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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
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View the document Attachment - Glossary of terms
View the document Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

Attachments

Attachment 1-A


A PVC hydram

What's in a name

Session 1, Handout 1A

Our names are one of the most distinguishing characteristics of who we are. Share with the group some of the reasons why your name is special.

Some things you might wish to share:

• Do you like your name? Why or why not?

• How did you get your first name?

• Does your name(s) have any meaning?

• What is the origin of your last name?

• Famous (or infamous) ancestors?

• Funny stories, incidents related to your name?

• Anything else you may wish to share.

Hydram training workshop objectives

Attachment 1-B

Session 1, Handout 1B

By the end of the training program, you will be able to:

• survey and evaluate sites for potential hydram projects;

• articulate and apply hydram theory;

• use correctly, basic water measurement techniques and formulas for proper sizing of hydrams;

• select proper ram design and size;

• develop a water source site for hydram operations;

• design water distribution system including storage tank, stand pipes, supply lines, etc.;

• construct a pipefitting and/or cement hydram; e maintain, troubleshoot and repair hydrams;

• train local community members in the installation , operation and maintenance of hydrams; and

• identity physical, social and institutional requirements or the above.

Attachment 2-A

Session 2, Handout 2A


Introduction to hydrams

Attachment 2-B

Session 2 & 6, Handout 2B


Hydram installation

Attachment 2-C

Session 2, Handout 2C


Typical hydram

Attachment 2-D

Session 2, Handout 2D

Glossary of terms for session 2

Accumulator - (air dome) the air chamber on the hydram which cushions the water hammer, eliminating delivery pulsations and helps provide rebound.

Check Valve - (non-return valve, secondary valve, internal valve) the internal valve in the hydram that prevents the delivery head pressure from forcing water back through the hydram body.

Delivery head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the storage tank that the hydram is pumping to.

Delivery pipe - the pipe which connects the output of the hydram to the storage tank.

Drive head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the supply system.

Drive pipe - a rigid pipe usually made of galvanized steel that connects the hydram to the source reservoir or stand pipe.

Efficiency - (n) the ratio of the energy input to the energy output; a measure of how well a hydram functions;




Frequency - (f) the number of times a hydram cycles in one minute.

Hydram - (hydraulic ram, hydraulic ram pump, automatic hydraulic ram pump, ram) an ingenious device that uses the force of water falling through a drive pipe to pump water to a height greater than its source, making use of hydraulic principles and requiring no fuel.

Impulse Valve - (clack valve, out-side valve, impetus valve, waste valve) the valve on the hydram that creates and controls the water hammer.

Potential energy - energy derived from position or height; is equal to the height that a mass can fall times its weight.

Rebound - the flow of water in the ram reversing direction due to the air pressure in the accumulator, closing the check valve.

Settling basin - a small tank usually made of steel or concrete that is used in place of a stand pipe in an installation where additional settling is necessary.

Snifter valve - (air valve, spit valve) the small valve just below the check valve that allows air to enter the hydram.

Spring box - a concrete box built around a spring to facilitate water collection and to protect the water source from surface contaminates.

Stand pipe - an open-ended, vertical pipe sometimes used at the beginning of the drive pipe.

Supply pipe - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some but not necessarily all of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.

Waste water - (Qw) the water coming out of the impulse valve and the snifter.

Water delivered - (q) the rate at which water is delivered to the storage tank;




Water flow to the hydram - (Q.) all the water used by a hydram which is equal to the waste water (Qw) plus the water delivered (q)

Water hammer - the effect created when water flowing through a pipe is suddenly stopped. In a hydram this causes the closing of the impulse valve and opening of check valve.

 

Hydram training workshop participant site information

Attachment 2-E

Session 2, Handout 2E

Hydram installations are extremely site specific. Although it's a simple technology, it does require being properly designed and sized based upon particular characteristics of the site. It also requires a certain amount of follow-up and maintenance. In order to maximize your learning during the workshop, please begin to gather the following information. (You don't have to have all of the information prior to the workshop, but it will help if you begin to consider these factors at your site.)

1. What water sources are available?

2. What kinds of water systems are presently being used? Who is responsible for maintaining the systems?

3. What are the present patterns of water use in your community? (e.g. potable water, irrigating home garden plots)

4. What is the proposed purpose for the hydram installation?

5. What kinds of skills and resources are presently available to support a hydram installation?

- Community history of cooperative work on projects?

- As existing community water distribution system?

- Facilities and craftspeople in or near the community with metalworking, plumbing, and masonry capabilities? Vocational technical schools, public works?

6. How do you rate your present knowledge/experience about water systems, pumps, hydrams? What do you need to refresh, what do you need to know?

7. If you have a site in mind for a hydram, can you find out:

a. approximate flow rate of the water source (gallons/minute)

b. approximate "drive head,. i.e., vertical distance from water source to where hydram will be installed?

c. approximate "delivery head, " i.e., vertical pumping distance from ram to point of delivery?

d. amount of water desired/required? (gallons/day)

NOTE: During the workshop, you will learn simple measuring techniques; knowing this information beforehand allows one to design a site specific ram during the workshop with guidance from the training staff.

Please bring this sheet with you to the workshop. If it's easier to sketch your situation, feel free to do so.

Attachment 3-A

Using a weir

Session 3, Handout 3A

A weir may be defined as an overflow structure built across an open channel, usually to measure the rate of flow of water. Weirs are acceptable measuring devices because, for a weir of a specific size and shape (installed under proper conditions) only one depth of water can exist in the upstream pool for a given discharge. The discharge rates are determined by measuring the vertical distance from the crest of the overflow portion of the weir to the water surface in the pool upstream from the crest, and referring to tables which apply to the size and shape of the weir. For standard tables to apply, the weir must have a regular shape, definite dimensions, and be set in a bulkhead and pool of adequate size so the system performs in a standard manner.

Whenever the flow from a creek is too great to be measured in a bucket ant yet is small enough to be dammed by a board, the weir method of measurement should be used.

Determine the dimensions to be used for the weir notch. The width of this notch is related to the measurement of the flow rate by the height of the water in the pool formed behind the weir. This height is measured in inches and by using a weir table, the inches can be converted to gallons per minute. A number of notches of different widths and height can accommodate a stream's flow. A rule of thumb is to make the width of the notch 3 times the height.

From your estimate of the flow of the stream, look at the weir table and guesstimate what size notch will accommodate your flow. Keep in mind that the whole stream must pass over the notch end that the pool formed behind the weir should become deep enough for you to easily get a decent height measurement, i.e., 2½" vis a vis 1/16". Example: you estimate the stream is flowing at 150 gal/mint If you made a notch 12" wide and 4" high, at full flow this weir would read approximately 290 gal/mint (4"-- 23.936 gal/mint x 12" = 286.89 gal/min). This weir would fit your stream if an actual weir reading of 28½" water height were obtained, it would indicate a flow rate of 11.818 gal/min/inch of notch or 141.8 gal/min (11.818 x 12") for the stream.

Once you have determined the dimension of the notch, cut the notch in the board and place the weir board in the stream making certain that it is kept level and seal off the stream completely. Support it with stakes and large rocks.

Measure 2 feet upstream from the weir board and drive a stake. Using a level, put a mark on the stake even with the top of the weir board. Next, measure down from this mark to the water level, subtract this measurement from the depth of your notch and that will give you the height of the water level above the bottom of the weir notch.

Using the weir table attached, locate the integer on the Left hand column and the fraction on the top column. Where these two rows intersect is the amount of gallons per minute flowing past the weir for every inch of width. Next multiply this figure by the width and this gives you the total flow of the creek.

Example:

Water is flowing through a creek three feet wide and about 3 inches deep. It looks like about 30 gallons per minute. After looking at the weir table we decide that a notch 6" wide and 2" deep would probably work. After cutting the notch in a 4 foot 1x6 piece of lumber, the weir board was placed in the stream. Two feet upstream a stake is driven in the water in front of the notch. A level is used to place a mark on the stake level with the top of the weir board. The water level is then measured to be 1" down from this mark.

We now know by subtracting this measurement from the depth of the notch that the water level is 1½" above the bottom of the notch. Now looking at the weir table we find 1 on the left hand column and ½ on the top row. These two rows meet at 5.46. We multiply this by the width of the notch (6") to find that the flow rate was 32.26 gallons per minute.

Attachment 3-B

Using a "weir" to measure large quantities of water

Session 3, Handout 3B


Using a "weir" to measure large quantities of water

Attachment 3-C

Weir table

Session 3, Handout 3C

Height of water above weir notch in inches

 

0

1/8

1/4

3/7

1/2

5/6

¾

7/8

0

000

.0748

.374

.673

1.047

1.421

1.945

2.394

1

2.992

3.516

4.114

4.787

5.46

6.134

6.882

7.63

2

8.452

9.2

10.098

10.92

11.818

12.716

13.614

14.586

3

15.484

16.531

17.503

18.55

19.523

20.645

21.692

22.814

4

23.936

25.058

26.18

27.377

28.499

29.696

30.967

32.164

5

33.436

34.707

35.979

37.25

38.522

39.868

41/215

42.561

6

43.908

45.329

46.75

48.171

49.518

51.014

52/435

53.931

7

55.352

56.848

58.344

59.915

61.411

62.982

64.552

66.048

8

67.694

69.265

70.836

72.481

74.127

75.772

77.418

79.064

9

80.784

82.504

84.15

85.87

87.591

89.311

91.032

92.827

10

94 547

96.342

98.138

99.933

101.73

103.6

105.393

107.263

Attachment 3-C - metric

Weir table - metric

Session 3, Handout 3C

Flow rate per inch of weir notch in gal/min.

 

0

3.2

6.35

9.5

12.7

15.9

19.

22.2

0

0

.283

1.415

2.547

3.963

5.379

7.362

9.062

25.4

11.3

13.3

15.573

18.12

20.668

23.219

26.051

28.882

50.8

31.994

34.825

38.225

41.336

44.735

48.135

51.534

55.214

76.2

58.613

62.577

66.256

70.219

73.902

78.150

82.113

83.332

101.6

90.608

94.855

99.102

103.633

107.88

112.412

117.223

121.754

127

126.57

131.380

136.195

141.007

145.822

150.913

156.016

161.111

152.9

166.21

171.589

176.968

182.347

187.446

193.109

198.488

204.151

177.8

209.53

215.193

220.856

226.803

232.466

238.413

244.356

250.019

203.2

256.25

262.197

268.143

274.37

280.601

286.828

293.059

299.29

228.6

305.8

312.312

318.542

325.053

331.568

338.08

344.594

351.388

254

357.899

364.694

371.493

378.288

385.09

392.169

398.956

406.035

Attachment 3-D

The float method of measurement

Session 3, Handout 3D

The float method of measurement is a simple procedure for obtaining a rough estimate of the flow of the stream. It will give a ball park figure for looking at the stream's potential. It should not be used for final determination of the hydram system to be used unless the flow rate needed for the ram is such a small percentage of the stream's total flow that what's taken from the stream, for all practical purposes, amounts to a minimal portion of the stream.

The float method is based upon two aspects of the stream: it's cross-sectional area and the velocity of the stream. The cross-sectional area should be determined at some accessible spot in the stream, preferably in the middle of a straight run. Measure the width (w) of the stream. Then, using a stick, measure the depth at equal intervals across the width of the stream (see figure below). Record the depth at each interval and calculate the average depth (d). Now multiply the width (w) by the average depth (d) to get the cross-sectional area (A).


