| Forestry training manual Inter-America Region |
|Information collection & exchange|
|Training program overview|
|Training program goals:|
|Forestry observation guide for site visit|
|1. Stock the library|
|Reference material listing|
|2. The training site|
|3. Plan the field trip|
|4. Tree planting site|
|5. Soil erosion site|
|Conducting the training program|
|Weekly evaluation form|
|Session I day one|
|Daily schedule for technical training|
|Session II special projects|
|Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles|
|Session IV Language class|
|Session V Exercise I: Record keeping|
|Session VI Exercise II|
|Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning|
|Session VIII Spanish language class|
|Session IX Non-verbal communication|
|Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery|
|Session XI Spanish language class|
|Session XII Cultural values|
|Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings|
|Session XIV Spanish language|
|Session XV Communication through illustration|
|Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers|
|Session XVII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Protection and record keeping|
|Session XIX Individual interviews|
|Session XX Planting trees|
|Session XXI Spanish language session|
|Session XXII Introduction to extension|
|Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning|
|Session XXIV Spanish language|
|Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist|
|Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass|
|Session XXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Forestry extension|
|Session XXIX Forest menstruation|
|Session XXX Spanish language|
|Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker|
|Can farming and forestry coexist in the tropics?|
|Some observations about agricultural plantations and agri-silviculture|
|Session XXXIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching|
|Session XXV Small research projects|
|Session XXXVI Individual interviews|
|Session XXXVII Soils|
|Session XXXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction|
|Session XL Soil erosion|
|Session XLI Spanish language|
|Session XLIII Watershed management|
|Session XLIV Spanish language|
|Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way|
|Session XLVI Spanish language|
|Session XLVII Species report|
|Session XLVIII Forestry issues|
|Exotic vs indigenous species|
|Exotics vs indigenous - Ecuador|
|Exotic vs. indigenous species - Paraguay|
|Session XLIX Spanish language|
|Session L Field trip overview|
|Session LI Ecology teams give presentations|
|Session LII Individual interviews|
|Session LIII Review of field trips|
|Session LIV Project planning: goal setting|
|Session LV Spanish language|
|Session LVI Resources|
|Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps|
|Session LVIII Spanish language|
|Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?|
|Session LX Grafting and fruit trees|
|Session LXI Spanish language|
|Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials|
|Session LXIII Final interviews|
|Session LXIV Graduation|
Total Time: 3 1/2 hours
- To acquaint foresters with fruit tree care and grafting techniques.
Foresters are often expected to be experts in all trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of fruit tree culture.
Exercise I: Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.
Materials: Fruit trees for thinning, grafting, sharp knife, sharpening stone, plastic tape (grafting tape), bees wax.
Exercise I Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.
Total Time: 3 1/2 hours
In this exercise trainees learn about fruit trees and fruit tree reproduction.
1. Trainer gives the following lecture on fruit trees.
Grafting and Fruit Trees
FRUIT TREES AND FORESTRY
Foresters are often expected to be experts in all kinds of trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of some of the basics of fruit tree culture.
I. Differences between forestry for wood products and for fruit
A. Short term, usually annual production cycle.
B. Intensive cultural practices; fertilization, pruning, grafting, disease and pest control.
C. In summary, fruit trees are domesticated trees needing a series of special treatments.
II. Critical Cultural Practices in detail
1. Specific systems vary according to the crop
2. Some basic rules are generally valid a. space for every branch and a branch for every space. b. watch the timing - generally in the lowest growth period (dormancy) of the tree. c. prune in a way that the tree can heal over clear cuts, no projecting stumps - so that rain will not collect in the cut.
- The union of the cambium layers of a parent tree (stock) and a desired variety (scion) in such a way that the two form a solid, growing unit.
a. continued growth from the scion is true to the scion's characteristics and is not a combination of stock and scion.
b. essential to protect grafts of all types with wax and/or by wrapping to prevent drying out or mechanical damage.
a. to achieve desired variety of fruit with root stock adapted to local conditions.
b. to gain time - multiplying a desired variety; faster than plants from seeds.
c. to assure genetic purity.
d. to have several varieties on one tree for pollination purposes.
e. for repair purposes - renewing an old tree or repairing girdled trunks - rodents or mechanical damage.
- Beginning of the growth period.
a. top working - renewing of a tree
- cleft graft,
- whip graft,
- bark graft.
- bridge graft
- most practical and reliable,
- demonstrations and practice of cutting bud shields,
- T-cuts, inserting and wrapping.
2. Trainer now demonstrates grafting technique and trainees practice techniques.
Trainer's Note: During pilot we were able to arrange for some trainees to observe beekeeping during this same time. We gave trainees the choice between fruit tree grafting and beekeeping.