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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
View the document Contents
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
close this folder Guidelines for users
View the document Workshop: tools, equipment, materials
View the document Hydram construction materials
View the document Sample worksheet for final materials list
View the document Suggested schedule for hydram workshop
close this folder Construction of a PVC hydram time: 4-5 hours (for demonstration purposes)
View the document Attachment A : PVC Hydram - illustration
close this folder Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 1A: "What's in a name"
View the document Handout 1B: Hydram Training Workshop Objectives
close this folder Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
View the document Handout 2A: Potential energy
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
View the document Handout 2C: Typical hydram
View the document Handout 2D: Glossary of terms for session 2
View the document Handout 2E: Hydram training workshop participant site information
close this folder Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
View the document Handout 3A: Using a Weir
View the document Handout 3B: Using a Weir - diagram
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table - metric
View the document Handout 3D: The float method of measurement
close this folder Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 4A: Calibrating a sight level
View the document Handout 4B: Using a sight level
View the document Handout 4C: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4D: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4E: Distance and head measurement worksheet
close this folder Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 5A: Review exercise #1
View the document Handout 5B: Answers to review exercise #1
close this folder Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
View the document Handout 6A: Pressure analysis
View the document Handout 6B: Glossary of terms for session 6
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
close this folder Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 7A: Typical fittings
close this folder Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
View the document Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves
View the document Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves
View the document Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram
close this folder Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 9A-1: Welded hydram: side view
View the document Handout 9A-2: Welded hydram: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-3: Welded hydram: impulse cavity exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-4: Welded hydram: accumulator: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-5: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
View the document Handout 9A-7: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
close this folder Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
View the document Handout 10A: Concrete hydram design parameters
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - inches
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10H: Exploded view of 2- piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10I: Side view 2-piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10J: Two piece concrete hydram form
View the document Handout 10K: Two piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10L: One Piece Concrete Hydram Form
View the document Handout 10M: Problem
View the document Handout 10N: Materials and procedures
close this folder Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 11A: Typical impulse valve
View the document Handout 11B: Typical check valves
View the document Handout 11C: Typical snifters
close this folder Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
View the document Handout 12A - Hydram comparison
close this folder Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
close this folder Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
View the document Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency
View the document Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio
View the document Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered
View the document Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency
View the document Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency
View the document Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency
View the document Handout 13B: Typical hydram experiment set-up
View the document Handout 13C: Sample graphs
close this folder Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 14A: Repair and maintenance chart
View the document Handout 14 B: Repair and maintenance worksheet
View the document Handout 14 C: Maintenance/service worksheet
close this folder Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 15A: Review exercise
close this folder Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 16A: Series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16B: Waste water series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16C: Parallel hydrams
View the document Handout 16D: Sample problems
close this folder Session 17: Site development (2 hours)
View the document Handout 17A: Settling area - take-off system
View the document Handout 17B: Hydram box
View the document Handout 17C: Guidelines/checklist
View the document Handout 17D: Site development
View the document Handout 17E: Glossary of terms
close this folder Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 18A: Hydram system site selection
View the document Handout 18B: Diagram system for site selection
View the document Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the document Glossary of terms
View the document English-metric units conversion table
View the document References
close this folder Attachments
View the document Attachment 1-A
View the document Attachment 1-B
View the document Attachment 2-A
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 2-C
View the document Attachment 2-D
View the document Attachment 2-E
View the document Attachment 3-A
View the document Attachment 3-B
View the document Attachment 3-C
View the document Attachment 3-C - metric
View the document Attachment 3-D
View the document Attachment 4-A
View the document Attachment 4-B
View the document Attachment 4-C
View the document Attachment 4-D
View the document Attachment 5-A
View the document Attachment 5-B
View the document Attachment 6-A
View the document Attachment 6-B
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 7-A
View the document Attachment 8-A
View the document Attachment 8-B
View the document Attachment 8-C
View the document Attachment 10-B
View the document Attachment 10B - metric
View the document Attachment 10-C
View the document Attachment 10-C - metric
View the document Attachment 10-D
View the document Attachment 10-D - metric
View the document Attachment 10-E
View the document Attachment 10-E - metric
View the document Attachment 10-F
View the document Attachment 10-F - metric
View the document Attachment 9-A-1
View the document Attachment 9-A-2
View the document Attachment 9-A-3
View the document Attachment 9-A-4
View the document Attachment 9-A-5
View the document Attachment 9-A-7
View the document Attachment 10-A
View the document Attachment 10-H
View the document Attachment 10-I
View the document Attachment 10-J
View the document Attachment 10-L
View the document Attachment 10-M
View the document Attachment 10-N
View the document Attachment 11-A
View the document Attachment 11-B
View the document Attachment 11-C
View the document Attachment 12-A
View the document Attachment 13-A
View the document Attachment 13-B
View the document Attachment 13-C
View the document Attachment 14-A
View the document Attachment 14-B
View the document Attachment 14-C
View the document Attachment 15-A
View the document Attachment 16-A
View the document Attachment 16-B
View the document Attachment 16-C
View the document Attachment 16-D
View the document Attachment 17-A
View the document Attachment 17-B
View the document Attachment 17-C
View the document Attachment 17-D
View the document Attachment 17-E
View the document Attachment 18-A
View the document Attachment 18-B
View the document Attachment - Glossary of terms
View the document Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

