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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
View the document Contents
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
close this folder Guidelines for users
View the document Workshop: tools, equipment, materials
View the document Hydram construction materials
View the document Sample worksheet for final materials list
View the document Suggested schedule for hydram workshop
close this folder Construction of a PVC hydram time: 4-5 hours (for demonstration purposes)
View the document Attachment A : PVC Hydram - illustration
close this folder Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 1A: "What's in a name"
View the document Handout 1B: Hydram Training Workshop Objectives
close this folder Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
View the document Handout 2A: Potential energy
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
View the document Handout 2C: Typical hydram
View the document Handout 2D: Glossary of terms for session 2
View the document Handout 2E: Hydram training workshop participant site information
close this folder Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
View the document Handout 3A: Using a Weir
View the document Handout 3B: Using a Weir - diagram
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table - metric
View the document Handout 3D: The float method of measurement
close this folder Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 4A: Calibrating a sight level
View the document Handout 4B: Using a sight level
View the document Handout 4C: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4D: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4E: Distance and head measurement worksheet
close this folder Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 5A: Review exercise #1
View the document Handout 5B: Answers to review exercise #1
close this folder Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
View the document Handout 6A: Pressure analysis
View the document Handout 6B: Glossary of terms for session 6
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
close this folder Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 7A: Typical fittings
close this folder Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
View the document Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves
View the document Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves
View the document Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram
close this folder Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 9A-1: Welded hydram: side view
View the document Handout 9A-2: Welded hydram: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-3: Welded hydram: impulse cavity exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-4: Welded hydram: accumulator: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-5: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
View the document Handout 9A-7: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
close this folder Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
View the document Handout 10A: Concrete hydram design parameters
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - inches
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10H: Exploded view of 2- piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10I: Side view 2-piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10J: Two piece concrete hydram form
View the document Handout 10K: Two piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10L: One Piece Concrete Hydram Form
View the document Handout 10M: Problem
View the document Handout 10N: Materials and procedures
close this folder Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 11A: Typical impulse valve
View the document Handout 11B: Typical check valves
View the document Handout 11C: Typical snifters
close this folder Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
View the document Handout 12A - Hydram comparison
close this folder Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
close this folder Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
View the document Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency
View the document Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio
View the document Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered
View the document Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency
View the document Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency
View the document Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency
View the document Handout 13B: Typical hydram experiment set-up
View the document Handout 13C: Sample graphs
close this folder Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 14A: Repair and maintenance chart
View the document Handout 14 B: Repair and maintenance worksheet
View the document Handout 14 C: Maintenance/service worksheet
close this folder Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 15A: Review exercise
close this folder Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 16A: Series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16B: Waste water series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16C: Parallel hydrams
View the document Handout 16D: Sample problems
close this folder Session 17: Site development (2 hours)
View the document Handout 17A: Settling area - take-off system
View the document Handout 17B: Hydram box
View the document Handout 17C: Guidelines/checklist
View the document Handout 17D: Site development
View the document Handout 17E: Glossary of terms
close this folder Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 18A: Hydram system site selection
View the document Handout 18B: Diagram system for site selection
View the document Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the document Glossary of terms
View the document English-metric units conversion table
View the document References
close this folder Attachments
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View the document Attachment 2-E
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View the document Attachment 3-C - metric
View the document Attachment 3-D
View the document Attachment 4-A
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View the document Attachment 4-C
View the document Attachment 4-D
View the document Attachment 5-A
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View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 7-A
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View the document Attachment 8-C
View the document Attachment 10-B
View the document Attachment 10B - metric
View the document Attachment 10-C
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View the document Attachment 10-D
View the document Attachment 10-D - metric
View the document Attachment 10-E
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View the document Attachment 10-F - metric
View the document Attachment 9-A-1
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View the document Attachment 18-A
View the document Attachment 18-B
View the document Attachment - Glossary of terms
View the document Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

Attachment 13-A

Session 13, Handout 13A

Exercise 1: h:H Ratio Has On Efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT THE h:H RATIO HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n), water delivered (q), water used (Q.), time of experiment, water wasted (Qw)

