Cover Image
close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
View the document Contents
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
close this folder Guidelines for users
View the document Workshop: tools, equipment, materials
View the document Hydram construction materials
View the document Sample worksheet for final materials list
View the document Suggested schedule for hydram workshop
close this folder Construction of a PVC hydram time: 4-5 hours (for demonstration purposes)
View the document Attachment A : PVC Hydram - illustration
close this folder Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 1A: "What's in a name"
View the document Handout 1B: Hydram Training Workshop Objectives
close this folder Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
View the document Handout 2A: Potential energy
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
View the document Handout 2C: Typical hydram
View the document Handout 2D: Glossary of terms for session 2
View the document Handout 2E: Hydram training workshop participant site information
close this folder Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
View the document Handout 3A: Using a Weir
View the document Handout 3B: Using a Weir - diagram
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table - metric
View the document Handout 3D: The float method of measurement
close this folder Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 4A: Calibrating a sight level
View the document Handout 4B: Using a sight level
View the document Handout 4C: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4D: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4E: Distance and head measurement worksheet
close this folder Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 5A: Review exercise #1
View the document Handout 5B: Answers to review exercise #1
close this folder Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
View the document Handout 6A: Pressure analysis
View the document Handout 6B: Glossary of terms for session 6
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
close this folder Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 7A: Typical fittings
close this folder Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
View the document Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves
View the document Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves
View the document Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram
close this folder Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 9A-1: Welded hydram: side view
View the document Handout 9A-2: Welded hydram: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-3: Welded hydram: impulse cavity exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-4: Welded hydram: accumulator: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-5: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
View the document Handout 9A-7: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
close this folder Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
View the document Handout 10A: Concrete hydram design parameters
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - inches
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10H: Exploded view of 2- piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10I: Side view 2-piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10J: Two piece concrete hydram form
View the document Handout 10K: Two piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10L: One Piece Concrete Hydram Form
View the document Handout 10M: Problem
View the document Handout 10N: Materials and procedures
close this folder Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 11A: Typical impulse valve
View the document Handout 11B: Typical check valves
View the document Handout 11C: Typical snifters
close this folder Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
View the document Handout 12A - Hydram comparison
close this folder Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
close this folder Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
View the document Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency
View the document Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio
View the document Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered
View the document Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency
View the document Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency
View the document Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency
View the document Handout 13B: Typical hydram experiment set-up
View the document Handout 13C: Sample graphs
close this folder Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 14A: Repair and maintenance chart
View the document Handout 14 B: Repair and maintenance worksheet
View the document Handout 14 C: Maintenance/service worksheet
close this folder Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 15A: Review exercise
close this folder Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 16A: Series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16B: Waste water series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16C: Parallel hydrams
View the document Handout 16D: Sample problems
close this folder Session 17: Site development (2 hours)
View the document Handout 17A: Settling area - take-off system
View the document Handout 17B: Hydram box
View the document Handout 17C: Guidelines/checklist
View the document Handout 17D: Site development
View the document Handout 17E: Glossary of terms
close this folder Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 18A: Hydram system site selection
View the document Handout 18B: Diagram system for site selection
View the document Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the document Glossary of terms
View the document English-metric units conversion table
View the document References
close this folder Attachments
View the document Attachment 1-A
View the document Attachment 1-B
View the document Attachment 2-A
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 2-C
View the document Attachment 2-D
View the document Attachment 2-E
View the document Attachment 3-A
View the document Attachment 3-B
View the document Attachment 3-C
View the document Attachment 3-C - metric
View the document Attachment 3-D
View the document Attachment 4-A
View the document Attachment 4-B
View the document Attachment 4-C
View the document Attachment 4-D
View the document Attachment 5-A
View the document Attachment 5-B
View the document Attachment 6-A
View the document Attachment 6-B
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 7-A
View the document Attachment 8-A
View the document Attachment 8-B
View the document Attachment 8-C
View the document Attachment 10-B
View the document Attachment 10B - metric
View the document Attachment 10-C
View the document Attachment 10-C - metric
View the document Attachment 10-D
View the document Attachment 10-D - metric
View the document Attachment 10-E
View the document Attachment 10-E - metric
View the document Attachment 10-F
View the document Attachment 10-F - metric
View the document Attachment 9-A-1
View the document Attachment 9-A-2
View the document Attachment 9-A-3
View the document Attachment 9-A-4
View the document Attachment 9-A-5
View the document Attachment 9-A-7
View the document Attachment 10-A
View the document Attachment 10-H
View the document Attachment 10-I
View the document Attachment 10-J
View the document Attachment 10-L
View the document Attachment 10-M
View the document Attachment 10-N
View the document Attachment 11-A
View the document Attachment 11-B
View the document Attachment 11-C
View the document Attachment 12-A
View the document Attachment 13-A
View the document Attachment 13-B
View the document Attachment 13-C
View the document Attachment 14-A
View the document Attachment 14-B
View the document Attachment 14-C
View the document Attachment 15-A
View the document Attachment 16-A
View the document Attachment 16-B
View the document Attachment 16-C
View the document Attachment 16-D
View the document Attachment 17-A
View the document Attachment 17-B
View the document Attachment 17-C
View the document Attachment 17-D
View the document Attachment 17-E
View the document Attachment 18-A
View the document Attachment 18-B
View the document Attachment - Glossary of terms
View the document Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