The float method of measurement

Example: The width of a stream, at the point of making depth measurements, is 4 feet. The average depth is 1.1 feet. Therefore, the cross-sectional area (A) is:

A = w x d

A = 4 feet x 1.1 feet

A = 4.4 square feet

The stream velocity can be determined by choosing a straight stretch of water at least 30 feet long with the sides approximately parallel and the bed unobstructed by rocks, branches or other obstacles. Mark off points along the stream. On a windless day, place something that floats in midstream, upstream of the first marker. A capped bottle partially filled with water works well because it lies with a portion of the bottle submerged and doesn't just ride the surface of the water. Carefully time the number of seconds it takes the float to pass from the first marker to the second. Repeat this process several times and average the results.

Example: The average time for a float to travel between two markers placed 30 feet apart is 30 seconds. The velocity (V) of the float is therefore:

V = 30 feet

30 seconds

V = 1 foot/second

V = 60 feet/minute

The flow rate of the stream can now be calculated by multiplying the cross-sectional area (A) by the stream velocity (V). The usable flow (F) can then be determined by multiplying the stream flow rate by a fraction representing the portion of the stream flow that you can or want to use.

Example: If you will be using 25% of the stream flow, the usable flow (F) is:

F = A x V x .25

F = 4.4 square feet x 60 feet/minute x .25

F = 66 cubic feet per minute

This flow in cubic feet per minute can then be converted to the appropriate units by multiplying by the correct conversion factor: cubic feet/min x 7.48 = gallons/min cubic feet/min x 28.3 = liters/min

SOURCE: Micro-Hydro Power, National Center for Appropriate Technology (1979).

Attachment 4-A

Calibrating a sight level

Session 4, Handout 4A


Calibrating a sight level

To Find Out If The Sight Level Needs To Be Calibrated, Sight From Point "A" On Tree (Of Object #One) To Tree (Object #Two) And Make A Mark, Point "B". Then Sight From Point "B" Back To Original Tree (Object #One) And Make A Mark At This Point "C". If The Sight Level Is Properly Calibrated Points "A" And "C" Should Be The Same And At The Same Level As Point "B". If They Are Different, The Point Midway Between "A" And "C" (Point "D") Should Be Level With "B". Calibrate Your Sight Level To This Line.

Attachment 4-B

Using a sight level

Session 4, Handout 4B


Using a sight level

Attachment 4-C

Alternate ways of measuring heads

Session 4, Handout 4C


Alternate ways of measuring heads

Attachment 4-D

Alternate ways of measuring heads

Session 4, Handout 4D


Alternate ways of measuring heads

Distance and head measurement worksheet

Session 4, Handout 4E

 

COURSE 1

COURSE 2

COURSE 3

WATER

 

DISTANCE

M

HEAD

M

DISTANCE

M

HEAD

M

DISTANCE

M

HEAD

M

BUCKET FLOAT WEIR

SUBGROUP A

small group 1

 

Ta

 

S

 

C

 

H

 

P

 

Tr

 

small group 2

 

C

 

H

 

P

 

Tr

 

Ta

 

S

 

small group 3

 

P

 

Tr

 

Ta

 

S

 

C

 

H

 

SUBGROUP B

small group 1

 

Ta

 

S

 

C

 

H

 

P

 

Tr

 

small group 2

 

C

 

H

 

P

 

Tr

 

Ta

 

S

 

small group 3

 

P

 

Tr

 

Ta

 

S

 

C

 

H

 

SUBGROUP C

small group 1

 

Ta

 

S

 

C

 

H

 

P

 

Tr

 

small group 2

 

C

 

H

 

P

 

Tr

 

Ta

 

S

 

small group 3

 

P

 

Tr

 

Ta

 

S

 

C

 

H

 

Method =

M

Distance:

Tape = Ta

 

Cord = C

 

Pace = P

Head:

Sight = S

 

Hose = H

 

Triangle = Tr

Attachment 5-A

Review Exercise 1

Session 5, Handout 5A

Name:______________________________________________________________________

1. How does a Hydram work? ___________________________________________________

2. In a hydram installation where the hydram is located 20 feet below the spring box, how much water could be pumped in a day to a storage tank 100 feet above the springs'' box if the spring is flowing 10 gpm and the hydram efficiency is 50%?______________________________________

3. What is the flow rate in gpm through a weir, four inches wide, when the water level is 5 3/8" above the bottom of the weir slot when measured two feet upstream?_______________________

4. What is the height of your eye level? _____________________________________________ _____________________

5. What is the length of your pace? _________________________________________________ _____________________

Attachment 5-B

Answers to Review Exercise #1

Session 5, Handout 5B

1. The hydram is located below the source of water and is used to pump the water to a storage tank which is higher than the source. The water accelerates as it flows down hill through the drive pipe and out the impulse valve until it reaches such a velocity as to slam the impulse valve shut. This causes a water hammer effect, forcing water and a few air bubbles sucked in through the snifter from the previous cycle, through the check valve and into the accumulator filled with air. This movement of water into the accumulator causes the air to compress until the forward momentum is stopped. At this point the water in the accumulator bounces back because of the spring effect of the air in the accumulator. This rebound in the opposite direction causes the check valve to suddenly close, causing negative pressure in the hydram before the check valve. Because of this negative pressure, air is sucked in through the snifter and the impulse valve is caused to open again at which point water starts exiting through the impulse valve and the cycle starts again.

2.

H - 20

h = 100 + 20 = 120

Q = 10

n = .50

q = Q x H/h x n

q = 10 x 20/120 x .50 = 0.8333 gpm

0.8333 gpm x 1440 min / day = 1200 gpd



3. 5 3/8" on the weir table is 37.25 gpm.

This times four equals 149 gpm.

4. Any answer within reason is OK.

5. Any answer within reason is OK.

Attachment 6-A

Pressure analysis


Pressure analysis

Attachment 6-B

Glossary of terms for session 6

Atmospheric pressure - the pressure at sea level caused by the weight of air; atmospheric pressure = 14.7 psia, and 0 psig

Force - (delivery to drive head ratio) the ratio of lift to fall. The inverse of this ratio times the efficiency of the hydram will determine the percentage of water that the hydram will pump. The higher the h:H ratio, the lower the hydram efficiency (n). The usual range of the h:H ratio is from 2:1 to 20:1, but h:H ratios have been measured up to 60:1.

Hydram capacity - the maximum amount of water that a hydram can use. This is determined by the drive pipe size and length, the drive head, and the impulse valve size and design.

Impulse valve stroke - the distance the impulse valve travels during a cycle.

Impulse valve weight - the total weight or downward force of the impulse valve and its springs or weights.

Kinetic energy - active energy, ½ the mass times the velocity squared

Ek = ½ mv²

Pressure - force applied over a surface measured as force per unit of area such as pounds per square inch (psi) (a head of 28" of water develops a pressure of 1 psi) or a pascal (Pa) which is equal to 1 newton per square meter (a head of 1 cm = 98 Pa) 28" of water equals 71.1 cm of water equals 1 psi = 6895 Pa.

psia - (pounds per square inch absolute) the total real pressure as if the atmospheric pressure is not present. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 psi, so if a pressure gauge reads 100 psi (psig) the absolute pressure is 114.7 psia.

psig - (pounds per square inch gauge) the pressure that a gauge reads, actually the pressure above atmospheric.

Static head - a column of water without motion. The static drive head of a hydram can be measured with a pressure gauge but only when the ram is stopped and the drive pipe is full of water.

Time of cycle - (t) the time it takes for a hydram to complete one cycle, such as the time lapse between the impulse valve closing twice.

Velocity - speed usually measured in feet per second or meters per second.

Water used - (Q.) the amount of water that flows through the drive pipe during a unit of time (as in gallons per minute or liters per second) which is equal to the water pumped (q) plus the water wasted (Qw)

The flow rate range of hydrams are as follows:

Drive pipe diameter

Flow rate

mm

in

U.S.

gal/min

Imperial

gal/min

liters/min

19

3/4

0.8

2

0.6

1.7

2.8

7.6

25

1

1.5

4

1.3

3.3

5.7

15.0

32

1.5

7

1.3

5.8

5.7

26.0

38

2.5

13

2.0

10.8

9.4

49.0

50

2

6.0

20

5.0

17.0

23.0

76.0

63

10.0

45

8.0

38.0

38.0

170.0

75

3

15.0

50

13.0

42.0

57.0

189.0

100

4

30.0

125

25.0

104.0

113.0

473.0

125

5

40.0

150

33.0

125.0

151.0

567.0

Determining Drive Pipe Length, L:

1. Consider drive head, H

L:H ratio - drive pipe length to head ratio, when H is less than 15 ft. (4.5m) L:H should equal 6.

When H is greater than 15 ft (4.5m), but less than 25' (8m) L:H should equal 4.

When H is greater than 28 ft. (8m), but less than 50' (16m) L:H should equal 3.

When H is greater than 50 ft. (16m) L:H ratio should equal 2.

2. Consider drive pipe diameter, D

L:D ratio - drive pipe length to diameter ratio, should be kept between 150 and 1000.

A rule of thumb: maximum number of pipe lengths = 4D

(based on chart below, and 21' pipe length)

Optimal number of pipe lenghts = 2D

D

L = 150D

L = 500D

L = 1000D

No of pipes

½"

6.25

20.8

41.6

2

3/4"

9.3

31.25

62.5

3

1"

12.5

41.6

83.2

4

1½"

15.6

52.0

104.0

5

1½"

18.6

62.5

125.0

6

2

25.0

83.2

166.4

8

Attachment 2-B


Hydram installation

DEFINITION OF VARIABLES

D = Diameter of Drive Pipe d = Diameter of Delivery Pipe

H = Head of Drive Pipe

h = Head of Delivery Pipe

L = Length of Drive Pipe

l = Length of the Delivery Pipe

Q = Quantity of Water Entering

q = Quantity of Water Delivered Hydram

n = efficiency

Qw = Quantity of Water Wasted from Impulse Valve

S = Length of the Impulse Valve Stroke

F = Frequency of the Impulse Valve Stroke

W = Weight of the Impulse Valve

 

Attachment 7-A

Session 7, Handout 7A


PLUG


REDUCING BUSHING


CAP


UNION


90° STREET ELBOW


90° ELBOW


45° STREET ELBOW


45° ELBOW


COUPLING


BELL REDUCER


CROSS


TEE


EXTENSION PIECE


FLOOR FLANGE


REDUCING TEE (AxBxC)


NIPPLE

Attachment 8-A

Session 8, Handout 8A


Pipe fitting hydram with modified factory valves

1. 1" Nipple

2. 3" PVC Pipe (clear)

3. 1"x1"x½" Tee

4. 2"x1" Reducing Bushing

5. 3"x1" Reducing Bushing

6. 1" 90 Sweep

7. 1" Union

8. ¼" Union

9. ¼" Nipple

10. ¼" Gate Valve

11. 2" Foot Valve

12. 1" Check Valve with taped holes

13. %" Plug

14. 1/8" Gas Cock

15. Assorted Washers

16. 3" PVC Female Adapter

17. 3" PVC Cap

Attachment 8-B

Session 8, Handout 8B


Pipe fitting hydram with field-made valves

1. 3" cap

11. ½-20x4" piece of althread or bolt with 1/8" hole in it

20. check valve rubber

2. 3"x18" nipple

12. 2½" diameter washer

21. 8-32x3/4" screws

3. 3" tee

13. 1½" or smaller washers

22. stroke adjustment

4. 3"x1" reducing bushing

14. impulse valve plate

bracket

5. 3"x½" reducing bushing

15. impulse valve rubber

23. 8-32x3/4"