Controlled Variables: Delivery head (h)

Constants: Drive head (H),frequency (f), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 2:1 to 20:1

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making sure to keep the drive head, frequency and the volume of air in the accumulator the same and change the delivery head in order to develop a new h:H ratio.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT THE h:H RATIO HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the delivery head to drive head ratio on efficiency

Exercise 2: frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE FREQUENCY ON THE MAXIMUM DELIVERY HEAD TO DRIVE HEAD RATIO

Variables: delivery head (h), water used (Q.), water wasted(Qw), water delivered (q)

Controlled Variables: amount of air in the accumulator, frequency (f)

Constants: drive head

Range: high frequency to low

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator and then

6. Set the frequency to as fast as possible.

7. With delivery valve shut measure the maximum delivery head with a pressure gauge. (Make certain that the hydram that is used is designed for the pressures that will be encountered.)

8. Repeat the experiment while slowing down the frequency by even increments making certain that the volume of air in the accumulator remains the same.

9. From the pressure reading calculate the delivery head and the h:H ratio.

TOOLS AND MATERIALS NEEDED:

TASK: Determine the effect of the frequency on the maximum delivery dead to drive head ratio

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio

Exercise 3: frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON EFFICIENCY, QUANTITY OF WATER ENTERING THE HYDRAM AND QUANTITY OF WATER DELIVERED.

Variables: time of the experiment, efficiency (n), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), water wasted (Qw)

Controlled Variables: frequency

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: slow to fast

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head, and delivery head the same while changing the frequency.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON EFFICIENCY, QUANTITY OF WATER ENTERING THE HYDRAM AND QUANTITY OF WATER DELIVERED

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered

Exercise 4: volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE VOLUME OF AIR IN THE ACCUMULATOR ON EFFICIENCY.

Variables: time of the experiment, efficiency (n), water wasted (Qw), water pumped (q), water used (Q)

Controlled Variables: volume of air in the accumulator

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), frequency (f)

Range: no air - 24" of air

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the drive head, delivery head and frequency the same while changing the volume of air in the accumulator.

TASK: Determine the effect of the volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency

Exercise 5: drive pipe length on efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE PIPE LENGTH ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n) water wasted (Qw) water used (Q) water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: length of the drive pipe

Constants: frequency (f), drive head(H), delivery head (h) volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 10' - 80'

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head (H), delivery head (h) and frequency the same while changing the length of the drive pipe.

TASK: determine the effect of the drive pipe length on length on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the drive pipe length of efficiency

Exercise 6

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE PIPE DIAMETER ON EFFICIENCY.

Variables: water wasted (Q ), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: drive pipe diameter (D)

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), frequency (f), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: ½, 3/4, 1"

PROCEDURES:

1. Install hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head, delivery head, length of drive pipe, and frequency the same while changing the diameter of the drive pipe.

TASK: Determine the effect of drive pipe diameter on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


Effect of the drive pipe diameter on efficiency

Exercise 7

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE SNIFTER ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: time of experiment, water wasted (Qw) water used (Q), water delivered (q), efficiency

Controlled Variables: Snifter open, snifter closed, one way snifter

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: sucking air and spitting water

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q), and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency.

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head (H), delivery head (h), and frequency the same while changing the snifter from an open snifter, a one way snifter to no snifter at all.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT SNIFTER HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   

Exercise 8

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE MATERIAL ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n), water wasted ( Qw), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: volume of air in the accumulator, delivery head (H), frequency (f)

Constants: frequency (f), drive head (h), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 5.1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1 for both steel and plastic pipes.

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the drive head frequency, volume of air in the accumulator, and drive pipe material the same until you have accurate efficiency calculations for h:H ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1.

10. Repeat the series of experiments after changing the drive pipe to a different material making certain that everything else stays the same.

TASK: Determine the effect of the drive pipe material on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the drive pipe material on efficiency