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close this book Calliandra calothyrsus - Production and use: A Field Manual
View the document Preface
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document 1. Botany and Ecology
View the document 2. Seed Collection and Production
View the document 3. Establishment
View the document 4. Uses
View the document 5. Fodder Production
View the document 6. Pests and Diseases
View the document Seed and inoculant suppliers
View the document Authors
View the document Selected References
View the document Morphological and seedling keys to the identification of species in the Racemosae.

Selected References

Botany and ecology

Chang B., and H. Martinez. 1984. Germplasm resources of Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn. in Central America and Panama. Forest Genetic Resources Information 13:54-58.

Macqueen, D. J. 1993a. Calliandra series Racemosae: Taxonomic information, OFI seed collections, trial design. Oxford Forestry Institute. Oxford, UK.

Maqueen, D. J. 1996. Calliandra taxonomy and distribution, with particular reference to the Racemosoe. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue), Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 1-17.

Soedarsono, R., A. G. Gintings, and I. Samsoedin. 1996. Historical introduction of Calliandra in Indonesia. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 18-25.

Seed collection and production

Bawa, K. S., and C. J. Webb. 1984. Flower, fruit, and seed abortion in tropical forest trees: Implications for the evolution of paternal and maternal reproductive patterns. American Journal of Botany 71 :736-751.

Boland, D. S., and B. Owor. 1996. Some aspects of floral biology and seed production in exotic Calliandra calothyrsus at Maseno, Kenya. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 49-61.

Chamberlain, J. R., and A. J. Pottinger. 1995. Genetic improvement of Calliandra calothyrsus. In D. O. Evans and L. T. Szott, eds. Nitrogen fixing trees for acid soils. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 250-257.

Chamberlain, J. R., and R. J. Rajaselvam. 1996a. Calliandra seed production—a problem or not? In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 29-33.

Chamberlain, J. R., and R. J. Rajaselvam. 1996b. Calliandra calothyrsus pollinator behavior and seed production. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 34-40.

Macqueen, D. J. 1992. Calliandra calothyrsus: implications of plant taxonomy, ecology, and biology for seed collection. Commonwealth Forestry Review 71 :20-34.

Macqueen, D. J. 1993a. Calliandra series Racemosoe: Taxonomic information, OFI seed collections, trial design. Oxford Forestry Institute. Oxford, UK.

Macqueen, D. J. 1993b. Exploration and collection of Calliandra calothyrsus. Final Report, ODA Research Scheme R.4585. Oxford Forestry Institute. Oxford, UK.

NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1983. Calliandra: A versatile small tree for the humid tropics. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C..

Rajaselvam, R. J., H. P. M. Gunasena, and J. R. Chamberlain. 1996. Reproductive biology of Calliandra calothyrsus in relation to its seed production in Sri Lanka. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 41-48.

Establishment

Briscoe, C.B. 1989. Field trials manual for multipurpose tree species. Multipurpose tree species network research series; manual no. 3. Winrock International. Bangkok, Thailand.

Castellano, M. A., and R. Molina. 1989. Mycorrhizae. In T. D. Landis, R. W. Tinus, S. E. McDonald, and J. P. Barnett, eds. The container tree nursery manual. Volume 5. USDA Forest Service. Washington, D.C.. p. 101-167.

Diem, H. G., K. Ben Khalifa, M. Neyra, and Y. R. Dommergues. 1989. Recent advances in the inoculant technology with special emphasis on plant symbiotic microorganisms. In U. Leone, G. Rinaldi, and R. Vanore, eds. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Increased Agricultural Production: Actual situation, future prospects, and concrete possibilities of application in developing countries. CNR-USG. Rome. p. 196 209.

Evans, J. 1982. Plantation forestry in the tropics. Oxford University Press. New York, USA.

Ferguson, J. J., and S. H. Woodhead. 1982. Production of endomycorrhizal inoculum. A: Increase and maintenance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In N. C. Schenck, ed. Methods and principles of mycorrhizal research. American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. p. 47-54.

Jackson, J. K. 1989. Manual of afforestation in Nepal. Kathmandu: Nepal-UK Forestry Research Project, Forest Research Division, Department of Forestry and Plant Research.

Keyser, H. 1990. Inoculating tree legume seed and seedlings with rhizobia Nitrogen Fixation by Tropical Agricultural Legumes (NifTAL) Center. Paia, Hawaii, USA.