6. ½"x4" nipple

16. ¼-20 nuts

24. \-20x3/4" bolt

7. 1" 90 sweep

17. \-20x\" bolt

25. 1½" washer

8. 1" ¼-20 bolt (drilled out)

18. ¼-20 nuts

26. 3/8-16 nuts (4)

9. 1" nipple

19. 3/4" washer

27. 3/8-16 althread

10. ¼-20 nut

   

Attachment 8-C

Session 8, Handout 8C

Materials needed for fabricated pipe-fitting hydram

Handouts 9-B,

30" 3/8-16 althread

pipe joint compound or TFE tape

4 3/8-16 nuts

1 3" cap

1 ¼-20xl" bolt (drilled out)

2 3" tees

1 ¼-20 x 3/4" bolt

3 3"x 1" reducing bushings

- 1 ¼-20 x 4" althread

1 3"x ½" reducing bushing

1 2½" OD washer

1 3"x 18" nipple

6 1½" OD washer

1 ¼" x 4" nipple

4 ¼-20 nuts

1 1" 90° sweep

1 3/4" OD washer

6"x 8"x ¼" sheet rubber

5 8-32 x 3/4" screws

6"x 6"x ¼" steel plate

2 8-32 x 3/4" bolts

3"x 1"x 1/8" angle iron

 

Tools needed for fabricated pipe-fitting hydram

two pipe wrenches

knife

electric or hand drill

flat file, half round file

drill bits (3/8, 13/64, and 1/8)

hack saw

2" hole saw

1" pipe threader

¼-20 and 8-32 taps

tape measure

screwdriver

adjustable wrench

access to metalworking shop

sandpaper (medium & fine)

   

NOTES

 

(FOR FABRICATED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM)

 

6.

Impulse Valve

 
 

A. Sand, grind or file the aim of a 3" tee (#3) until it has a smooth surface.

 
 

B. Bend two pieces of 3/8 x 15" althread (#27) around the body of the tee so that the 4 ends extend 1" above the arm.

 
 

C. Drill a 2" hole in the center of a 6"x 6" piece of steel (#14), then drill 3/8" holes in the corners of the steel where the althread goes through (approx. 4½" apart). Be certain to sand smooth and round off all edges. Drill and tap two 832 holes in plate as shown in Handout 9B, decal A #14, and attach the stroke adjustment bracket (#22).

 
 

D. Cut out a piece of rubber (#15) with the same outside dimensions and hole pattern as the steel plate but with a horseshoeshaped hole in the middle as shown in Handout 9B (#15).

 
 

E. Assemble the impulse valve as shown in Handout 9B, Detail A.

 

7.

Snifter

 
 

Extend the thread on one end of a 1" 90° sweep (#7) to extend through a 1 x 3" reducing bushing (#4). Drill and tap a ¼-20 hole near the extended end of the sweep and assemble the snifter as shown in Handout 9B, Detail C, so that the air hole can be covered and uncovered by the lock nut.

 

8.

Check Valve

 
 

A. Drill and tap two holes in the bottom and one in the side of a 1 x 3" reducing bushing for the 8-32 screws as shown in the Handout, Detail B.

The hole in the side should be located so that 8-32 screwhead will be1/16" above the check valve rubber

 

B. Cut out a piece of rubber ¼-20 for the check valve, bolt washers to the rubber and screw the valve to the 1 x 3" reducing bushing.

 
 

C. Drill and tap a hole in the bottom of the bushing opposite the 2 previously drilled holes. When a 8-32 screw is inserted the head will overlap the check valve, creating an adjustable stroke. (See Detail B)

 

9.

Body of the Ram

 
 

Attach all the fittings as shown in Handout 9B, using either pipe joint compound or TFE tape.

 

10.

Have each group install their hydram on the test stand or another source of water and start the hydram working.

 

11.

Discuss the applicability of the fabricated pipe-fitting hydram.

 

Attachment 10-B

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10B

Thickness of the impulse valve plate in inches*

drive head in feet

impulse valve opening in inches

10

20

30

40

50

1.5

3/8

7/16

7/16

5/a

 

2

¼

3/8

7/16

1/2

5/8

2.5

5/16

3/6

1/2

9/16

5/8

3

5/16

7/16

1/2

9/16

5/8

4

5/16

7/16

1/2

9/16

5/8

5

3/8

1/2

9/16

5/8

11/16

6

3/C

I/2

9/16

5/8

11/16

8

7/16

1/2

5/8

11/16

3/4

12

½

5/6

11/16

3/4

13/16

16

I/2

5/8

3/4

13/16

7/8


Thickness of the impulse valve plate in inches

Attachment 10B - metric

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10B - metric

Thickness of the impulse valve plate in millimeters*

Drive head in meters

Drive head in meters

 

3

6

9

12

15

40

6

10

11

13

16

50

6

10

11

13

16

60

8

10

13

14

16

75

8

11

13

14

16

100

8

11

13

14

16

125

9.5

13

14

16

18

150

10

13

14

16

18

200

11

13

16

18

19

300

13

16

18

19

21

400

13

16

19

21

22

Impulse valve opening in millimeters


Thickness of the impulse valve plate in millimeters

Attachment 10-C

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10C

Impulse valve steel backing

Drive head in feet

 

10

20

30

40

50

1.5

1/8

1/8

1/8

3/16

3/16

2

1/8

3/16

3/16

3/16

1/4

2 5

3/16

3/16

1/4

1/4

1/4

3

3/16

¼

5/16

5/16

5/16

4

1/4

5/16

3/8

7/16

7/16

5

5/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

9/16

6

3/8

½

9/16

5/8

11/16

8

1/2

11/16

¾

13/16

7/8

2

13/16

1

l 1/8

1 ¼

1 5/16

16

11/16

1 5/16

1 1/2

1 11/16

1 13/16

Impulse valve opening in inches


Impulse valve steel backing

Attachment 10-C - metric

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10C - metric

Impulse valve steel backing

Drive head in meters

 

3

6

9

12

15

40

3

 

3

5

5

50

2

5

5

5

6

60

5

5

6

6

6

75

5

6

8

8

8

100

6

8

10

11

11

125

8

11

13

13

14

150

10

13

14

16

18

200

13

18

19

21

22

300

21

25

29

32

34

400

27

33

38

42

46

Impulse valve opening in millimeters


Impulse valve steel backing

Attachment 10-D

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10D

Impulse valve seat width in inches

Drive head in feet

 

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

3/4

1/8

3/16

¼

5/16

3/8

7/16

1/2

9/16

3/8

1

3/16

5/16

3/8

7/16

½

9/16

5/8

11/16

3/4

1/4

3/8

7/16

9/16

5/8

3/4

13/16

14/16

1

5/16

7/16

9/16

3/4

¾

1

1 1/16

1'3/16

 

2

3/8

9/16

¾

7/8

1

1 3/16

1 5/16

1 7/16

1 9/16

1/2

11/16

15/16

1 1/8

1 5/16

1 7/16

1 5/8

1 13/16

1 15/16

3

5/8

7/8

1 1/8

1 5/16

1 9/16

1 3/4

1 15/16

2 3/16

2 5/16

4

13/16

1 1/8

1 7/16

1 3/4

2 1/16

2 3/8

2 5/8

2 7/8

3 1/8

6

1 3/16

1 11/16

2 3/16

2 5/8

3 1/8

3 1/2

3 15/16

4 5/16

4 11/16

2

1 11/16

2 1/4

2 15/16

3 9/16

4 1/8

4 11/16

51/4

5 3/4

6 1/4

Impulse valve opening in inches


Impulse valve seat width in inches

Attachment 10-D - metric

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10D - metric

Attachment impulse valve seat width in millimeters

Drive head in meters

 

3

4.5

6

7.5

9

10.5

12

13.5

15

20

3

5

6

8

10

11

13

14

16

25

5

8

10

11

13

14

16

18

19

30

6

10

11

14

16

19

21

22

25

40

8

11

14

18

19

22

25

27

30

50

10

14

19

22

25

30

33

36

39

60

13

18

24

29

33

36

41

46

49

75

16

22

29

33

39

44

49

55

58

100

21

29

36

44

52

60

66

72

79

150

30

43

55

66

79

89

100

109

119

200

43

56

74

89

104

119

130

146

158

Impulse valve opening in millimeters


Impulse valve seat width in millimeters

Attachment 10-E

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10E

Check valve backing thickness in inches

Delivery head in feet

 

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

3/4

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1,16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/16

1/8

1/8

1/8

2

1/16

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

3/16

3/16

3/16

3/16

3

1/8

1/8

3/16

3/16

3/16

3/16

3/16

1/4

4

3/16

3/16

¼

1/4

1/4

5/16

5/16

5/16

6

1/4

5/16

3/8

7/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

1/2

8

3/8

½

9/16

5/£3

5/8

11/16

11/16

3/4

Impulse valve opening in inches


Check valve thickness in inches

Attachment 10-E - metric

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10E - metric

Check valve backing thickness in millimeters

Delivery head in meters

 

7.5

15

23

30.5

38

45.5

53.5

60

20

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

25

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

30

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

40

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

50

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

60

3

3

3

3

5

5

5

5

75

3

3

5

5

5

5

5

6

100

5

5

6

6

6

8

8

8

50

6

8

10

11

11

13

13

13

200

10

13

14

16

16

18

18

19

Impulse valve opening in millimeters


Check valve backing thickness in millimeters

Attachment 10-F

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10F

Check valve seat width in inches

Delivery head in feet

 

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

¾

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/E

3/16

3/16

1

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

3/16

1/4

1/4

1/8

1/8

1/8

i/8

3/16

3/16

1/4

3/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

1/8

3/16

1/4

5/16

7/16

2

1/8

1/8

1/8

3/16

1/4

5/16

7/16

9/16

1/8

1/8

3/16

1/4

5/16

7/16

9/16

11/16

3

l/8

1/8

3/16

5/16

3/8

1/2

5/8

13/16

4

1/8

3/16

¼

3/8

1/2

11/16

7/8

17/16

6

1/8

¼

3/8

9/16

3/4

1

1 1/4

1 5/8

8

3/16

5/16

9/16

3/4

1

1 5/16

1 11/16

2 3/16

Impulse valve opening in inches


Check valve seat width in inches

Attachment 10-F - metric

Sessions 9 & 10, Handout 10F - metric

Check valve seat width in millimeters

Delivery head in meters

 

7.5

15

23

30

38

45

53

60

20

3

3

3

3

3

3

5

5

25

3

3

3

3

3

5

6

6

30

3

3

3

3

5

5

6

10

40

3

3

3

3

5

6

8

11

50

3

3

3

5

6

8

11

14

60

3

3

5

6

a

11

14

18

75

3

3

5

8

10

13

16

21

100

3

5

6

10

13

18

22

27

150

3

6

10

14

19

25

30

41

200

5

8

14

19

25

33

43

55

Impulse valve opening in millimeters


Check valve seat width in millimeters

Attachment 9-A-1

Session 9, Handout 9A-1


Welded hydram: side view

Attachment 9-A-2

Session 9, Handout 9A-2


Welded hydram: exploded view

Attachment 9-A-3

Session 9, Handout 9A-3


Welded hydram, impulse cavity: exploded view

Attachment 9-A-4

Session 9, Handout 9A-4


Welded hydram, accumulator: exploded view

Attachment 9-A-5

Session 9, Handout 9A-5

Welded hydram 20' drive head

 

SIZE

1

2

3

4

6

8

1

Accumulator Top Diameter

3

4

5

6

9

12

18

24

1

Accumulator To Thickness

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

5/8

5/8

2

Accumulator Pipe Diameter

3

4

5

6

9

12

18

24

2

Accumulator Pipe Length

20

20

20

20

21

22

24

26

3

Delivery Socket

½

3/4

¾

1

2

3

4

4

Accumulator Base Ring Thickness

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

5/8

5/8

4

Accumulator Base Outside Diameter

8

8

9

10

14

16

22

28

6

1½" Check Valve Stroke Limited bolts

1/4

1/4

1/4

1/4

3/8

3/8

3/8

½

7

Check Valve 2" bolt diameter

1/4

1/4

5/16

5/16

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

8

Check Valve Backing Plate Thickness

1/16

1/16

1/8

1/8

1/4

5/16

1/2

¾

8

Plate should be larger than hole by:

1/2

3/4

7/8

1 1/8

1 5/8

2 1/8

3 1/4

4 3/8

9

Stroke Limiter Metal strip

               

10

Stroke Limiter Rubber Strip

               

11

½ to ½ thick Rubber with Valve same as the #8 backing slate and O.D.= 4

12

Check valve washer outside_diam.

