Cover Image
close this book Measuring drought and drought impacts in Red Sea Province
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document A Note on Orthography and Other Conventions
View the document Executive summary of the research
close this folder 1. Introduction to Red Sea Province
View the document Physical Geography
View the document Precipitation
View the document Political organisation
View the document Infrastructure, economic activities, and employment
View the document Agriculture
View the document Pastoralism
View the document Drought-coping strategies
View the document Population and human geography
View the document Land Tenure
View the document Gender Relations in Beja society
View the document Overview of famine relief in Red Sea Province
View the document References
View the document Appendix 1.1.
View the document Appendix 1.2.
close this folder 2. Measuring drought and food insecurity in Red Sea province: in 1987 and 1988: a technique for Pthe rapid assessment of large areas. Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Methods
View the document Results
View the document Conclusion
View the document Discussion
View the document Limitations of the study and comments on the research method
View the document An alternative method
View the document References
close this folder 3. Drowght, food stress, and the flood and rainfall record for Red Sea Province. Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Precipitation In Red Sea Province
View the document Flood and rainfall records: problems and possibilities
View the document A definition of drought
View the document The flood record
View the document Drought and the flood record
View the document The rainfall record
View the document Drought and the rainfall record
View the document Conclusion
View the document Discussion
View the document Limitations of the study
View the document References
View the document Appendix 3.1. Annual floods for nine khors In Red Sea Province and Khor Gash in Kassala Province.
View the document Appendix 3.2. Annual flood 2 scores for nine khors in Red Sea Province and Khor Gash in Kassala Province.
View the document Appendix 3.3. Annual rainfall in mililmetres for 19 gauging stations in eastern region, Sudan.
View the document Appendix 3.4. Annual rainfall z scores for 19 gauging stations in eastern
close this folder 4. Drought, the market, and the impact of food aid in Red Sea Province, 1980 to 1989. Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Drought and the market
View the document Cereals prices
View the document Livestock prices
View the document Cereals and livestock price changes
View the document Conclusion and discussion
View the document The impact of the July change in government on livestock prices
View the document Comments on continued general free food distribution
View the document Limitations of the study
View the document References
close this folder 5. Nutritional status of children in Red Sea Province, November 1985 to November 1987. Mary Cole and Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Methods
View the document Results
View the document Conclusions
View the document Discussion
View the document Future directions.
View the document Appendix 5.1. Data collection form, nutritional surveillance teams, Oxfam
View the document Appendix 5.2. Claasifications of coded variables.
View the document Appendix 5.3. Ecozones in Red Sea Province (from Watson, 1976).
View the document Appendix 5.4. Seasons by month and ecozone, Red Sea Province.
View the document Appendix 5.5. Classification of fled Sea Province into food security zones, 1987.
View the document Appendix 5.6. Locations of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 1.
View the document Appendix 5.7. Names of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 1.
View the document Appendix 5.8. Locations of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 2.
View the document Appendix 5.9. Names of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 2.
View the document Appendix 5.10. Locations of sampled sites. nutritional surveillance cycle 3.
View the document Appendix 5.11. Names of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 3.
View the document Appendix 5.12 Locations of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 4.
View the document Appendix 5.13. Names of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 4.
View the document Appendix 5.14 Locations of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 5.
View the document Appendix 5.15. Names of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 5.
View the document Appendix 5.16. Locations of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 6.
View the document Appendix 5.17. Names of sampled sites, nutritional surveillance cycle 6.
close this folder 6. The nutritional status of children in Red Sea Province, July-October 1989: a supplement to the November 1985-November 1987 results. Mary L. Cole and Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Methods
View the document Results
View the document Conclusions
View the document Discussion
close this folder 7. Land tenure, agricultural labour, drought and food stress in the Gash, Gash Dai and Tokar agricultural areas. Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Production in the Gash and Tokar deltas
View the document The Gash Delta
View the document The Tokar Delta
View the document The schemes and food stress
View the document References
View the document Appendix 7.1: Agricultural districts of the Gash Delta.
View the document Appendix 7.2: Blocks (Muraba'a) of Tokar Delta.
close this folder 8. Changes in tree density on five sites in Red Sea Province: early 1960s to 1989. Roy Cole
View the document Summary
View the document Introduction
View the document Methods used in the study
View the document The study sites
View the document Results
View the document Conclusion
View the document Discussion
View the document Limitation of the study
View the document References
View the document Appendix 10.1. Charcoal dealers by quarter and size class, Port Sudan, August 1988.
View the document Appendix 10.2. Total stock of charcoal per class of dealer by quarter, Port Sudan, August 1988.
View the document Appendix 10.3. Some characteristics of charcoal production and trade.
close this folder 11. Conclusion
View the document Some comments on Oxfam and research
View the document Technical glossary

Conclusions

Unless otherwise specified, conclusions refer to children 75.1-115 cm in height.

