some areas of the world, exotic trees are a necessity in reforestation projects. A show could help promote the tree's usage and deal with any special management problems.
7. Compost - Its benefits and usage. Extremely helpful for areas where the use of inorganic fertilizers can not be afforded. The show could demonstrate how to start a compost pile, maintain it, and use it for fertilization.
8. Erosion and its control - This could deal with the problem facing most developing countries, the alarming rate of land loss due to erosion by water and wind and ways in which to deal with it.
9. Land management - The aspect of total land management including management of agricultural crops, animals, forest, and pasture could he presented to the people to demonstrate better use of the land.
10. chainsaw use and safety - Modern harvesting methods are on the increase in developing nations. With the increase in the use of machinery comes the increased risk of accidents and injuries. This show would cover the sate use and operation of the basic "mechanized" tree harvesting tool.
These topics are some of our suggestions. Many possibilities exist for quality shows which can aid our work in the developing countries. It is UK' to us, as volunteers, to recognize the need and act accordingly.
Peace Corps Volunteers Terry and Bob Simeone and Mark Jackson contributed to this article.