Liegel, L. H., and C. R. Venator. 1987. A technical guide for forest nursery management in the Caribbean and Latin America General Technical Report S0-67. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Longman, K. A. 1993. Rooting cuttings of tropical trees. Commonwealth Science Council. London, UK.

Malajczuk, N., N. Jones, and C. Neely. Undated. The importance of Mycorrhiza to forest trees. Land Resources Series No. 2. World Bank, Asia Technical Department. Washington, D.C..

Postgate, J. R. 1987. Nitrogen fixation. Institute of Biology, Studies in Biology. Second edition. Edward Arnold. London, UK.

Roshetko, J. M., D. O. Lantagne, M. A. Gold, B. Morikawa, and S. Krecik. 1996. Recommendations for establishing and managing Calliandra calothyrsus as a fodder resource in Jamaica. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports. (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 168-179.

Roskoski, J. P. 1989. Biological nitrogen fixation: Commonly asked questions and answers. Nitrogen Fixation by Tropical Agricultural Legumes (NifTAL) Center. Paia, Hawaii, USA.

Shrestha, K.B., L.B.S. Tuladhar, and P.K. Tyystjarvi. 1980. Manual on nursery and plantation practices for community forestry development. HMG/UNDP/FAO Community Forestry Development Project. Nepal. 80 p.

Somasegaran, P., and H. J. Hoben. 1985. Methods in legume-Rhizobium technology. Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Agricultural Legumes (NifTAL) Center. Paia, Hawaii, USA.

Uses

Arias, R. A., and D. J. Maqueen. 1996. Traditional uses and potential of the genus Calliandra in Mexico and Central America. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 108-114.

Baggio, A. X., and J. Heuveldop. 1984. Initial performance of Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner in live fences for the production of biomass. Agroforestry Systems 2: 19-29.

Duguma, B., and J. Tonye. 1994. Screening of multipurpose trees and shrub species for agroforestry in the humid lowlands of Cameroon. Forest Ecology and Management 64:135-143.

Duguma, B., and M. Mollet. 1996. Provenance evaluation of Calliandra calothyrsusin the humid lowlands of Cameroon. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 147- 163.

Gichuru, M. P., and B. T. Kang. 1989. Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner in an alley cropping system with sequentially cropped maize and cowpea in southeastern Nigeria. Agroforestry Systems 9:191-203.

Kartasubrata, J. 1996. Culture and uses of Calliandra calothyrsus in Indonesia. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 101-07.

Liyanage, M. de S., and H. A. Abeysoma. 1996. Management and utilization of Calliandra calothyrsus in coconut plantations. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 137-143.

NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1983. Calliandra: A versatile small tree for the humid tropics. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C..

Rosecrance, R. C., S. Rogers, and M. Tofinga. 1992. Effects of alley cropped Calliandra calothyrsus and Gliricidia septum hedges on weed growth, soil properties, and taro yields in Western Samoa. Agroforestry Systems 19:57-66.

Sarrailh, J. M., C. Corniaux, L. Desvals, and S. Lebel. 1996. Calliandra, a panacea for New Caledonia? In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 115-119.

Satjapradja, O., and T. Sukandi. 1981. Agroforestry with red calliandra. Indonesian Agricultural Research and Development Journal (3)3: 85-88.

Setijoprodjo, A. 1996. Calliandra calothyrsus hedgerows in a land conservation project in Indonesia. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p.144-146.

Sila, A. M. 1996. Calliandra for community development in Sulawesi. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p.13436.

Wiersum, K. F., and I. K. Rica. 1992. Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn. In L. It Mannetje and R. M. Jones, eds. Plant resources of South-East Asia. Volume 4: Forages. PROSEA. Bogor, Indonesia. p. 68-70.

Ty, H. X. 1996. Adaptability trials with Calliandra calothyrsusin Vietnam. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 120126.

Fodder production

Ahn, J. H., B. M. Robinson, R. Elliot, R. C. Gutteridge, and C. W. Ford. 1989. Quality assessment of tropical browse legumes: Tannin content and protein degradation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 27:147-156.

Akyeampong, E., and K. Muzinga. 1994. Cutting management of Calliandra calothyrsus in the wet season to maximize dry season fodder production in the central highlands of Burundi. Agroforestry Systems 27(2): 101 -105.

Barry, T. N., and C. S. W. Reid. 1984. Nutritional effects attributable to condensed tannins, cyanogenic glycosides, and oestrogenic compounds in New Zealand. In R. F. Barnes, R. W. Brougham, and D. J. Minson, eds. Forage legumes for energy effect: Animal production. United States Department of Agriculture. Beltsville, Maryland.