1. Gender

a. There was a significantly higher percentage of males than females 75.1115 cm tall in Red Sea Province for both cycles 1-3 and 4-6. There was no significant difference in the proportions of males and females 75 cm or less for cycles 1-3 or 4-6.

b. There was no significant difference between the percentage of males and the percentage of females in each height category over 75 cm either in cycles 1-3 or 4-6.

c. There was no significant difference between the percentage of males and the percentage of females in each percent weight for height class in either cycles 1-3 or 4-6.

d. The mean percent reference median weight for height of females was significantly higher than the mean percent reference median weight for height of males in cycles 4-6, but the difference was so small as to be of little practical significance.

e. There was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished males and the percentage of malnourished females in either cycles 1-3 or 4-6.

f. There was a significantly higher percentage of severely malnourished females than severely malnourished males in cycles 1-3. In cycle 46 there was no significant difference between the percentage of severely malnourished males and the percentage of severely malnourished females. The percentage of severely malnourished females decreased significantly between cycles 1-3 and 4-6, whereas there was no significant change in the percentage of severely malnourished males between cycles 1-3 and 4-6.

2. Province-wide results.

a. The height distribution of children in Red Sea Province changed between cycles 1-3 and 4-6. There was a significantly higher percentage of children under 75 cm in cycles 4-6 than in cycles 1-3, and a significantly lower percentage of children 95.1-105 cm in cycles 4-6 than in cycles 1-3.

b. For both cycles 1-3 and 4-6, the largest percentage of the sample fell into the 80-89.9% weight for height category, with the centre of the distribution towards the upper end of the class.

c. Mean percent reference median weight for height increased significantly between cycles 1-3 and 4-6, while both the percentage of malnourished children and the percentage of severely malnourished children decreased significantly between cycles 1-3 and 4-6.

3. District level results.

a. In cycles 1-3 Derudeb, Haya, Sinkat and South Tokar districts had a percentage of malnourished children above the mean for the province. Halaib district had a percentage of malnourished children equal to the mean for the province, while North Tokar and Rural Port Sudan districts had a percentage of malnourished children below the province mean.

b. Derudeb, Halaib, Sinkat and South Tokar districts all had a significant decrease in the percentage of malnourished children between cycles 1-3 and 4-6. In Haya, North Tokar and Rural Port Sudan districts there was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished children in cycles 1-3 and cycles 4-6.

c. Of those districts with a higher than average percentage of malnourished children in cycles 1-3, only Haya district failed to improve in cycle 4-6. Of those districts with a percentage of malnourished children equal or lower than the average, only Halaib district improved in cycle 4-6.

d. In cycles 4-6 Derudeb and Haya districts had a percentage of malnourished children above the mean for the province. North Tokar, Sinkat and South Tokar districts had a percentage of malnourished children equal to the mean for the province, while Halaib and Rural Port Sudan had a percentage of malnourished children below the province mean.

4. Percentage of malnourished children by height category.

a. Highest rates of malnutrition were seen in the 65.1-75 cm height category in both cycles 1-3 and 4-6.

b. High malnutrition rates were found in children 55.1-65 cm.

c. For children over 75 cm tall, highest rates of malnutrition were seen in the 75.1-85 cm height category.

5. Percentage of malnourished chlidren and seasonality.

a. For the whole of Red Sea Province, the lowest percentage of malnourished children were found in January - April. Highest percentages of malnourished children were found in August and September.

b. When broken down by district, Halaib and Rural Port Sudan districts did not show seasonal fluctuations in the percentage of malnourished children.

6. Percentage of malnourished children by settlement types.

a. There was no significant difference in the percentage of malnourished children in railway towns, towns and rural areas.

b. In cycles 1-3 there was a significantly higher percentage of malnourished children in settlements classed as camps than in all other settlement types. In cycles 4-6 there was no significant difference between the percentage of malnourished children in railway towns, towns, rural areas or camps.

7. Nutritional status and the relief grain ration.

a. There was no correlation between settlement means for percent reference median weight for height and average World Food Programme relief grain ration per family per day.

8. Variation in nutritional status by settlement.

a. The smallest unit of analysis (the settlement) explained 12.9% of the total variance in percent weight for height for cycles 1-6.

9. Comparison of Oxfam nutritional surveillance results with SERISS results.

a. SERISS found consistently better nutritional status but greater variability in nutritional status in Red Sea Province than Oxfam nutritional surveillance teams.

b. SERISS and Oxfam nutritional surveillance had similar findings with respect to the improvement in nutritional status between 1986 and 1987: high risk of malnutrition in weaning age children, and the importance of the village in explaining variation in nutritional status.