1/2

3/4

3/4

1

1 1/2

2

3

4

13

Check valve nut

1/4

1/4

5/16

5/16

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

14

Connecting pipe inside Diameter

3/4

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2

3

4

6

14

Connecting pipe length

11 1/4

11 1/4

12 5/8

14

19 5/8

22 1/2

30 3/4

39 ¼

14

Impulse Valve Bolt

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

1/2

1/2

½

16

Backing Plate Diameter

2 3/4

2 3/4

4 1/8

5 1/2

8 1/4

10 7/8

16 3/8

21 7/8

16

Backing Plate Thickness

3/16

3/16

1/4

5/16

1/2

11/16

1

1 5/16

17

¼ to ½ Thick Rubber w/ valve same as the #1 backing late & 0.D. = 4

18

Impulse Plate O.D. = 4; thickness

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

5/8

5/8

18

Impulse Plate I.D.

2

2 1/2

3

4

6

8

12

16

19

Impulse Valve Washer Outside Diam.

1 1/2

2

2 1/2

3 1/2

5 1/2

7

11

15

20

Impulse Valve nut

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

1/2

1/2

½

21

Rubber Bumper

               

22

Lock nut

1/4

1/4

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

1/2

½

23

2"x2"x¼" angle iron limiter Bracket

               

24

Length Impulse Plante Bolts

2

2

2 1/2

2 1/2

3

3 ½

3 ½

3 ½

25

Stroke limiting adjustment bolt

1/4

1/4

5/16

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

½

26

No. of Accumulator Bolts

6

6

6

6

8

8

10

16

26

Diameter of Accumulator Bolts

3/8

1/2

9/16

5/8

3/4

7/8

1

1

26

Length of Accumulator Bolts

2

2

2 1/2

2 1/2

3

3 1/2

3 1/2

3 1/2

27

Accumulator Base Plate Diameter

8

8

9

10

14

16

22

28

27

Accumulator Base Plate Thickness

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

5/8

5/8

28

Hydram Base (same as #27)

               

29

Impulse Valve Cavity Inside Diam.

4

4

5

6

10

12

18

24

29

Impulse Valve Cavity Height

3

3

3 1/2

4

6

8

12

16

30

Socket

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2

3

4

6

8

31

Impulse Valve Ring Thickness

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

5/8

5/8

31

Impulse Valve Ring Diameter

8

8

9

10

14

16

22

28

32

1" Support Pipe Length

8

8

8 1/2

9

11

13

17

21

33

4" Diameter Support Base Thickness

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

1/2

1/2

5/8

5/8

34

Snifter Bolt

1/4

1/4

1/4

1/4

3/8

3/8

3/8

½

Attachment 9-A-7

Session 9, Handout 9A-7

Welded Hydram 40' Drive Head

 

SIZE

1

2

3

4

6

8

1

Accumulator Top Diameter

3

4

5

6

9

12

18

24

1

Accumulator To Thickness

1/2

9/16

9/16

9/16

5/8

11/16

3/4

13/16

2

Accumulator Pipe Diameter

3

4

5

6

9

12

18

24

2

Accumulator Pipe Length

20

20

20

20

21

22

24

26

3

Delivery Socket

1/2

3/4

3/4

1

1 1/2

2

3

4

4

Accumulator Base Ring Thickness

1/2

9/16

9/16

9/16

5/8

11/16

3/4

13/16

4

Accumulator Base Outside Diameter

8

9

10

12

16

18

26

22

6

1½" Check Valve Stroke Limited bolts

1/4

1/4

1/4

1/4

3/8

3/8

3/8

½

7

Check Valve 2" bolt diameter

1/4

1/4

5/16

5/16

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

8

Check Valve Backing Plate Thickness

1/16

1/16

1/8

1/8

1/4

5/16

1/2

¾

8

Plate should be larger than hole by:

1/2

3/4

7/8

1 1/8

1 5/8

2 1/8

3 1/4

4 3/8

9

Stroke Limiter Metal strip

               

10

Stroke Limiter Rubber Strip

               

11

½ to ½ thick Rubber with Valve same as the #8 backing slate and O.D.=4

12

Check valve washer outside_diam.

½

3/4

3/4

1

1 1/2

2

3

4

13

Check valve nut

¼

1/4

5/16

5/16

3/8

3/8

7/16

7/16

14

Connecting pipe inside Diameter

3/4

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2

3

4

6

14

Connecting pipe length

11 1/4

12 5/8

14

16 3/4

22 3/8

25 1/4

36 3/8

44 ¾

14

Impulse Valve Bolt

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

1/2

1/2

½

16

Backing Plate Diameter

3 3/4

4 1/8

5

6 5/8

9 7/9

13 1/4

19 7/8

26 1/2

16

Backing Plate Thickness

3/16

1/4

5/16

7/16

5/8

13/16

1 1/4

1 11/16

17

¼ to ½ Thick Rubber w/ valve same as the #1 backing late & 0.D. = 4

18

Impulse Plate O.D. = 4; thickness

1/2

9/16

9/16

9/16

5/8

11/16

3/4

13/16

18

Impulse Plate I.D.

2

2 1/2

3

4

6

8

12

16

19

Impulse Valve Washer Outside Diam.

1 1/2

2

2 1/2

3 1/2

5 1/2

7

11

15

20

Impulse Valve nut

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

1/2

1/2

½

21

Rubber Bumper

               

22

Lock nut

1/4

1/4

3/8

3/8

3/8

3/8

1/2

½

23

2"x2"x¼" angle iron limiter Bracket

               

24

Number of impulse Plate Bolts

6

6

6

6

8

14

24

58

24

Diameter of impulse Plate Bolts

9/16

5/8

3/4

7/8

7/8

7/8

1

1

24

Length Impulse Plante Bolts

2

2

3

3 1/2

3 1/2

3 1/2

4

4

25

Stroke limiting adjustment bolt

1/4

1/4

5/16

3/8

3/8

3/8

1/2

½

26

No. of Accumulator Bolts

6

6

6

6

6

8

12

24

26

Diameter of Accumulator Bolts

9/16

5/8

3/4

7/8

7/8

7/8

1

1

26

Length of Accumulator Bolts

2

2

3

3 1/2

3 1/2

3 1/2

4

4

27

Accumulator Base Plate Diameter

8

9

10

12

16

18

26

32

27

Accumulator Base Plate Thickness

1/2

9/16

9/16

9/16

5/8

11/16

3/4

13/16

28

Hydram Base (same as #27)

               

29

Impulse Valve Cavity Inside Diam.

4

5

6

8

12

14

22

28

29

Impulse Valve Cavity Height

3

3

3 1/2

4

6

8

12

16

30

Socket

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2

3

4

6

8

31

Impulse Valve Ring Thickness

1/2

9/16

9/16

9/16

5/8

11/16

3/4

13/16

31

Impulse Valve Ring Diameter

8

9

10

12

16

18

26

32

32

1" Support Pipe Length

8

8

8 1/2

9

11

13

17

21

33

4" Diameter Support Base Thickness

1/2

9/16

9/16

9/16

5/8

11/16

3/4

13/16

34

Snifter Bolt

1/4

1/4

1/4

1/4

3/8

3/8

3/8

½

 

Attachment 10-A

Session 10, Handout 10A

Concrete hydram design parameters

CAVITY WALL THICKNESS

DOME COVER THICKNESS

NUMBER OF BOLTS AND SIZE

The side wall thickness (Ts) in a concrete Hydram without reinforcement shall be equal to the diameter of the cavity (Dc) in inches times the drive head (H) in feet divided by 10 or shall be equal to the cavity diameter, whichever is greater.

The top or bottom wall thickness (TL) should be 1.25 times the cavity diameter.


Concrete hydram design parameters

The total bolt area (TBA) should equal the drive pipe diameter (inches) squared times the drive head in feet divided by 50 or :




If D in mm. and H in meters then




To determine the proper number of bolts, find the area of the bolt size you wish to use and divide it into the total bolt area.

Diameter of bolt:

mm.

6.3

8

9.5

11

12.7

14 2

15.8

19.

22.2

25.4

in.

1/4

5/16

3/8

7/16

1/2

9/16

5/8

3/4

7/8

1

Area of bolt:

.027

.045

.068

.093

.126

.162

.202

.302

.419

.551

Attachment 10-H

Session 10, Handout 10H


Exploded view of 2 piece concrete hydram

Attachment 10-I

Session 10, Handout 10I


Exploded view of 2 piece concrete hydram

1. Hydram Body

23. Check Valve Bolt

2. Accumulator

24. Althread Bolt (Accumulator)

3. Impulse Plate

25. Althread Bolt (Impulse Plate)

4. Check Valve & Gasket

26. Althread Bolt (Impulse Valve)

5. Impulse Valve & Gasket

27. Impulse Value Hex Nut

6. Stop Bracket

28. Flat Washer

7. Rubber Stop Bumper

29. Hex Nut

8. Gas Cock-Snifter Valve

30. Pipe Plug (Drive Pipe Size)

9. PVC Pipe

31. Steel Pipe Tee (Drive Pipe Size)

10. Delivery Pipe

32. Pipe Tee (Delivery Pipe Size)

11. Steel Check Valve Stop

33. Pipe Plug (Delivery Pipe Size)

12. Rubber Check Valve Stop

34. Pipe Plug (Snifter Pipe Size)

13. Impulse Back-Up Washer

35. Pipe Tee (Snifter Pipe Size)

14. Impulse Washer

36. Snifter Pipe

15. Check Valve Back-Up Washer(Large)

37. Snifter Pipe

38. PVC Male Adapter

 

16. Check Valve Washer (Small)

39. Accumulator Sleeve

17. Stop Wing Nut

40. PVC Coupling

18. Stop Adjusting Bolt

41. Impulse Sleeve

19. Stop Bracket Bolts

42 Accumulator Base Sleeve

20. Check Valve Stop Nuts

21. Check Valve Stop Bolts

22. Check Valve Nut

 

