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close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contents Getting ready
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
Open this folder and view contents Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
Open this folder and view contents Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching

Slide Presentations

Total Time:


- To instruct trainees in procedures for presenting lesson of charlas;

- For trainees to practice setting up simple lesson plans to demonstrate to group;

- To discuss method for making and presenting a slide show.


During this session, trainees present special projects on lesson plans and slide presentations. This is a fun time and trainees enjoy making up lesson plans. A short slide show is also presented (if slides are available).


1. How to make a lesson plan.

2. How to make a slide show.

Materials: Flip chart, marker pens, tape, crayons, old magazines, scissors, paste, material scraps and slide projector.

Exercise I: How to make a Lesson Plan

Total Time: 1 ½ hours


In this exercise trainee for whom lesson plans has been a special project gives a lecture on making lesson plans by demonstrating one he/she has made up using "Teaching Conversation in Developing Nations" as a guide. Trainees then make up a simple lesson plan and give one minute demonstration of lesson plan either by actually presenting lesson or describing lesson plan they have developed.





1. Trainee responsible for lesson plans as special project gives lecture covering:


a. Stated objectives


b. Present information


c. Activity


d. Summary


e. Follow-up

Sample of trainees lecture follows

30 minutes

2. Trainer now gives assignment (or can have trainee give assignment) that everyone is to give a one minute lesson to group. They now have 30 minutes to plan using outline and prepare lesson plan.


3. Trainees give either short lesson or they have option of describing a lesson plan they might use in campo. List of lessons given are included for reference.

Short break for setting slide presentation.

List of Lessons

Proper way to use a knife

Proper way to tie a figure 8 knot

Having children draw leaves


Environmental collection

Sample drum roll

Soil erosion work


Flower cycle

5 senses in the environment

Proper way to cut a tree

Extension of our bodies

How to plant a terrarium

Names of Spanish tools

Lesson plan on pollution

Lesson plan on insects

Lesson plan demonstration on trees to control erosion

Lesson plan on parts of plant

Lesson plan on identification of tree species

Demonstration on how to play drums


lNTRODUCTION - You do not have to be a school teacher to teach basic conservation education. while the school system is the most centralized and organized medium for reaching communities, conservation education should not end there. Simple projects around your home in the backyard are just as effective and serve as an important educational tool when shared with neighbors.

Resources: The background you already have based on your education, readings and experiences should be taken seriously as resource materials. Of special importance is the manual "Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations. which can be ordered from Peace Corps at the following address:

Peace Corps

Information Collection and Exchange


806 Connecticut Avenue, NW

Washington, D.C. 20526

Other resources include:

Basic Education Outline - a syllabus outline of basic goals and topics in a logical progression.

I. Looking at the environment


To Develop an awareness of the environment, To understand some interelationships, To learn how people use and abuse their environment .


Rocks and soils,

Plant commununities,

Animal communities,

Relationships and man in the environment


Slide shows

Identification - Collections



Soil Examinations

Planting trees and gardens

II . Changes in the natural world


To understand life of plants and animals, To develop an awareness of ones impact, etc.


Products from plants and animals

Everyday activities and how they affect the environment,

Soil building,

What plants need to survive and produce.


Keep a diary of changes in environment,

Erosion Control project - i.e., curves de nivel,

Water collection and conservation,

Establish a community,

Fertilizer experiments,


III. Responsibility for Environment Conservation


To understand responsibilities for use and management of natural resources,

to learn conservation practices,

to learn what local government and national programs are doing.


conservator practices and alternatives,

sewage and solid waste disposal,

chemicals in everyday life.



presentations (store windows),

contact and work with local agencies,

map community and do,

develop a park with teachings signs.

Lesson Plans

1. State objectives

2. Present information using visual aids - pictures, slides, etc.

3. Activity -


construct examples

organize mingas

4. Summary - repeat main points

5. Follow-up and evaluation


Usos de bosque


Demonstrar various finificios de las arboles

Material necesario:

paper pare posters


cinta adnesive o masking

Exercise II Slide Show Presentation

Total Times 30 minutes


Trainee(a) who has taken on slide presentation as special project presents lecture on steps involved. Possibly the(se) trainee(s) could present a short slide show.




20 minutes

1. Trainee(s) for whom slide show presentation is-a special project gives lecture including the following steps:


a. Before you take pictures


b. Taking pictures


c. Organizing the presentation


d. Equipment


e. Slide show topics


f. Photo reproduction stand


Sample follows

10 minutes

2. Trainee gives short slide presentation to demonstrate lecture.


For a presentation on almost any subject, a slide show with pictures of good quality is an excellent medium. The following was written as a guide to producing a slide show.


