A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams |

Contents |

Foreword |

Introduction |

Guidelines for users |

Workshop: tools, equipment, materials |

Hydram construction materials |

Sample worksheet for final materials list |

Suggested schedule for hydram workshop |

Construction of a PVC hydram time: 4-5 hours (for demonstration purposes) |

Attachment A : PVC Hydram - illustration |

Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours) |

Handout 1A: "What's in a name" |

Handout 1B: Hydram Training Workshop Objectives |

Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours) |

Handout 2A: Potential energy |

Handout 2B: Hydram installation |

Handout 2C: Typical hydram |

Handout 2D: Glossary of terms for session 2 |

Handout 2E: Hydram training workshop participant site information |

Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours) |

Handout 3A: Using a Weir |

Handout 3B: Using a Weir - diagram |

Handout 3C: Weir table |

Handout 3C: Weir table - metric |

Handout 3D: The float method of measurement |

Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours) |

Handout 4A: Calibrating a sight level |

Handout 4B: Using a sight level |

Handout 4C: Alternate ways of measuring heads |

Handout 4D: Alternate ways of measuring heads |

Handout 4E: Distance and head measurement worksheet |

Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours) |

Handout 5A: Review exercise #1 |

Handout 5B: Answers to review exercise #1 |

Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour) |

Handout 6A: Pressure analysis |

Handout 6B: Glossary of terms for session 6 |

Handout 2B: Hydram installation |

Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours) |

Handout 7A: Typical fittings |

Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours) |

Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves |

Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves |

Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram |

Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours) |

Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches |

Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric |

Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing |

Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric |

Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches |

Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric |

Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches |

Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric |

Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches |

Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric |

Handout 9A-1: Welded hydram: side view |

Handout 9A-2: Welded hydram: exploded view |

Handout 9A-3: Welded hydram: impulse cavity exploded view |

Handout 9A-4: Welded hydram: accumulator: exploded view |

Handout 9A-5: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions |

Handout 9A-7: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions |

Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period) |

Handout 10A: Concrete hydram design parameters |

Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches |

Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric |

Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - inches |

Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric |

Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches |

Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric |

Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches |

Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric |

Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches |

Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric |

Handout 10H: Exploded view of 2- piece concrete hydram |

Handout 10I: Side view 2-piece concrete hydram |

Handout 10J: Two piece concrete hydram form |

Handout 10K: Two piece concrete hydram |

Handout 10L: One Piece Concrete Hydram Form |

Handout 10M: Problem |

Handout 10N: Materials and procedures |

Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours) |

Handout 11A: Typical impulse valve |

Handout 11B: Typical check valves |

Handout 11C: Typical snifters |

Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours) |

Handout 12A - Hydram comparison |

Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours) |

Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of: |

Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency |

Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio |

Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered |

Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency |

Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency |

Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency |

Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency |

Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency |

Handout 13B: Typical hydram experiment set-up |

Handout 13C: Sample graphs |

Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours) |

Handout 14A: Repair and maintenance chart |

Handout 14 B: Repair and maintenance worksheet |

Handout 14 C: Maintenance/service worksheet |

Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours) |