Attachment 10-J

Session 10, Handout 10J

Two piece concrete hydram form


Two piece concrete hydram form

Session 10, Handout 10K

One-piece concrete hydram


One-piece concrete hydram

1. Hydram body

22. check valve nut

2. gasket

23. check valve bolt

3. impulse plate

24. althread bolt (accumulator)

4. check valve

25. althread bolt (impulse plate)

5. impulse valve and gasket

26. althread bolt (impulse valve)

6. stop bracket

27. impulse valve hex nut

7. rubber stop bumper

28. flat washer

8. gas cock-shifter valve

29. hex nut

9. PVC pipe

30. pipe plug (drive pipe size)

10. delivery pipe

31. steel pipe tee (drive pipe size)

11. check valve stop

32. pipe tee (delivery pipe size)

12. - N/A -

33. pipe plug (delivery pipe size

13. Impulse back-up washer

34. pipe plug (snifter pipe size)

14. impulse washer

35. pipe tee (snifter pipe size)

15. check valve back-up washer(large)

36. snifter pipe

16. check valve washer (small)

37. snifter pipe

17. stop wing nut

38. PVC male adapter

18. stop adjusting bolt

39. accumulator sleeve

19. stop bracket bolts

40. PVC coupling

20. check valve stop nuts

41. impulse sleeve

21. check valve stop bolts

42. accumulator plate

43. accumulator plate gasket

 

Attachment 10-L

Session 10, Handout 10L


One piece concrete hydram form

Attachment 10-M

Session 10, Handout 10M

A community of 100 people requires 20/gal/day/person, and 30 gpd/cow for 35 cows, and wants to use a concrete hydram.

h = 90'

H= 20'

A weir 2" wide and 4" deep has been put in the stream; 2' upstream from the weir, the distance form the mark on the stake, level with the top of the weir, to the water level is 1½" Assume an efficiency of 50%, determine the following:

• Q

• D

• d

• Accumulator diameter

• L

• Check valve opening

• Impulse valve opening

• T. s

• TL

• Impulse valve thickness

• Impulse valve seat width

• Impulse valve backing thickness

• Check valve seat width

• Check valve backing thickness

• Number and size of bolts

Attachment 10-N

Session 10, Handout 10N

MATERIALS: gravel, sand, cement, water, form lumber, plastic pipe, bowl, fittings, material for vapor barrier something to mix cement in. Size and quantity of materials is dependent upon the hydram to be constructed. Following is an example of a typical list of materials for a 1" hydram.

1 " CONCRETE HYDRAM MATERIALS LIST

1 1"x 12"x 8' lumber for body

8 3/8 althread 36" form

1 1"x 12"x 8' lumber for accumulator forms

26 3/8 lock washers

1 ¼"x 7" diameter steel plate

26 3/8 flat washers

1 3" PVC pipe cap

26 3/8 nuts

1 4" bowl

1 1" pipe plug

1 1'x 1'x ½ belting

1 1" pipe tee

1 7" diameter x ¼" belting

1 ¼" pipe plug

1 1"x 2" angle 1" long

1 ¼" pipe tee

1 rubber stop bumper

1 ¼" pipe plug

1 ¼" gas cock

1 ¼" pipe tee

1 1" PVC pipe 2' long

2pcs. ¼" pipe 2" long

1 ½" nipple 1½" long

1 1" PVC male adapter

2 2½" washer with 3/8" hole

1 ¼" PVC pipe 22' long

2 1½" washer with 3/8" hole

1 1" PVC coupling

5/16" wing nut

½ lb 6d nails

1 5/16 x 2½" bolt

form oil

2 ¼ x½ bolt

2½ gal water

3 5/16 nut

32# cement

1 3/8 bolt 1" long

1 1/3 cu.ft. gravel

1 3" PVC pipe 18" long

1 1/6 cu.ft. sand

Handouts 10A - 10 L

shovels

 

PROCEDURES

NOTES

12.

With all the tools and materials gathered, begin construction.

 
 

Phase I - Part Two

 

13.

Start by constructing the hydram base form. (See handout 10J)

 

14.

Next, bend the PVC pipe and cut to proper length and angles. Be sure to glue a coupling to the check valve end to increase the seat area.

 

15.

Notch out bottom of plastic bowl to fit upon the PVC pipe: with the bowl and pipe held together, mark where the pipe touches the inside of the bowl; then, using coping saw, cut along this line. Attach male adapter and the plugged tee to input end of pipe. The plugged tee serves to prevent the pipe from turning within the concrete. Welding a piece of metal onto the coupling would also work.

 

16.

Drill holes in the bottom of the form for the bolt pattern around the impulse valve and the accumulator.

 

17.

Center accumulator form pipe on the inside of the form and draw a circle around it. Drive three 6d nails onehalf way in, 120 degrees apart through the circle, making compensation for the thickness of the accumulator form pipe.

 

18.

Drill hole in PVC pipe for snifter. Drill another hole in form for the other end of snifter. Snifter pipe should have a plugged tee in the middle or a piece of metal welded to the side of it to eliminate turning.

 

19.

An elliptical rubber washer should be cut out and nailed where the check valve end of the PVC pipe comes in contact with the form. This is to recess the concrete around the check valve seat to insure a good seat.

 

20.

Bolt sleeves to form using althread, nuts and washers.

 

21.

Tie PVC pie down to form using tie-wire.

 

22.

Pour the base of the hydram using the following concrete formula: 8 parts gravel, 7 parts sand, 2 parts cement, and water to proper consistency. Tap on the form sides while pouring to prevent air pockets. Cover concrete with a vapor barrier such as visqueen, then cover entire pour with insulation. Draw pattern for impulse valve plate and send to metal shop.

 
 

Phase II

 

23.

After the hydram base has had sufficient time to set (usually about 2 days), remove form and place hydram base right side up on blocks so that the bolt holes on the bottom can be reached.

 

24.

Place a sheet of plastic or wax paper or anything that will prevent a concrete marriage and that won't wrinkle on top of the accumulator end of the hydram.

 

25.

Place althread and sleeves through bolt pattern at accumulator with nuts and washers on both ends. Tighten until sleeves are rigid.

 

26.

Build form for accumulator as shown in Handout 10J.

 

27.

Place accumulator form pipe over the three nails sticking up through the concrete at the check valve. Pack with sand to prevent pipe from floating up in concrete. Cap end of accumulator form pipe with tape or PVC cap.

 

28.

Place accumulator form on top of hydram base and install the delivery pipe connection between this form and the accumulator form pipe.

 

29.

Pour accumulator form full of concrete using the same mixture ratio as used in step #22.

 

30.

Cover with a vapor barrier such as visqueen and insulation.

 
 

Phase III

 

31.

After concrete has had sufficient time to set up (about one to two days), remove form.

 

32.

Using a large piece of paper, make a pattern from the hydram base for both the impulse valve rubber and the accumulator check valve rubber.

 

33.

Cut out the rubbers according to the pattern. If the rubber is too thick to allow free movement of the valves, a v-notch may need to be cut into the rubber at the flex point of the valve.

 

34.

Drill and cut out a piece of sheet metal for the impulse plate and attach stop bracket.

 

35.

Install althread, bolt, nuts and washers on both pieces of rubber as shown in the attachment.

 

36.

Bolt accumulator to base with check valve rubber for a gasket.

 

37.

Bolt impulse valve rubber and plate to hydram base.

 

38.

Install stroke adjustment bolt locknut and rubber bumper.

 
 

Phase IV

 

39.

Install ram to drive pipe and delivery pipe. Start up. Adjust for amount of flow available.

 

40.

Have the trainees determine the flow rate into and out of the hydram and determine the efficiency.

 

41.

Discuss with the trainees what they feel the advantages and disadvantages of this ram might be and when they might be important.

 

Attachment 11-A

Session 11, Handout 11A

Typical impulse valve


BLAKE RUBBER WASHER STYLE


PLUNGER TYPE


SKOOKUM


RIFE


PERENNIAL STYLE


MODIFIED FOOT VALVE

Attachment 11-B

Session 11, Handout 11B

Typical check valves


BLAKE RUBBER WASHER TYPE


PERENNIAL TYPE


PLUNGER TYPE


MODIFIED CHECK VALVE

Attachment 11-C

Session 11, Handout 11C

Typical snifters


standard plumbing snifter


gas cock


needle valve


orifice


bolt snifter


rubber flap check


nail check


grooved bolt snifter


external drilled bolt snifter


internal drilled bolt snifter

Attachment 12-A

Session 12, Handout 12A

Hydram comparison

Scale: 1 (best) to 6 (worst)

 

CONCRETE

MODIFIED PIPE FITTING

FABRICATED PIPE FITTING

MANUFACTURED HYDRAM

WELDED STEEL

PLASTIC*

Cost

1

4

3

6

5

2

 

inexpensive

inexpensive

inexpensive

expensive

moderate

cheap

Serviceability

5

3

2

1

4

6

 

hard to repair the concrete

parts are hard to repair and usually requires replacement

sometimes difficult to get to the check valve

parts easily made or replaced

requires a welder

poor

Availability

           

Simplicity of Design

6

1

3

4

5

2

 

requires the greatest amount of time to construct

parts just screw together

most parts screw or bolt together some metal working

most parts are cast & sometimes the rubber parts are field fabricated

requires welding but no unique metal shapes

easy to built requires glueing

Ease of Transportation

6

2

3

5

4

1

 

extremely heavy

small and not very heavy

small and not very heavy

heaviest of the ferrous hydrams

heavy & bulky

very light

Longevity

3

5

4

1

2

6

 

if it does not freeze it should last as long as a mfg. Ram

will last about 1 year

no longevity studies done yet, but should last a long time

history of up to 25 yr without service

should last about as long as a mfg. ram

will last about one month

Efficiency

very little difference if built properly.

* training device only

Attachment 13-A

Session 13, Handout 13A

Exercise 1: h:H Ratio Has On Efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT THE h:H RATIO HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n), water delivered (q), water used (Q.), time of experiment, water wasted (Qw)

Controlled Variables: Delivery head (h)

Constants: Drive head (H),frequency (f), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 2:1 to 20:1

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making sure to keep the drive head, frequency and the volume of air in the accumulator the same and change the delivery head in order to develop a new h:H ratio.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT THE h:H RATIO HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the delivery head to drive head ratio on efficiency

Exercise 2: frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE FREQUENCY ON THE MAXIMUM DELIVERY HEAD TO DRIVE HEAD RATIO

Variables: delivery head (h), water used (Q.), water wasted(Qw), water delivered (q)

Controlled Variables: amount of air in the accumulator, frequency (f)

Constants: drive head

Range: high frequency to low

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator and then

6. Set the frequency to as fast as possible.

7. With delivery valve shut measure the maximum delivery head with a pressure gauge. (Make certain that the hydram that is used is designed for the pressures that will be encountered.)

8. Repeat the experiment while slowing down the frequency by even increments making certain that the volume of air in the accumulator remains the same.

9. From the pressure reading calculate the delivery head and the h:H ratio.

TOOLS AND MATERIALS NEEDED:

TASK: Determine the effect of the frequency on the maximum delivery dead to drive head ratio

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio

Exercise 3: frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON EFFICIENCY, QUANTITY OF WATER ENTERING THE HYDRAM AND QUANTITY OF WATER DELIVERED.