Attachment 8-C

Session 8, Handout 8C

Materials needed for fabricated pipe-fitting hydram

Handouts 9-B,

30" 3/8-16 althread

pipe joint compound or TFE tape

4 3/8-16 nuts

1 3" cap

1 ¼-20xl" bolt (drilled out)

2 3" tees

1 ¼-20 x 3/4" bolt

3 3"x 1" reducing bushings

- 1 ¼-20 x 4" althread

1 3"x ½" reducing bushing

1 2½" OD washer

1 3"x 18" nipple

6 1½" OD washer

1 ¼" x 4" nipple

4 ¼-20 nuts

1 1" 90° sweep

1 3/4" OD washer

6"x 8"x ¼" sheet rubber

5 8-32 x 3/4" screws

6"x 6"x ¼" steel plate

2 8-32 x 3/4" bolts

3"x 1"x 1/8" angle iron

 

Tools needed for fabricated pipe-fitting hydram

two pipe wrenches

knife

electric or hand drill

flat file, half round file

drill bits (3/8, 13/64, and 1/8)

hack saw

2" hole saw

1" pipe threader

¼-20 and 8-32 taps

tape measure

screwdriver

adjustable wrench

access to metalworking shop

sandpaper (medium & fine)

   

NOTES

 

(FOR FABRICATED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM)

 

6.

Impulse Valve

 
 

A. Sand, grind or file the aim of a 3" tee (#3) until it has a smooth surface.

 
 

B. Bend two pieces of 3/8 x 15" althread (#27) around the body of the tee so that the 4 ends extend 1" above the arm.

 
 

C. Drill a 2" hole in the center of a 6"x 6" piece of steel (#14), then drill 3/8" holes in the corners of the steel where the althread goes through (approx. 4½" apart). Be certain to sand smooth and round off all edges. Drill and tap two 832 holes in plate as shown in Handout 9B, decal A #14, and attach the stroke adjustment bracket (#22).

 
 

D. Cut out a piece of rubber (#15) with the same outside dimensions and hole pattern as the steel plate but with a horseshoeshaped hole in the middle as shown in Handout 9B (#15).

 
 

E. Assemble the impulse valve as shown in Handout 9B, Detail A.

 

7.

Snifter

 
 

Extend the thread on one end of a 1" 90° sweep (#7) to extend through a 1 x 3" reducing bushing (#4). Drill and tap a ¼-20 hole near the extended end of the sweep and assemble the snifter as shown in Handout 9B, Detail C, so that the air hole can be covered and uncovered by the lock nut.

 

8.

Check Valve

 
 

A. Drill and tap two holes in the bottom and one in the side of a 1 x 3" reducing bushing for the 8-32 screws as shown in the Handout, Detail B.

The hole in the side should be located so that 8-32 screwhead will be1/16" above the check valve rubber

 

B. Cut out a piece of rubber ¼-20 for the check valve, bolt washers to the rubber and screw the valve to the 1 x 3" reducing bushing.

 
 

C. Drill and tap a hole in the bottom of the bushing opposite the 2 previously drilled holes. When a 8-32 screw is inserted the head will overlap the check valve, creating an adjustable stroke. (See Detail B)

 

9.

Body of the Ram

 
 

Attach all the fittings as shown in Handout 9B, using either pipe joint compound or TFE tape.

 

10.

Have each group install their hydram on the test stand or another source of water and start the hydram working.

 

11.

Discuss the applicability of the fabricated pipe-fitting hydram.