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close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
close this folder Training program overview
View the document Training program goals:
View the document Advance information
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
close this folder Getting ready
View the document 1. Stock the library
View the document Reference material listing
View the document 2. The training site
View the document 3. Plan the field trip
View the document 4. Tree planting site
View the document 5. Soil erosion site
View the document 6. Transportation
View the document 7. Materials
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
close this folder Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
close this folder Unasylva
View the document Can farming and forestry coexist in the tropics?
View the document Some observations about agricultural plantations and agri-silviculture
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
close this folder Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Exotic vs indigenous species
View the document Exotics vs indigenous - Ecuador
View the document Exotic vs. indigenous species - Paraguay
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction

Total Time:

- Trainees should learn the names of the 14 sub-systems in the social cybernetics framework,

- Trainees should be able to define each system and its elements,

- Trainees should develop a series of questions for inquiry which fit into the categories.


In this session community analysis is introduced. Building on the extension workers' role, the social cybernetics sub-systems are used in this session because they were developed in Latin America and are widely used for analysis by many institutions in the Inter-American region.

Exercise I: Introduction to social cybernetics sub-systems.

Materials: Flip charts, marker pens, tape.

Exercise I

Introduction to Social Cybernetics Sub-Systems

Total Time:


Social Cybernetics Methodology was developed in South America and has been applied in Central and South America for the last 15 years. In this session, the 14 sub-systems are introduced and defined. Trainees then develop a list of questions for each sub-system that will generate data necessary for analysis of their communities.





1. Trainer introduces sub-systems and gives brief lecture including:


- The community analysis model with which you will be working assumes that you can break down a community, for purposes of analysis, into a series of segments or sub-systems.


- Each segment, in the real world, interacts with the other to produce a continual movement and balance which keeps the community active. Change in one segment can affect the other and vice versa. Intervention will do the same, e.g., if you introduce improved piggery techniques by penning up pigs and feeding them rather than letting them forage for food (an economic intervention), you affect community health by reducing swine-borne diseases. Cutting across all segments of the community, you will find that there are common elements. These common elements are defined as:


A. resources (both human, natural and manmade);


B. problems possibly exist - problems are defined as the gap between what is and what should he (what "should be" is often defined culturally);


C. patterns exist which give you clues about what is there, and how persons perceive them (these patterns of behavior often include cultural habits, as well as biological necessities); and, finally


D. among the human resources you will probably find that leadership exists in many of the sub-areas of the community.


The following model describes this approach to the community:


Kinship Birth,

sex, marital status, ethnic groups, habitation, migration, family, relatives, demography, population.


hygiene, infirmity, hospitals, campaigns, nursing, pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, sanitation, public health, mortality.


Consumers, bars, stores, hotels, diets, food/drink, clothing, warehouse, malnutrition.


Friendship, love, hate, association, clubs, unions, co-ops, federations, societies, solidarity, integration.


Tourism, holidays, games, free time, music/songs, diversions, sports, hobbies, exhaustion, relaxation.


Trips, transportation, accidents, languages, newspapers, broadcast stations, telecommunications, networks.


Culture, teachers, didactics, research, study, school, library, education, academics, teaching.


Public/private property, possessions, assets,wealth/salaries, rich/poor, distribution of wealth, stock market, GNP.

Extra- Ag-IND-ART

Manufacture, enterprises, firms, specialists, departments, arts, technologies, farming, energy, extractive industry.


Creeds, beliefs, participation, churches, ministers, rites, congregations.


Police power, combativity, defense, attacks, crimes, violence/war, armed forces, military operations, tear.


Public power, planning, political parties, hureaucracy, regime, public administration, government.


Laws, justice, rights, duties, courts, codes, legal process, jurists.


Prestige, respect, merit, competition, privilege, titles, excellence, elites, "who's who", nobel prize, monuments.

Trainer's Note: We have used this model because it is all inclusive of social sub-systems used in social planning in the Americas. You may wish to use a shorter version called KEEPRAH, Holistic Model, developed by Phil Donohue and used in the early l960's at Peace Corps Training Center, Escondido, California.


Explain what each sub-system is, if necessary.


If you were doing a community analysis, you would formulate a series of questions under each subsystem, then try to find the answer to the question by going into the community and seeking information.

1 - 1 1/2 hours

2. Ask the group to break into small groups of 5 or 6 and brainstorm questions in each area: for example (write these examples on flip chart) as follows:



(This has to do with family patterns, relations and organization)


1. How big are families?


2. Is the mother or the father the decision maker, land owner, bread winner, etc.?


3. Who raises the children? etc.



1. What is the average grade that children achieve in school?


2. Are there schools? etc.

Trainer's Note: You have several choices here. Each group may do all sub-systems or may select one or more then share results with the other groups.


3. Bring the group together, if appropriate, share questions. If not appropriate, move on to asking people how they plan to find out the answers to their questions.

30 minutes

Hints There are several methods of gathering data and the group should try out a variety of ways: sitting in one place and watching what goes on (flow analysis), asking questions, looking for anything written if it exists, conducting a non-threatening interview, observation, etc. Each person should think about how he/she is going to gather data. stress that each person must keep notes and write down findings in their journals.