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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
View the document Contents
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
close this folder Guidelines for users
View the document Workshop: tools, equipment, materials
View the document Hydram construction materials
View the document Sample worksheet for final materials list
View the document Suggested schedule for hydram workshop
close this folder Construction of a PVC hydram time: 4-5 hours (for demonstration purposes)
View the document Attachment A : PVC Hydram - illustration
close this folder Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 1A: "What's in a name"
View the document Handout 1B: Hydram Training Workshop Objectives
close this folder Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
View the document Handout 2A: Potential energy
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
View the document Handout 2C: Typical hydram
View the document Handout 2D: Glossary of terms for session 2
View the document Handout 2E: Hydram training workshop participant site information
close this folder Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
View the document Handout 3A: Using a Weir
View the document Handout 3B: Using a Weir - diagram
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table - metric
View the document Handout 3D: The float method of measurement
close this folder Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 4A: Calibrating a sight level
View the document Handout 4B: Using a sight level
View the document Handout 4C: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4D: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4E: Distance and head measurement worksheet
close this folder Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 5A: Review exercise #1
View the document Handout 5B: Answers to review exercise #1
close this folder Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
View the document Handout 6A: Pressure analysis
View the document Handout 6B: Glossary of terms for session 6
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
close this folder Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 7A: Typical fittings
close this folder Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
View the document Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves
View the document Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves
View the document Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram
close this folder Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 9A-1: Welded hydram: side view
View the document Handout 9A-2: Welded hydram: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-3: Welded hydram: impulse cavity exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-4: Welded hydram: accumulator: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-5: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
View the document Handout 9A-7: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
close this folder Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
View the document Handout 10A: Concrete hydram design parameters
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - inches
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10H: Exploded view of 2- piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10I: Side view 2-piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10J: Two piece concrete hydram form
View the document Handout 10K: Two piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10L: One Piece Concrete Hydram Form
View the document Handout 10M: Problem
View the document Handout 10N: Materials and procedures
close this folder Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 11A: Typical impulse valve
View the document Handout 11B: Typical check valves
View the document Handout 11C: Typical snifters
close this folder Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
View the document Handout 12A - Hydram comparison
close this folder Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
close this folder Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
View the document Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency
View the document Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio
View the document Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered
View the document Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency
View the document Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency
View the document Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency
View the document Handout 13B: Typical hydram experiment set-up
View the document Handout 13C: Sample graphs
close this folder Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 14A: Repair and maintenance chart
View the document Handout 14 B: Repair and maintenance worksheet
View the document Handout 14 C: Maintenance/service worksheet
close this folder Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 15A: Review exercise
close this folder Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 16A: Series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16B: Waste water series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16C: Parallel hydrams
View the document Handout 16D: Sample problems
close this folder Session 17: Site development (2 hours)
View the document Handout 17A: Settling area - take-off system
View the document Handout 17B: Hydram box
View the document Handout 17C: Guidelines/checklist
View the document Handout 17D: Site development
View the document Handout 17E: Glossary of terms
close this folder Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 18A: Hydram system site selection
View the document Handout 18B: Diagram system for site selection
View the document Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the document Glossary of terms
View the document English-metric units conversion table
View the document References
close this folder Attachments
View the document Attachment 1-A
View the document Attachment 1-B
View the document Attachment 2-A
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 2-C
View the document Attachment 2-D
View the document Attachment 2-E
View the document Attachment 3-A
View the document Attachment 3-B
View the document Attachment 3-C
View the document Attachment 3-C - metric
View the document Attachment 3-D
View the document Attachment 4-A
View the document Attachment 4-B
View the document Attachment 4-C
View the document Attachment 4-D
View the document Attachment 5-A
View the document Attachment 5-B
View the document Attachment 6-A
View the document Attachment 6-B
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 7-A
View the document Attachment 8-A
View the document Attachment 8-B
View the document Attachment 8-C
View the document Attachment 10-B
View the document Attachment 10B - metric
View the document Attachment 10-C
View the document Attachment 10-C - metric
View the document Attachment 10-D
View the document Attachment 10-D - metric
View the document Attachment 10-E
View the document Attachment 10-E - metric
View the document Attachment 10-F
View the document Attachment 10-F - metric
View the document Attachment 9-A-1
View the document Attachment 9-A-2
View the document Attachment 9-A-3
View the document Attachment 9-A-4
View the document Attachment 9-A-5
View the document Attachment 9-A-7
View the document Attachment 10-A
View the document Attachment 10-H
View the document Attachment 10-I
View the document Attachment 10-J
View the document Attachment 10-L
View the document Attachment 10-M
View the document Attachment 10-N
View the document Attachment 11-A
View the document Attachment 11-B
View the document Attachment 11-C
View the document Attachment 12-A
View the document Attachment 13-A
View the document Attachment 13-B
View the document Attachment 13-C
View the document Attachment 14-A
View the document Attachment 14-B
View the document Attachment 14-C
View the document Attachment 15-A
View the document Attachment 16-A
View the document Attachment 16-B
View the document Attachment 16-C
View the document Attachment 16-D
View the document Attachment 17-A
View the document Attachment 17-B
View the document Attachment 17-C
View the document Attachment 17-D
View the document Attachment 17-E
View the document Attachment 18-A
View the document Attachment 18-B
View the document Attachment - Glossary of terms
View the document Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

