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close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contents Getting ready
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
Open this folder and view contents Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
Open this folder and view contents Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist

Total Time: 2 1/2 hours


- Examination of the roles of an extensionist.

- Exploration of ways in which to introduce innovations to communities.

- Practice in communicating with community people regarding an innovation.

- To examine communication skills, verbal and non-verbal once more.


In this session, seven roles are isolated in the process by which a volunteer in the role of an extensionist introduces the concept of tree planting to his/her community. The area of communication is brought up again and skills that volunteers need are focused on. The nonverbal observation assignment from the previous week is discussed and trainees share with their partner their observations over the past week.

Exercise I:

1. Extensionist roles.

2. Communication skills - verbal and non-verbal, of an extensionist.


Flip charts, marker pens, tape.

Exercise I: Extensionist Roles

Total Time: 1 hour 20 minutes


In this exercise we look at the seven roles of an extension worker. Trainees discuss ways in which they can adopt these roles as volunteers doing extension work in their communities.





1. Trainer introduces the following seven roles and gives an explanation of each:


1.1 Develops need for change.


1.2 Establishes a change relationship.


1.3 Diagnoses the problem.


1.4 Creates intent to change in community members.


1.5 Translates intent into action.


1.6 Stabilizes change and prevents discontinuances.


1.7 Achieves a terminal relationship.

Notes: For trainer's discussion use local examples to illustrate each role.


1.1 Develops need for change - A volunteer is often initially required to help his/her community become aware of the need to alter their behavior. The behavior in this case is either planting trees, or the preservation of trees. This is especially true among campesinos whose potentials have not been realized and workers resist change. The unwillingness to accept change readily and other institutionalized behavioral patterns often result in the volunteer serving as a catalyst in the community. In order to do forestry extension work the volunteer points out new alternatives to existing forestry problems, dramatizes these problems and convinces campesinos that they are capable of confronting forestry problems. The volunteer acting as an extension worker not only assesses the community at this stage but also helps to create these needs in a consultative and persuasive manner.


1.2 Establish a change relationship Once the need for change is created, the volunteer must develop rapport with the community. He/she enhances his/her relationship with the community by creating an impression of credibility, trustworthiness, and empathy toward their needs and problems. Communities must trust the volunteer worker before they will accept the innovations he/she proposes.


1.3 Diagnosis of the problem - The extension worker is responsible for analyzing his community's problems/situation in order to determine why existing alternatives do not meet the community's needs. In arriving at his/her diagnostic conclusions, the extension worker must view the situation empathetically from the community's point of view and not his/her own. The volunteer extension worker must psychologically place themselves in their situations, put him/herself in their shoes, see their lives through their eyes. This empathy transferral is difficult.


1.4 Creates intent to change in community members - After the volunteer explores various avenues of action that his/her community might take to achieve their goals, he should encourage an intent to change, a motive to innovate. But the change must be communitycentered, rather than for change for the sake of change. Here the volunteer's role is to motivate.


1.5 Translates intent into action - The volunteer now seeks to influence his/her community's behavior in accordance with his recommendations which are based on the community's needs. In essence, the volunteer works to promote compliance with the program he/she advocates. This means more than simple agreement on intent. It means action or behavioral change.


1.6 Stabilizes change and prevents discontinuances - Volunteers may effectively stabilize new behavior by directly reinforcing messages to those community members who have adapted, thus "freezing. the new behavior. This assistance frequently is given when the campesino is at the trial-decision or confirmation function in the innovation-decision process.


1.7 Achieves a terminal relationship The end goal for the volunteer extension worker is development of self-renewing behavior on the part of his/her community. The volunteer should seek to put him/herself out of business by developing his/her community's ability to be their own change agent. In other words, the volunteer must seek to shift the community from a position of reliance on the volunteer to self-reliance.

(The above 7 roles have been adapted from: Communication of Innovations by Rogers & Shoemaker)


2. Trainer now asks group to form into small groups and envision the seven roles of an extension worker as objectives they have set for themselves

40 minutes

and then come up with action steps to achieve these objectives. Make a list of these steps on newsprint.

15 minutes or 20 minutes

3. Small groups now share with large group their action steps.


4. Trainer now does a summary of the presentations and introduces the next exercise.

Exercise II: Communication Skills - Verbal and Non-verbal, an Extensionist.

Total Time: 1 hour 15 minutes


In the proceeding exercise we have looked closely at the seven roles that an extension worker plays. Now we want to look at the kind of communication skills a volunteer will need to carry out extension work. In this exercise, we also process the session of the previous week by discussing, generalizing and applying the experience accumulated by the trainees in one week of observing non-verbal behavior with each other. Then the participants give each other feedback on what they saw each other doing, discuss observations and arrive at some working assumptions/generalizations about how non-verbal communications may he the most important part of their communications system in the early days of their volunteer work.




5 minutes

1. Trainer asks participants to list various kinds of communication skills they are going to need to carry out their role as extension workers.

5 minutes

2. Trainer now asks participants to call out skills and lists them on newsprint while they are called out.

3 minutes

3. Trainer makes general comments about skills trainees have not identified. If non-verbal skills have not been listed, trainer adds and makes the point that in the early days of volunteer service participants will send out many non-verbal messages that will he his/her first impact on communities.

10 minutes

4. Ask the group to form into the same pairs that have been observing each other for the past week and spend a few minutes telling each other what they observed each other doing in terms of non-verbal communication during that time. This should serve as a way for individuals to gain insights into how they use non-verbal processes in ways which they may not be aware of.

5 minutes

5. Bring group back together and draw out some generalizations from the experience of observing each.


6. Ask each pair to get with another pair and discuss the following questions.


Discussion questions should be posted on flip chart.


- Did any of you learn anything new about yourselves? What?


- Is there anything about non-verbal communications in general that you have learned from the experience?


- Have you any ideas on how you can use non-verbal communication as an extension worker? What are they?

15 minutes

7. Trainer now asks for comments from participants on communication skills. He then summarizes the verbal and non-verbal skills that an extension worker needs.