Variables: time of the experiment, efficiency (n), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), water wasted (Qw)

Controlled Variables: frequency

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: slow to fast

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head, and delivery head the same while changing the frequency.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON EFFICIENCY, QUANTITY OF WATER ENTERING THE HYDRAM AND QUANTITY OF WATER DELIVERED

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered

Exercise 4: volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE VOLUME OF AIR IN THE ACCUMULATOR ON EFFICIENCY.

Variables: time of the experiment, efficiency (n), water wasted (Qw), water pumped (q), water used (Q)

Controlled Variables: volume of air in the accumulator

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), frequency (f)

Range: no air - 24" of air

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the drive head, delivery head and frequency the same while changing the volume of air in the accumulator.

TASK: Determine the effect of the volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency

Exercise 5: drive pipe length on efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE PIPE LENGTH ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n) water wasted (Qw) water used (Q) water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: length of the drive pipe

Constants: frequency (f), drive head(H), delivery head (h) volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 10' - 80'

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head (H), delivery head (h) and frequency the same while changing the length of the drive pipe.

TASK: determine the effect of the drive pipe length on length on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the drive pipe length of efficiency

Exercise 6

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE PIPE DIAMETER ON EFFICIENCY.

Variables: water wasted (Q ), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: drive pipe diameter (D)

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), frequency (f), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: ½, 3/4, 1"

PROCEDURES:

1. Install hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head, delivery head, length of drive pipe, and frequency the same while changing the diameter of the drive pipe.

TASK: Determine the effect of drive pipe diameter on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


Effect of the drive pipe diameter on efficiency

Exercise 7

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE SNIFTER ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: time of experiment, water wasted (Qw) water used (Q), water delivered (q), efficiency

Controlled Variables: Snifter open, snifter closed, one way snifter

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: sucking air and spitting water

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q), and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency.

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head (H), delivery head (h), and frequency the same while changing the snifter from an open snifter, a one way snifter to no snifter at all.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT SNIFTER HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   

Exercise 8

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE MATERIAL ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n), water wasted ( Qw), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: volume of air in the accumulator, delivery head (H), frequency (f)

Constants: frequency (f), drive head (h), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 5.1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1 for both steel and plastic pipes.

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the drive head frequency, volume of air in the accumulator, and drive pipe material the same until you have accurate efficiency calculations for h:H ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1.

10. Repeat the series of experiments after changing the drive pipe to a different material making certain that everything else stays the same.

TASK: Determine the effect of the drive pipe material on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the drive pipe material on efficiency

Attachment 13-B

Session 13, Handout 13B


TYPICAL HYDRAM EXPERIMENT SET-UP

Attachment 13-C

Session 13, Handout 13C

Sample graphs


Effect of volume of air in accumulator on n


Effect of frequency on max h:H ratio


Effect of drive pipe material on n


Effect of drive pipe DIA on n


Effect of frequency on n, q, 8


Effect of h:H on n


Effect of length of pipe on n feet

Attachment 14-A

Session 14, Handout 14A

Repair and maintenance

SYMPTOM

CAUSE

REASON

CURE

impulse valve stops in the closed position

insufficient rebound

worn, cracked, or dirty check valve

clean, repair, or replace check valve

   

insufficient weight or stroke on impulse valve

increase impulse valve stroke or weight

   

insufficient flow of water into the drive pipe

check for leaks or obstructions in the supply system. If all the avail able water is going to the hydram, re-adjust the hydram for this flow

pulsating flow in the delivery pipe

lack of air in the accumulator

leak in the accumulator

repair leak

   

snifter valve not open enough

open valve further

   

clogged snifter valve

clean the snifter valve

reduction in water delivered and air bubbles in the delivery pipe

too much air entering the accumulator

snifter valve open too far

close down the snifter valve slightly

   

leak in the hydram body between the impulse and check valves

repair the leak

impulse valve stops in the open position

insufficient velocity around the impulse valve

lack of water entering the drive pipe

check for leaks or obstructions in the supply system IF all available water is going to the hydram, readjust impulse valve for this flow rate.

   

Excessive impulse valve weight or stroke

Either shorten the stroke or lessen the weight.

hydram won't start

insufficient back pressure

check valve not seating properly

clean, repair or replace check valve

   

snifter valve open too far

close snifter until hydram starts

   

insufficient water in the delivery pipe

continue to cycle hydram manually until sufficient delivery head is developed

 

poor impulse valve seating

worn, cracked, dirty or misaligned valve

clean, repair, replace or align impulse valve

 

lack of water entering the drive pipe

supply insufficient for hydram

re-assess installation, possibly install smaller hydram and/or drive pipe

   

leaks or obstructions in supply system

clean or repair the supply system

 

improper impulse valve stroke or weight

not adjusted correctly

either change stroke or weight

hydram runs but does not pump anything

obstructed delivery line

closed delivery valve

open the valve

   

frozen delivery line

apply sufficient heat to thaw

   

clogged delivery pipe.

clean out or back flush

 

water hammer pressure pulse absorbed before the check valve

air accumulation under the check valve because of over- sniffing

cycle the hydram several times by hand allowing the water to reach maximum velocity before allowing the impulse valve to close

hydram runs but the amount of water being delivered is much less than should be expected

leak in the delivery pipe

loose fitting or a hole in pipe

tighten all loose fittings and/or repair any holes

 

low hydram efficiency

worn, cracked, dirty, or misaligned check valve

clean, repair or replace impulse valve

   

worn, cracked, dirty or misaligned check valve

clean, repair or replace check valve

   

obstruction in drive pipe

clean drive pipe

   

excessive check valve stroke

adjust or replace. check valve stroke limiter

 

improperly installed hydram.

Poor L:D ratio

change either the drive pipe Diameter or length

   

poor L:H ratio

change either the drive pipe length or the drive head

frequency very erratic

air in the drive pipe

hole in the hydram body or a loose fitting near the drive pipe connection to the hydram

patch all holes and/or tighten all loose fittings

Attachment 14-B

Session 14, Handout 14B

Repair and maintenance worksheet

SYMPTON

CAUSE

CURE

TOOLS/SKILLS NEEDED FOR REPAIR

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE REQUIRED

TOOLS/SKILLS NEEDED FOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

           
           
   

     

Attachment 14-C

Session 14, Handout 14C

Maintenance/service worksheet

TASK

TIMEFRAME

WHO'S RESPONSIBLE

SKILLS/RESOURCES NEEDED

       
       
       

Attachment 15-A

Session 15, Handout 15A

Review exercise

1. What are the maximum recommended H & h in a 2" hydram where the impulse backing plate is thick, the impulse seat area is , has impulse valve bolts " in diameter, has a check valve backing plate " thick, and a check valve seat width of "?

Answer the following with a graph if you wish:

2. How does the amount of air in the accumulator effect "n"?

3. How does the h:H ratio effect "n"?

4. How does the frequency effect ''Qw''?

5. How does the snifter effect "q"?

6. Tomorrow you are going out to an existing hydram site where there is only 100 gpd being delivered, there is a reliable supply of 3 gpm and an h:H ratio of 10:1. The ram works consistently but the efficiency is so low that only ½ the water needed is being pumped. Do you feel 200 gpd can be pumped if the hydram and/or installation is corrected to improve the efficiency to a reasonable level? If yes, what are you going to look for as a possible reason for low efficiency? (At this point you know nothing else about the hydram or the manner in which it is installed) list as many factors as you can think of.

Attachment 16-A

Session 16, Handout 16A


Site development series hydram installation

Attachment 16-B

Session 16, Handout 16B


Waste water series hydram installation

Attachment 16-C

Session 16, Handout 16C


Site development

Attachment 16-D

Session 16, Handout 16D

Problem 16A:

How much water can be pumped to a delivery head of 200 feet, when there is a drive head of 2 feet, a supply of 50 gpm, and an assumed efficiency of 50%?

Problem 16B:

A community of 200 people, with 70 cows, needs 5 gpd per person and 15 gpd per cow. A spring flows at a rate of 15 gpm, H = 10', h = 100', n = 50%, L:D = 960. How can the community's needs be met?

Problem 16C:

How much water can be delivered to a supply tank 50 feet above a hydram when the drive head is 5 feet, the hydrams efficiency is 50%, the flow rate of the water is 30 gpm, and the largest drive pipe available is 2"?

Attachment 17-A

Session 17, Handout 17A


Settling area - take off system

Attachment 17-B

Session 17, Handout 17B


Hydram box

Attachment 17-C

Session 17, Handout 17C

Guidelines/Checklist

Take off from source:

materials:

pipe or proper soil drum or tank plumbing parts (connectors, flanges, etc.) trash rack fine mesh screen

concerns:

negative slope from source to drum or pond pipe or channel well into stream good foundation for drum or pond means to shut off flow to basin when necessary keeping trash, debris, sediment out of line protection from: raging waters flood animals sun (ultra violet rays) erosion

Hydram:

materials:

cement, aggregate, sand metal pipe and plumbing parts hydram metal or wood for cover to box hinges, screws, etc. stakes, wire

concerns:

support for pipes - drive, delivery pipe course straight as possible - no 90° bends anchoring of pipes drainage for waste water drive pipe entering settling basin 1/3 way up from bottom of basin protection box for hydram drainage for waste water coverage for all plastic pipes clear marking of pipeline if buried

Storage Facility:

materials:

adequate soil cement, aggregate, sand reinforcing bar paint pipe plumbing parts (connectors, faucet, standpipe) fencing material

concerns:

best match of size, materials and costs closeness to final usage durability of tank - strength, seal protection from animals safety for users, children

Attachment 17-D

Session 17, Handout 17D

Site development

After the siting of the components for the hydram system has been completed, it becomes necessary to design the components in detail. This session will discuss how to develop them and will allow for a better estimation of the money, labor and time needed.

The components of the system that are of concern here are the takeoff from the source, the hydram, the storage facility, and all necessary piping. Variations for developing the components and factors that influence their design will be presented. The attachments to this session will give further guide lines and will give references for those topics that will not be covered in this manual/workshop.

TAKE-OFF FROM THE SOURCE

As was mentioned before, the water for a hydram system is not taken directly from the stream; a take-off component must be installed. Its purposes are to protect the system from the potential damage by floods, to keep sand and debris out of the system and to make maintenance of the system easier. The two basic parts to the takeoff area are a settling basin and a transmission channel from the stream to the basin.

The size of the basin has to be just large enough to insure an uninterrupted flow of water to the hydram while trapping sediment, sand, and debris. If the hydram system is small - that is, it uses a 2" drive pipe or smaller, a 55 gallon drum or small tank may be used. If the soil at this site has a good clay content, a small pond can be constructed to serve as the basin. A rough way to determine the size of the basin is to determine the volume of water contained in the drive pipe at any point in time and have the basin be large enough to allow 34 times that volume of water standing above the drive pipe, e.g., if the drive pipe contains 10 gallons (area of the inside diameter of the drive pipe times its length), then a basin with 30-40 gallons above the drive pipe inlet will be sufficient. The inlet of the drive pipe should be positioned at least 1/3 of the way up from the bottom of the basin. A fine mesh screen must cover the inlet of the drive pipe (keeps frogs, etc. out).

The second part to the take-off is the channel or pipe that takes the water from the source and directs it to the basin. If a drum or tank is used as a basin, a pipe is more suitable as the inlet channel in that the pipe lends itself to an easier attachment to the drum/tank. If a pond is used, a dug channel can be used. The channel however, may need to be lined with clay to minimize seepage loses through the soil. The channel or pipe should be placed well into the stream to be able to pick up sufficient water during the dry season. The pipe needs to be anchored to the streambed for protection from being swept away by raging waters during the rainy season. A channel also will need to be protected. In both cases, large rocks placed on each side of the channel/pipe should be sufficient.