Attachment - Glossary of terms

Accumulator - (air dome) the air chamber on the hydram which cushions the water hammer, eliminating delivery pulsations and helps provide rebound.

Atmospheric pressure - the pressure at sea level caused by the weight of air; atmospheric pressure = 14.7 and 0 psig.

Battery of Hydrams - (or parallel hydrams) a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are connected to the same source with different drive pipes, but usually with the same delivery pipe. This type of installation is used where the size of the hydram is limited.

Check Valve - (non-return valve, secondary valve, internal valve) the internal valve in the hydram that prevents the delivery head pressure from forcing water back through the hydram body.

Delivery head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the storage tank that the hydram is pumping to.

Delivery pipe - the pipe which connects the output of the hydram to the storage tank.

Drive head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the supply system.

Drive pipe - a rigid pipe usually made of galvanized steel that connects the hydram to the source reservoir or stand pipe.

Efficiency - (n) the ratio of the energy input to the energy output; a measure of how well a hydram functions;




Force - to move something against resistance, pressure times the area measured in pounds, newtons or dynes.

Frequency - (f) the number of times a hydram cycles in one minute. h:H ratio - (delivery to drive head ratio) the ratio of lift to fall. The inverse of this ratio times the efficiency of the hydram will determine the percentage of water the hydram will pump. The higher the h:H ratio, the lower the hydram efficiency (n). The usual range of the h:H ratio is from 2:1 to 20:1 but h:H ratios have been measured up to 60:1.

Holding tank - (storage tank) the means of storing water once it has been pumped to the desired head.

Hydram - (hydraulic ram, hydraulic ram pump, automatic hydraulic ram pump, ram) an ingenious device that uses the force of water falling through a drive pipe to pump water to a height greater than its source, making use of hydraulic principles and requiring no fuel.

Hydram capacity - the maximum amount of water a hydram can use. This is determined by the drive pipe size and length, the drive head, and the impulse valve size and design.

Impulse Valve - (clack valve, out-side valve, impetus valve, waste valve) the valve on the hydram that creates and controls the water hammer.

Impulse valve stroke - the distance the impulse valve travels during a cycle.

Impulse valve weight - the total weight or downward force of the impulse valve and its springs or weights.

Kenetic energy - active energy, ½ the mass times the velocity squared

EK = ½ mv2

L:D ratio - drive pipe length to diameter ratio, should be kept between 150-1000.

