| Animal Disease control and treatment |
Diseases are abnormal conditions of the body. You can tell an animal has a disease by looking for symptoms, or observable signs.
A disease may be acute or chronic.
· Acute diseases appear suddenly, last only a short time, but are severe.
· Chronic diseases last a long time, but are not usually severe.
Animals can get sick if:
· they come in close contact with sick animals;
· they graze in an area where sick animals have grazed or died, or
· they do not receive proper care and food.
A sick animal shows one or more of the following signs:
· Staying away from other animals.
· Loss or lack of appetite.
· Frequent thirst and shivers.
· Constipation or diarrhea.
· Drooping ears, tail or wings.
· Change in color.
· Abnormal discharges like pus, mucus.
Classification of diseases
Diseases may affect different parts of the animal's body.
· Digestive-affects stomach and intestines
· Respiratory—affects breathing and lungs.
· Urinary—affects kidneys and bladder.
· Reproductive—affects uterus, vagina, ovaries (in females) or penis, testes (males).
· Contagious. These are diseases transmitted directly from one animal to another. Examples: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Hog Cholera.
· Infectious. Diseases caused by microscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and one-celled parasites (protozoa). Many infectious diseases are contagious (see below). Others such as tetanus, are not contagious.
· Parasitic. Diseases due to different kinds of parasites. Examples: Mange, lice infestation, worms.
· Deficiency. Diseases due to different kinds of nutritional deficiency. Example: Iron deficiency.
· Metabolism. Diseases due to some kind of an upset which affects important body processes. Example: Milk fever.
· Poisoning. Disorder due to eating something that destroys tissues or interferes with normal body functions. Example: Lead poisoning.
· Injuries. Damage done by cuts or accidents. Example: Fractures.
· Miscellaneous. Includes disorders diet do not properly belong under any of the other headings Example: Prolapse of uterus.
Prevention and control of any disease can be assisted in a number of ways:
· Education of farmers.
· Good management and feeding.
· Sanitation (keeping animals and housing clean).
· Early treatment.
· Isolation of sick animals.