Handout 15A: Review exercise |

Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours) |

Handout 16A: Series hydram installation |

Handout 16B: Waste water series hydram installation |

Handout 16C: Parallel hydrams |

Handout 16D: Sample problems |

Session 17: Site development (2 hours) |

Handout 17A: Settling area - take-off system |

Handout 17B: Hydram box |

Handout 17C: Guidelines/checklist |

Handout 17D: Site development |

Handout 17E: Glossary of terms |

Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours) |

Handout 18A: Hydram system site selection |

Handout 18B: Diagram system for site selection |

Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours) |

Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours) |

Glossary of terms |

English-metric units conversion table |

References |

Attachments |

Attachment 1-A |

Attachment 1-B |

Attachment 2-A |

Attachment 2-B |

Attachment 2-C |

Attachment 2-D |

Attachment 2-E |

Attachment 3-A |

Attachment 3-B |

Attachment 3-C |

Attachment 3-C - metric |

Attachment 3-D |

Attachment 4-A |

Attachment 4-B |

Attachment 4-C |

Attachment 4-D |

Attachment 5-A |

Attachment 5-B |

Attachment 6-A |

Attachment 6-B |

Attachment 2-B |

Attachment 7-A |

Attachment 8-A |

Attachment 8-B |

Attachment 8-C |

Attachment 10-B |

Attachment 10B - metric |

Attachment 10-C |

Attachment 10-C - metric |

Attachment 10-D |

Attachment 10-D - metric |

Attachment 10-E |

Attachment 10-E - metric |

Attachment 10-F |

Attachment 10-F - metric |

Attachment 9-A-1 |

Attachment 9-A-2 |

Attachment 9-A-3 |

Attachment 9-A-4 |

Attachment 9-A-5 |

Attachment 9-A-7 |

Attachment 10-A |

Attachment 10-H |

Attachment 10-I |

Attachment 10-J |

Attachment 10-L |

Attachment 10-M |

Attachment 10-N |

Attachment 11-A |

Attachment 11-B |

Attachment 11-C |

Attachment 12-A |

Attachment 13-A |

Attachment 13-B |

Attachment 13-C |

Attachment 14-A |

Attachment 14-B |

Attachment 14-C |

Attachment 15-A |

Attachment 16-A |

Attachment 16-B |

Attachment 16-C |

Attachment 16-D |

Attachment 17-A |

Attachment 17-B |

Attachment 17-C |

Attachment 17-D |

Attachment 17-E |

Attachment 18-A |

Attachment 18-B |

Attachment - Glossary of terms |

Attachment - English-metric units conversion table |

**The float method of measurement**

**Session 3, Handout 3D**

**The float method of measurement is a simple procedure for obtaining a rough estimate of the flow of the stream. It will give a ball park figure for looking at the stream's potential. It should not be used for final determination of the hydram system to be used unless the flow rate needed for the ram is such a small percentage of the stream's total flow that what's taken from the stream, for all practical purposes, amounts to a minimal portion of the stream.**

**The float method is based upon two aspects of the stream: it's cross-sectional area and the velocity of the stream. The cross-sectional area should be determined at some accessible spot in the stream, preferably in the middle of a straight run. Measure the width (w) of the stream. Then, using a stick, measure the depth at equal intervals across the width of the stream (see figure below). Record the depth at each interval and calculate the average depth (d). Now multiply the width (w) by the average depth (d) to get the cross-sectional area (A).**

The float method of measurement

**Example: The width of a stream, at the point of making depth measurements, is 4 feet. The average depth is 1.1 feet. Therefore, the cross-sectional area (A) is:**

**A = w x d**

**A = 4 feet x 1.1 feet**

**A = 4.4 square feet**

**The stream velocity can be determined by choosing a straight stretch of water at least 30 feet long with the sides approximately parallel and the bed unobstructed by rocks, branches or other obstacles. Mark off points along the stream. On a windless day, place something that floats in midstream, upstream of the first marker. A capped bottle partially filled with water works well because it lies with a portion of the bottle submerged and doesn't just ride the surface of the water. Carefully time the number of seconds it takes the float to pass from the first marker to the second. Repeat this process several times and average the results.**

**Example: The average time for a float to travel between two markers placed 30 feet apart is 30 seconds. The velocity (V) of the float is therefore:**

**V = 30 feet**

**30 seconds**

**V = 1 foot/second**

**V = 60 feet/minute**

**The flow rate of the stream can now be calculated by multiplying the cross-sectional area (A) by the stream velocity (V). The usable flow (F) can then be determined by multiplying the stream flow rate by a fraction representing the portion of the stream flow that you can or want to use.**

**Example: If you will be using 25% of the stream flow, the usable flow (F) is:**

**F = A x V x .25**

**F = 4.4 square feet x 60 feet/minute x .25**

**F = 66 cubic feet per minute**

**This flow in cubic feet per minute can then be converted to the appropriate units by multiplying by the correct conversion factor: cubic feet/min x 7.48 = gallons/min cubic feet/min x 28.3 = liters/min**

**SOURCE: Micro-Hydro Power, National Center for Appropriate Technology (1979).**