L:H ratio - drive pipe length to head ratio, when it is less than 15 ft. L:H should equal 6.

When H is greater than 15 ft. but less than 25 should = 4

When H is greater than 20 " ,, " " 50 " = 3

When H is greater than 50 L:H ratio should equal 2. (see Glossary, Session 6 for metric equivalents)

Potential energy - energy derived from position or height; is equal to the height that a mass can fall times its weight.

Pressure - force applied over a surface measured as force per unit of area such as pounds per square inch (psi) (a head of 28" of water develops a pressure of 1 psi) or a pascal (Pa) which is equal to 1 newton per square meter (a head of 1 cm = 98 Pa) 18" of water equals 71.1 cm of water equals 1 psi = 6895 Pa.

Ram box - the small structure usually made out of concrete and/or wood which houses a hydram protecting it from freezing, weathering and possibly from vandalizing.

Rebound - the flow of water in the ram reversing direction due to the air pressure in the accumulator, closing the check valve.

Series hydram - a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are used in series to pump water higher than one hydram could.

Settling basin - a small tank usually made of steel or concrete that is used in place of a stand pipe in an installation where additional settling is necessary.

Snifter valve - (air valve, spit valve) the small valve just below the check valve that allows air to enter the hydram.

Spring box - a concrete box built around a spring to facilitate water collection and to protect the water source from surface contaminates.

Spring box overflow pipe - a pipe placed in the wall of a spring box near the top for unused water to exit through.

Stand pipe - an open-ended, vertical pipe sometimes used at the beginning of the drive pipe.

Static head - a column of water without motion. The static drive head of a hydram can be measured with a pressure gauge but only when ram is stopped and the drive pipe is full of water.

Supply pipe - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some, but not necessarily all, of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.

Supply system - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some but not necessarily all of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.

Time of cycle - (t) the time it takes for a hydram to complete one cycle, such as the time lapse between the impulse valve closing twice.

Velocity - speed usually measured in feet per second or meters per second.

Waste water - (Qw) the water coming out of the impulse valve and the snifter.

Waste water drain - the drain in the bottom of a ram box which allows the waste water from the hydram to drain out.

Waste water series hydrams - a hydram installation where one hydram uses the waste water from another as a source to pump a higher percentage of the water.

Hater delivered - (q) the rate at which water is delivered to the storage tank; Q x H x n q = h

Water flow to the hydram - (Q) all the water used by a hydram which is equal to the waste water (Qw) plus the water delivered (q).

Water hammer - the effect created when water flowing through a pipe is suddenly stopped. In a hydram this causes the closing of the impulse valve and opening of check valve.

Water used - (Q) the amount of water that flows through the drive pipe during a unit of time (as in gallons per minute or liters per second) which is equal to the water pumped (q) plus the water wasted (Qw)

The flow rate range of hydrams are as follows:

Drive pipe diameter

Flow rate

mm

in

U.S.

gal/min

Imperial

gal/min

liters/min

 

19

3/4

0.8 -

2

0.6 -

1.7

2.8 -

7.6

25

1

1.5 -

4

1.3 -

3.3

5.7 -

15.0

32

1.5 -

7

1.3 -

5.8

5.7 -

26.0

38

1 2

2.5 -

13

2.0 -

10.8

9.4 -

49.0

50

2

6.0 -

20

5.0 -

17.0

23.0 -

76.0

63

10.0 -

45

8.0 -

38.0

38.0 -

170.0

75

3

15.0 -

50

13.0 -

42.0

57.0 -

189.0

100

4

30.0 -

125

25.0 -

104.0

113.0 -

473.0

125

5

40.0 -

150

33.0 -

125.0

151.0 -

567.0

IMPORTANT NUMBERS TO REMEMBER

1440 minutes in a day

433 psi per foot (measured vertically ) of water column

28 inches of C, water column produces 1 psi

14.7 psi atmospheric pressure

7. 48 gallons per cubic foot