A. Planning is very important. State objectives of the presentation. Keep it as specific as possible. Make a list of what you want to show. Research your subject and define specific scenes needed.

B. Complete charts, posters and book materials to use in the program.

C. Buy quality film from a reputable dealer.

D. Know your camera and be sure to clean lenses, etc. before beginning.


A. Action shots showing specific activities involving local people are ideal. Be sure the subjects are willing and explain why you are taking the shots.

B. Watch the background. Keep the focus of the shot on your specific subject.

C. Lifting graphs and charts from hooks can be very useful. Also, original drawings can he changed to slides simply. Excellent title slides and conclusions with written summaries can be made by taking a photo. A simple stand can be made to hold your camera above the page or book (see sketch #1). Close up tubes (automatic extension tubes) can be used to lift photographs for slide production. The slides can be made to look as it they were taken on location. For copying slides, attachments are available which mount onto a 35mm camera. This process reduces the need to rely on costly slide reproduction processes. In essence, you are taking a slide of a slide.


A. Written script - Scripts should be direct and concise. The presenter should take the time to review the presentation several times prior to the show (practice makes perfect!). Lither an entire script can be written or note cards utilized.

B. Tape recording accompaniment - There are troth pros and cons to a slide show including a tape recorded script and/or music. On the positive side is the ease of presentation. A taped script with music background may he more interesting to the viewers and appear more professional. A recording made by a local speaker may also alleviate language difficulties.

A few problems could arise due to:

1) difficulty in stopping to answer questions,

2) possible difficulty in coordination of tape with slides,

3) costs,

4) more equipment and electrical outlets needed.

It you decide to use a tape system, make sure that the speaker has good diction and uses the language indigenous to the area (In Ecuacor, costar Spanish differs from that of the Sierra).


The list or equipment needed can vary with the needs and resources available for slide show production.

Some equipment to consider is:

1. Reliable 35mm camera - Although not necessary, many options are available to a user of a SLR 35mm camera such as:

a. telephoto lenses

b. macro lenses

c. automatic extension tube sets

d. slide copiers

e. light filters - from skylight to polarized to infrared

f. wide angle and fish-eye lenses

2. Slide projector - A carousel type with a remote slide advancer is best. It would be easier to have enough carousels to enable you to store the slide show directly in the carousel.

3. Tape recorder - if you prefer "canned" slide shows a tape recorder which is easy to transport and use is needed.

4. Quality film and tapes - If the project is a large one, you may want to consider buying in bulk from a photo outlet. This would be cheaper in the long run and the majority of times results in the best quality (fresh) film available.

5. Extension cords - Many slide presentations have been inconvenienced or even ruined due to the lack or nonexistence of electrical outlets and extension cords.


Following is a list of slide show topics which we feel would be useful to Peace Corps foresters.

1. Starting a nursery - The following factors could be used as individual slide shows or incorporated into a single presentation.

a. site selection

b. seedbed preparation

c. seeds

d. planting

e. maintenance

f. costs

2. Agro-silvicultural systems - Specific systems could be handled as individual shows or could be used to present an overview of agro-forestry for any given area of the world.

3. Planting and transplanting a tree.

4. Types and uses of various tree species - Trees provide much more than just wood; from oils and resins to wildlife, food and cover. This show could cover specific species or present an overview.

5. Pest control - Forest pests throughout the world cost millions of dollars annually in terms of wood products lost and the associated costs of their supression. This presentation could deal with identifying when there is a problem, the causitive agent and possible remedies.

6. Exotic tree species - In some areas of the world, exotic trees are a necessity in reforestation projects. A show could help promote the tree's usage and deal with any special management problems.

7. Compost - Its benefits and usage. Extremely helpful for areas where the use of inorganic fertilizers can not be afforded. The show could demonstrate how to start a compost pile, maintain it, and use it for fertilization.

8. Erosion and its control - This could deal with the problem facing most developing countries, the alarming rate of land loss due to erosion by water and wind and ways in which to deal with it.

9. Land management - The aspect of total land management including management of agricultural crops, animals, forest, and pasture could he presented to the people to demonstrate better use of the land.

10. chainsaw use and safety - Modern harvesting methods are on the increase in developing nations. With the increase in the use of machinery comes the increased risk of accidents and injuries. This show would cover the sate use and operation of the basic "mechanized" tree harvesting tool.

These topics are some of our suggestions. Many possibilities exist for quality shows which can aid our work in the developing countries. It is UK' to us, as volunteers, to recognize the need and act accordingly.

Peace Corps Volunteers Terry and Bob Simeone and Mark Jackson contributed to this article.


(Fig. 53)