The channel will need more regular maintenance than a pipe to keep the sediment and weeds from blocking the passage. The pipe will need a trash rack in front of it's stream opening to keep debris, fish, etc. out of it.

The channel/pipe will need to have a slight negative slope to it 1% or so to allow the water to naturally feed into the basin. Both the channel and the pipe should have some means of blocking the flow of water to the system when that becomes necessary. If a plastic pipe is used, it will have to be covered to protect it from the sun; the ultraviolet rays of the sun will eventually destroy the plastic.

One last note: if the stream under consideration has excellent year round flow rates, but not an adequate head to run the hydram, a small dam may need to be constructed. This is a costly undertaking in terms of money, time, skill and labor. This manual/workshop cannot provide the necessary information for working with a dam. You will need more information to help decide if further consideration of the project is worthwhile.

The Hydram

The hydram component consists of the drive pipe, the hydram itself, the delivery pipe and a protection box/foundation for the hydram. Details about development and construction of the hydram are covered in this manual.

The drive pipe needs to be made of metal to withstand the pressures and pounding that develops in running the system. It should be positioned in the settling basin about 1/3 the way up from the bottom. The pipe should be well supported along its length and protected from outside disturbances. If stakes can be driven into the ground, the pipe can be anchored to them; this will help minimize vibrations and keep it from being bumped off its supports. The pipe should transverse as straight a course as possible. In no case should sharp bends (90°) be used; 45° bends or less should be used. If they are used, support must be provided at each bend to keep the side-way thrusts that will develop inside the pipe at that point from destroying the line.

The delivery pipe can be made of plastic. The same care in supporting, anchoring and protecting the drive pipe should be applied also to the delivery pipe. The course of the pipe should be as straight as possible, avoiding all sharp bends. An additional concern with plastic pipe is protection from the ultraviolet rays of the sun. The pipe needs to be covered. One way to do this is to bury it. However, if this is done, the channel should not be covered up until the system is working and the pipe checked for leaks.

The delivery pipe, because of its length, may raise additional concerns. It must be adequately protected any place it has to cross a trail or road, or in other ways is subject to possibly being run over by a cart or vehicle. If it crosses cultivated land, it's course must be adequately marked so that it is not accidentally damaged during cultivation operations.

The hydram itself must be well supported and protected from accidental disturbances. In addition the waste water needs to be directed away from the support foundation. The best way to provide this protection is to build a concrete foundation with drain outlet and a concrete or cement block box around it. The box should be large enough to allow enough room for a workman (or two) to comfortably move around the hydram. If a concrete hydram is used, the accumulator and/or the body may weigh a couple of hundred pounds. If it has to be removed for some reason, there must be enough room in the box to allow workers to get in there and lift it out.

The final part to the box should be some type of cover that can be locked; this offers protection from vandals or people tampering with the hydram out of curiosity. A final note on the construction of the box: the foundation should be poured and the hydram installed. After the hydram is working like it should, the walls to the box should be constructed and the cover installed.

The Storage Facility

The construction design of this component of the system is dictated by its size, the available materials, and physical characteristics of the site. A few examples may highlight some design considerations for the storage facility:

Let's say your calculations for the system indicate that 1000 gallons of water a day needs to be delivered. To store this amount of water, the facility will need to be about 12 feet on a side and 12 foot high. (1 cubic foot of water equals 7.48 gallons) If you want to have a 3-day supply of water (1 day's use and 2 days in reserve) the facility will need to he at least 12' x 12' x 3'. It may be economically reasonable to construct this out of concrete and block.

Now let's say the system will be used for irrigation and will need to store 100,000 gals and use it every 8 days. The size of this facility will need to be approximately 40 feet on a side and 3 feet high. To construct this structure out of concrete may be too costly; a pond would have to be constructed. (Incidentally, a system needing 2100,000 gallons every 8 days will need to pump about 10 gals a minute, all day, every day. 100,000/8 days/24 hours/60 minutes.)

This manual/workshop can not go into all the details and procedures necessary to construct these storage facilities. However, some reference materials are listed in the attachments that can assist in this work. In addition, assistance can be obtained from the agriculture department and technical donor groups/agencies.

Irrespective of the design of the facility, there are basic concerns for the protection of the system and for safety to the individuals using it. A pond almost assuredly will have to have a fence around it to keep animals and little children out of it. The walls of a tank will have to be reinforced with metal bars and the inside of the tank plastered with cement and painted to prevent leaks.

Cost and Labor Considerations

The labor for and the costs of this system can be quite a burden for the rural farmer or village; this is why the siting and the design of the system are so important. When both are done with care and skill, the costs for a completed system will be as low as possible. It should be obvious that with ample free/cheap labor and proper soil available the system can be kept within reasonable limits. It should also be obvious that the amount of labor needed and the length of time to do it all can be extensive.

It may be useful to take an example and see what a system might cost. Prices for everything are different everywhere, hut for the sake of this example, let's say:

• Cement costs $7/bag - 1 bag can make 20 blocks 16" x 8" x 8"; can plaster 50 sq. ft. of surface can bond 35 blocks together; can produce 6 cu. ft. of concrete

• Reinforcing bars for the total system costs $75

• Metal pipe costs $8/foot

• Additional plumbing parts $75.

• hydram can be built for $100

• Plastic pipe costs $4/foot

• 55 gal drum costs $10

• welding work on drum costs $15 e Pipe lengths are: inlet line to drum 20' Drive pipe 40', delivery pipe 200', supply pipe 300' e Hydram box needs to be 6' x 5' and 4 courses high foundation ½ foot thick

• Storage facility needs to be 15' x 15' x 4' foundation - 1 foot thick

• Paint $50

• standpipe and faucet at final use point $100

• Transportation costs $200

• no labor costs

What will this system cost? (round off fractions to next highest whole number.)

If the storage facility will be a pond with no material costs, what will the system cost? (Transportation costs are cut in half; no reinforcing bar is needed.)

If, in addition, the supply line isn't needed, what will the system cost?

Attachment 17-E

Session 17, Handout 17E

Glossary of terms for session 17

Battery of hydrams - (or parallel hydrams) a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are connected to the same source with different drive pipes, but usually with the same delivery pipe. This type of installation is used where the size of the hydram is limited.

Holding tank - (storage tank) the means of storing water once it has been pumped to the desired head.

Ram box - the small structure usually made out of concrete and/or wood which houses a hydram, protecting it from freezing, weathering, and possibly from vandalizing.

Series hydram - a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are used in series to pump water higher than one hydram could alone.

Spring box overflow pipe - a pipe placed in the wall of a spring box near the top for unused water to exit through.

Waste water drain - the drain in the bottom of a ram box which allows the waste water from the hydram to drain out.

Waste water series hydrams - a hydram installation where one hydram uses the waste water from another as a source to pump a higher percentage of the water.

Attachment 18-A

Session 18, Handout 18A

Hydram site selection


Hydram site selection

Hydram system site selection

There are three main components to a hydram system that require site selection: 1) the take off from the stream, 2) the hydram itself, and 3) the storage facility.

The Take Off System: The water for a hydram is never taken directly from the stream. Sand and debris would enter the drive pipe and destroy the hydram. Therefore a settling area for the water must be included in the system. The characteristics to look for are a relatively flat area near the stream but out of the way of the rainy season's floods.

The Hydram: The first important factor here is to choose a site that will give sufficient head to run the pump. Basically, the higher the head, the greater the amount of water that can be pumped. As a general rule of thumb, the site should give at least 3m (10 ft) of head. Systems can be run with a smaller head, but the flow rate needs to be that much larger. If there are a number of places along the stream where sufficient head can be generated, then the spot where the distance from the water source to the hydram is the shortest will be the best. The drive pipe (from source to hydram) must be made of metal to withstand the pressure and pounding of the system. Metal pipe is usually more expensive than plastic pipe (which can be used for the delivery line). So even though the delivery line may be longer than at other potential sites, the costs for the total system may be less.

The hydram can be situated in any safe/stable area that will give the proper head and distance mix. An added consideration is convenient access to this site to do repairs and maintenance. It is advisable to build a box to enclose the hydram - to protect it from animals and vandals and to minimize erosion to the hydram's foundation. This usually means that cement needs to be carried and mixed nearby, and this may influence your selection of the site. One last concern is that the waste water from the hydram will need to find its way back to the stream. If in doing so, it transverses cultivated land and that could cause a problem, then this factor must be considered in the selection of the site.

The Storage Facility: The third major component of the system is the site to which the pump will deliver. The delivery point/storage facility should be at some convenient location that allows the water to gravity flow to where it is needed. The major determinants of the site for the storage facility are the delivery head the system can accommodate and the length of the delivery line. The delivery head must be within the range of the systems' capabilities, and the length of the delivery pipe must be within reasonable cost constraints. The distance from the storage facility to the point of use (see handout 18B, d3), should be kept to a minimum. But this distance, d3, is secondary to the needs of the hydram system.

The factors that influence the siting of these components are:

1) flood considerations,

2) available head,

3) distances/pipe length between components,

4) cost factors,

5) convenience of location,

6) social factors.

1) Flood Considerations: The seasonal variations of the stream must be taken into consideration - this is particularly true of flood conditions. Each component of the system must be placed outside the potential flood area.

2) The available head and that necessary for the system is the key factor in siting the system. There are three heads involved here: the drive head, the delivery head, and the supply head. The most important of these is the drive head, H. This ~ basically determines what the capabilities of the system are. The delivery head, h, is next in importance; it is however limited by the constraints placed on the system by the size of the drive head. The least important of the heads is the supply line head, h. Basically this head just needs to have a negative slope - that is, sufficient drop to let the water run down hill.

3) Distances or pipe lengths are the next major consideration in selecting a site for the system, Pipes are usually the most costly items of the system. There are three distances that must be taken into account: the length of the drive line, the length of the delivery line, and the length of the supply line. The most crucial of these is the drive line because this piping is usually the most expensive per foot and because the size of the pipe is influenced by the distance it must transverse. As a rule - the shorter the drive pipe line the better (considering that it delivers the necessary head). The length of the delivery line is next in order of importance. It is constrained by the capacity of the system and by costs. However plastic pipe can be used here. The supply line is constrained by cost factors only. It can be run as far as the terrain and the budget allows.

4) The cost of a system may be the final determinant as to whether or not it is implemented. Pipes and plumbing components are the main expense, with cement and possibly labor second. The hydram itself is a lowly third. If care is taken in the siting and the design of the system, the costs can be kept to their minimum.

5) Convenience of location of the hydram and the storage facility is another siting factor. Basically the components of the system should be sited in a location that allows for ease of construction, repairs and maintenance.

6) Lastly, the "best" site for the system may not be the one that the villagers want - it may be on the wrong persons land, or whatever. Remember that they are responsible for maintaining the system, and their concerns must be honored.

Presented below is a handy table to keep the components of the system and the siting factors in mind as the survey work is being done.

 

COMPONENTS

SITING FACTORS

TAKE OFF

HYDRAM

STORAGE FACILITY

FLOOD CONSIDERATIONS

     

HEAD

     

DISTANCES

     

COSTS

     

CONVENIENCE

     

SOCIAL FACTORS

     

Attachment 18-B

Session 18, Handout 18B


Diagram of hydram system for site selection

Attachment - Glossary of terms

Accumulator - (air dome) the air chamber on the hydram which cushions the water hammer, eliminating delivery pulsations and helps provide rebound.