Attachment 3-D

The float method of measurement

Session 3, Handout 3D

The float method of measurement is a simple procedure for obtaining a rough estimate of the flow of the stream. It will give a ball park figure for looking at the stream's potential. It should not be used for final determination of the hydram system to be used unless the flow rate needed for the ram is such a small percentage of the stream's total flow that what's taken from the stream, for all practical purposes, amounts to a minimal portion of the stream.

The float method is based upon two aspects of the stream: it's cross-sectional area and the velocity of the stream. The cross-sectional area should be determined at some accessible spot in the stream, preferably in the middle of a straight run. Measure the width (w) of the stream. Then, using a stick, measure the depth at equal intervals across the width of the stream (see figure below). Record the depth at each interval and calculate the average depth (d). Now multiply the width (w) by the average depth (d) to get the cross-sectional area (A).


The float method of measurement

Example: The width of a stream, at the point of making depth measurements, is 4 feet. The average depth is 1.1 feet. Therefore, the cross-sectional area (A) is:

A = w x d

A = 4 feet x 1.1 feet

A = 4.4 square feet

The stream velocity can be determined by choosing a straight stretch of water at least 30 feet long with the sides approximately parallel and the bed unobstructed by rocks, branches or other obstacles. Mark off points along the stream. On a windless day, place something that floats in midstream, upstream of the first marker. A capped bottle partially filled with water works well because it lies with a portion of the bottle submerged and doesn't just ride the surface of the water. Carefully time the number of seconds it takes the float to pass from the first marker to the second. Repeat this process several times and average the results.

Example: The average time for a float to travel between two markers placed 30 feet apart is 30 seconds. The velocity (V) of the float is therefore:

V = 30 feet

30 seconds

V = 1 foot/second

V = 60 feet/minute

The flow rate of the stream can now be calculated by multiplying the cross-sectional area (A) by the stream velocity (V). The usable flow (F) can then be determined by multiplying the stream flow rate by a fraction representing the portion of the stream flow that you can or want to use.

Example: If you will be using 25% of the stream flow, the usable flow (F) is:

F = A x V x .25

F = 4.4 square feet x 60 feet/minute x .25

F = 66 cubic feet per minute

This flow in cubic feet per minute can then be converted to the appropriate units by multiplying by the correct conversion factor: cubic feet/min x 7.48 = gallons/min cubic feet/min x 28.3 = liters/min

SOURCE: Micro-Hydro Power, National Center for Appropriate Technology (1979).