| Forestry training manual Inter-America Region |
Total Time: 3 1/2 hours
- To acquaint foresters with fruit tree care and grafting techniques.
Foresters are often expected to be experts in all trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of fruit tree culture.
Exercise I: Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.
Materials: Fruit trees for thinning, grafting, sharp knife, sharpening stone, plastic tape (grafting tape), bees wax.
Exercise I Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.
Total Time: 3 1/2 hours
In this exercise trainees learn about fruit trees and fruit tree reproduction.
1. Trainer gives the following lecture on fruit trees.
Grafting and Fruit Trees
FRUIT TREES AND FORESTRY
Foresters are often expected to be experts in all kinds of trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of some of the basics of fruit tree culture.
I. Differences between forestry for wood products and for fruit
A. Short term, usually annual production cycle.
B. Intensive cultural practices; fertilization, pruning, grafting, disease and pest control.
C. In summary, fruit trees are domesticated trees needing a series of special treatments.
II. Critical Cultural Practices in detail
1. Specific systems vary according to the crop
2. Some basic rules are generally valid a. space for every branch and a branch for every space. b. watch the timing - generally in the lowest growth period (dormancy) of the tree. c. prune in a way that the tree can heal over clear cuts, no projecting stumps - so that rain will not collect in the cut.
- The union of the cambium layers of a parent tree (stock) and a desired variety (scion) in such a way that the two form a solid, growing unit.
a. continued growth from the scion is true to the scion's characteristics and is not a combination of stock and scion.
b. essential to protect grafts of all types with wax and/or by wrapping to prevent drying out or mechanical damage.
a. to achieve desired variety of fruit with root stock adapted to local conditions.
b. to gain time - multiplying a desired variety; faster than plants from seeds.
c. to assure genetic purity.
d. to have several varieties on one tree for pollination purposes.
e. for repair purposes - renewing an old tree or repairing girdled trunks - rodents or mechanical damage.
- Beginning of the growth period.
a. top working - renewing of a tree
- cleft graft,
- whip graft,
- bark graft.
- bridge graft
- most practical and reliable,
- demonstrations and practice of cutting bud shields,
- T-cuts, inserting and wrapping.
2. Trainer now demonstrates grafting technique and trainees practice techniques.
Trainer's Note: During pilot we were able to arrange for some trainees to observe beekeeping during this same time. We gave trainees the choice between fruit tree grafting and beekeeping.