Atmospheric pressure - the pressure at sea level caused by the weight of air; atmospheric pressure = 14.7 and 0 psig.

Battery of Hydrams - (or parallel hydrams) a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are connected to the same source with different drive pipes, but usually with the same delivery pipe. This type of installation is used where the size of the hydram is limited.

Check Valve - (non-return valve, secondary valve, internal valve) the internal valve in the hydram that prevents the delivery head pressure from forcing water back through the hydram body.

Delivery head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the storage tank that the hydram is pumping to.

Delivery pipe - the pipe which connects the output of the hydram to the storage tank.

Drive head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the supply system.

Drive pipe - a rigid pipe usually made of galvanized steel that connects the hydram to the source reservoir or stand pipe.

Efficiency - (n) the ratio of the energy input to the energy output; a measure of how well a hydram functions;




Force - to move something against resistance, pressure times the area measured in pounds, newtons or dynes.

Frequency - (f) the number of times a hydram cycles in one minute. h:H ratio - (delivery to drive head ratio) the ratio of lift to fall. The inverse of this ratio times the efficiency of the hydram will determine the percentage of water the hydram will pump. The higher the h:H ratio, the lower the hydram efficiency (n). The usual range of the h:H ratio is from 2:1 to 20:1 but h:H ratios have been measured up to 60:1.

Holding tank - (storage tank) the means of storing water once it has been pumped to the desired head.

Hydram - (hydraulic ram, hydraulic ram pump, automatic hydraulic ram pump, ram) an ingenious device that uses the force of water falling through a drive pipe to pump water to a height greater than its source, making use of hydraulic principles and requiring no fuel.

Hydram capacity - the maximum amount of water a hydram can use. This is determined by the drive pipe size and length, the drive head, and the impulse valve size and design.

Impulse Valve - (clack valve, out-side valve, impetus valve, waste valve) the valve on the hydram that creates and controls the water hammer.

Impulse valve stroke - the distance the impulse valve travels during a cycle.

Impulse valve weight - the total weight or downward force of the impulse valve and its springs or weights.

Kenetic energy - active energy, ½ the mass times the velocity squared

EK = ½ mv2

L:D ratio - drive pipe length to diameter ratio, should be kept between 150-1000.

L:H ratio - drive pipe length to head ratio, when it is less than 15 ft. L:H should equal 6.

When H is greater than 15 ft. but less than 25 should = 4

When H is greater than 20 " ,, " " 50 " = 3

When H is greater than 50 L:H ratio should equal 2. (see Glossary, Session 6 for metric equivalents)

Potential energy - energy derived from position or height; is equal to the height that a mass can fall times its weight.

Pressure - force applied over a surface measured as force per unit of area such as pounds per square inch (psi) (a head of 28" of water develops a pressure of 1 psi) or a pascal (Pa) which is equal to 1 newton per square meter (a head of 1 cm = 98 Pa) 18" of water equals 71.1 cm of water equals 1 psi = 6895 Pa.

Ram box - the small structure usually made out of concrete and/or wood which houses a hydram protecting it from freezing, weathering and possibly from vandalizing.

Rebound - the flow of water in the ram reversing direction due to the air pressure in the accumulator, closing the check valve.

Series hydram - a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are used in series to pump water higher than one hydram could.

Settling basin - a small tank usually made of steel or concrete that is used in place of a stand pipe in an installation where additional settling is necessary.

Snifter valve - (air valve, spit valve) the small valve just below the check valve that allows air to enter the hydram.

Spring box - a concrete box built around a spring to facilitate water collection and to protect the water source from surface contaminates.

Spring box overflow pipe - a pipe placed in the wall of a spring box near the top for unused water to exit through.

Stand pipe - an open-ended, vertical pipe sometimes used at the beginning of the drive pipe.

Static head - a column of water without motion. The static drive head of a hydram can be measured with a pressure gauge but only when ram is stopped and the drive pipe is full of water.

Supply pipe - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some, but not necessarily all, of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.

Supply system - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some but not necessarily all of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.

Time of cycle - (t) the time it takes for a hydram to complete one cycle, such as the time lapse between the impulse valve closing twice.

Velocity - speed usually measured in feet per second or meters per second.

Waste water - (Qw) the water coming out of the impulse valve and the snifter.

Waste water drain - the drain in the bottom of a ram box which allows the waste water from the hydram to drain out.

Waste water series hydrams - a hydram installation where one hydram uses the waste water from another as a source to pump a higher percentage of the water.

Hater delivered - (q) the rate at which water is delivered to the storage tank; Q x H x n q = h

Water flow to the hydram - (Q) all the water used by a hydram which is equal to the waste water (Qw) plus the water delivered (q).

Water hammer - the effect created when water flowing through a pipe is suddenly stopped. In a hydram this causes the closing of the impulse valve and opening of check valve.

Water used - (Q) the amount of water that flows through the drive pipe during a unit of time (as in gallons per minute or liters per second) which is equal to the water pumped (q) plus the water wasted (Qw)

The flow rate range of hydrams are as follows:

Drive pipe diameter

Flow rate

mm

in

U.S.

gal/min

Imperial

gal/min

liters/min

 

19

3/4

0.8 -

2

0.6 -

1.7

2.8 -

7.6

25

1

1.5 -

4

1.3 -

3.3

5.7 -

15.0

32

1.5 -

7

1.3 -

5.8

5.7 -

26.0

38

1 2

2.5 -

13

2.0 -

10.8

9.4 -

49.0

50

2

6.0 -

20

5.0 -

17.0

23.0 -

76.0

63

10.0 -

45

8.0 -

38.0

38.0 -

170.0

75

3

15.0 -

50

13.0 -

42.0

57.0 -

189.0

100

4

30.0 -

125

25.0 -

104.0

113.0 -

473.0

125

5

40.0 -

150

33.0 -

125.0

151.0 -

567.0

IMPORTANT NUMBERS TO REMEMBER

1440 minutes in a day

433 psi per foot (measured vertically ) of water column

28 inches of C, water column produces 1 psi

14.7 psi atmospheric pressure

7. 48 gallons per cubic foot

Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

   

Equals, in Metric*

Physical Quantity

This in "English" Units

Spelled out

Symbolic

Reciprocal

DISTANCE

1 inch

2.54 centimeter

2.54 cm

0.3937

 

1 foot

0.3048 meter

().3048 m

3.281

 

1 yard

0.9144 meter

0.9144 m

1.094

 

1 mile

1.609 kilometer

l.609 km

0.6215

AREA

1 square inch

6.452 square centimeter

6.452 cm²

0.155

 

1 square foot

0.0929 square meter or

0.0929 m2

10.76

   

929 square centimeters

929 cm2

0.001076

 

1 square yard

0.836 square meter

0.836 m2

1.196

 

1 acre

4,047 square meters or

4.047 m2

0.000247

   

0.4047 hectare

0.4047 h

2.47

 

1 square mile

2.590 square kilometers or 259.0 hectares

259.0 h

0.00386

VOLUME

1 cubic inch

16.39 cubic centimeters

16.39 cm3

0.0610

 

1 pint (liquid)

473.2 cubic centimeters

473.2 cm3

0.002113

 

1 quart

946.4 cubic centimeters

946.4 cm3

0.001057

   

or 0.9464 liter

0.946 1

1.057

 

1 gallon

3.785 liters

3.78.5 1

0.2642

 

1 cubic foot

0.0283 cubic meter

0.283 cm3

35.3

 

1 cubic yard

0.765 cubic meter

0.765 cm3

1.308

 

1 acre foot

0.1233 hectare meter

0.1233 h m

8.11

VELOCITY

1 foot per hour,

     
 

minute or second

0.3048 meter/hour, minute, or second

 

3.281

 

1 mile per hour

0.1170 meter per second

0.4470 m/s

2.237

 

1 knot

.0.5145 meter per second

0.5145 m/s

1.944

* Multiply quantity known in British units by this number to get metric equivalent.

† Multiply quantity known in metric units by this number to act British equivalent

   

Equals, in Metric*

Physical Quantity

This in "English" Units

Spelled out

Symbolic

Reciprocal

ENERGY (OR WORK)

1 watt second

1.000 joule = 1.000

   
   

newton meter

1.000 J

1.000

 

1 foot pound

1.356 joule

1.356 J

0.7375

 

1 Btu

1.055 kilojoule

1.055 kJ

0.948

 

1 wale hour

3.60 kilojoules

3.60 kJ

0.2778

 

1 horsepower-hour

2.684 megajoules

2.684 MJ

0.3726

 

1 kilowatt hour

3.60 megajoules

3.60 MJ

0.2778

POWER

1 horsepower

745.7 watts or O.7457 kilo-

745.7 W

0.00134

   

watt

0.7457 kW

1.341

 

1 joule per second

1.000 watt

1.000 W

1.000

 

1 Btu per hour

0.293 joule per second

0.293 J/s

3.41

TEMPERATURE

1 degree

519 degree Celsius (Centi

5/9 X (TF-32)°C

1.8 degree

 

Fahrenheit

grade) for each Fahrenheit

 

Fahrenheit

   

degree above or below 32°F

 

for each Celsius degree plus 3

SPECIAL COMPOUND UNITS

1 Btu per cubic foot

37.30 joules per liter

37.30 J/1

0.0268

1 Btu per pound of mass

2.328 joules per gram

 

2.328 J/g

0.4296

1 Btu per square fool per hour

3.158 joules per square meter

3.158 J/m²

0.3167

 

1000 gallons per acre

0.0935 centimeters depth

 

10.70

 

1 pound of mass per cubic foot

16.02 grams per liter

16.02 g/l

0.0624

 

MASS

1 ounce

28.35 grams

28.35 g

0.03527

 

1 pound

453.6 grams

453.6 6

0 002205

   

or 0.4536 kilogram

0.4536 kg

2.205

 

1 ton(short, 2000 pounds)

0.907 megagram

0.907 Mg

1.102

   

or 0.907 metric ton

0.907 L

1.102

   

or 0.907 tone

0.907 t

1.102

TORQUE

1 inch pound

0.1130 meter newton

0.1130 m-N

8.851

PRESSURE

1 pound per square

47.88 newtons per square

47.88 N/m²

0.02089

 

foot

meter

   
 

1 pound per square

6.895 kilonewtons per

6.895 kN/m²

0.11240

 

inch

square meter

   
 

1 millimeter of

133.3 newtons per square

133.3 N/m²

0.0075

 

mercury

meter

   
 

1 foot of water

2.989 kilonewtons per

2.989 KN/nm²

0.3346

   

square meter

   
 

1 atmosphere

0.1013 meganewton per

0.1013 MN/m'

9.87

   

square meter

   

Flow

1 gallon per day

0.04381 milliliters per

0.04381 ml/s

22.824

   

second

   
 

1 gallon per minute

63.08 milliliter per second

63.08 ml/s

0.01585

 

1 cubic foot per minute

0.4719 liter per second

0.4719 1/s

2.119

 

1 cubic foot per second

28.32 liters per second

28.32 Us

0.0353

FORCE

1 ounce

0.2780 newton

0.2780 N

3.597

 

1 pound

4.448 newtons

4.448 N

0.2248

 

1 ton (2000 pounds}

8.897 kilonewtons

8.897 kN 0.11240

 

 

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