D'Mello, J. P. F. 1995. Leguminous leaf meals in non-ruminant nutrition. In J. P. F. D'Mello and C. Devendra, eds. Tropical legumes in animal nutrition. CAB International. Wallingford, UK.

Kaitho, R. J., S. Tamminga, and J. Bruchem. 1993. Rumen degradation and in-vivo digestibility of dried Calliandra calothyrsus leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 43:19-30.

Kashay, B., and Mohamed Saleem. 1996. The potential of Calliandra calothyrsus as a fodder tree on acidic Nitosols of the southern, western, and southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 234-244.

Lowry, J. B., and B. Macklin. 1989. Calliandra calothyrsus—An Indonesian favorite goes pantropic. NFT Highlight 88-02. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association. Waimanalo, Hawaii, USA. 2p.

Mangan, J. L. 1988. Nutritional effects of tannins in animal feeds. Nutrition Research Reviews 1 :209-231.

McLeod, M. N. 1974. Plant-tannins: Their role in forage quality. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 11 :803-815.

Merkel, R. C., K. R. Pond, J. C. Burns, and D. S. Fisher. 1996. Condensed tanins in Calliandra calothyrsus and their effects on feeding value. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports. (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 222-233.

Morikawa, R. T., D. O. Lantagne, M. A. Gold, S. G. Krecik, and J. M. Roshetko. 1995. Management of Calliandra calothyrsus for fodder production in Jamaica. Tropical Grasslands 29: 236-240.

Narvaez, N., and C. Lascano. 1989. Digestibilidad in vitro de especies forrajeras tropicales. 2: Factores asociados con su determinación. Pasturas Tropicales I 1:13-18.

Niang, A., E. Styger, and A. Gahamanyi. 1992. Fodder potential of grass and shrub combination on contour bunds in Rwerere. In D. Hoekstra and J. Beniest, eds. Summary proceedings: East and Central African AFRENA Workshop. AFRENA Report No. 58. International Center for Research in Agroforestry. Nairobi, Kenya, Africa.

Norton, B. W. 1994. The nutritive value of tree legumes. In R. C. Gutteridge and H. M. Shelton, eds. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB International. Wallingford, UK. p. 177-191

Palmer, B., R. A. Bray, T. M. Ibrahim, and M. G. Fulloon. 1989. Shrub legumes for acid soils. In E. T. Craswell and E. Pushparajah, eds. Management of acid soils in the humid tropics of Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 13. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. Canberra. p. 36-43.

Palmer, B., and T. A. Ibrahim. 1996. Calliandra calothyrsus forage for the tropics: A current assessment. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 183-194.

Palmer, B., D. J. Macqueen, and R. C. Gutteridge. 1994. Calliandra calothyrsus: A multipurpose tree legume for humid locations. In R. C. Gutteridge and H. M. Shelton, eds. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB International. Wallingford, UK. p. 65-74.

Palmer, B., and A. C. Schlink. 1992. The effect of drying on the intake and rate of digestion of the shrub legume Calliandra calothyrsus. Tropical Grasslands 26:89-93.

Paterson, R. T., G. A. Proverbs, and J. M. Keoghan. 1987. The management and use of fodder banks. Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute. Barbados.

Paterson, R. T., R. L. Roothaert, O. Z. Nyaata, E. Akyeampong, and L. Hove. 1996. Experience with Calliandra calothyrsus as a feed for livestock in Africa. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 195-209.

Perera, A. N. F., and E. R. K. Perera. 1996. Use of Calliandra calothyrsus leaf meal as a substitute for coconut oil meal for ruminants. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 245-250.

Perera, A. N. F., E. R. K. Perera, and H. P. M. Gunasena. 1996. Nutritive value and degradation characteristics of Calliandra calothyrsus provenances In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports. (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 251-259.

Shelton, H. M., B. W. Norton, B. F. Mullen, R. C. Gutteridge, and P. J. Dart. 1996. Utilization and nutritive value of Calliandra calothyrsus for forage: A review of research at the University of Queensland. In D. O. Evans, ed. International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports (Special issue). Winrock International. Morrilton, Arkansas, USA. p. 210-221.

Sumata, I.-K., M. Ali, and E. Wina. 1994. The effect of supplementation of calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) leaves on reproductive performance of Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Ilmu den Peternakan 7(2): 13-16.

Veen, W. van den 1993. Economic analysis of fodder trees for dairy cows on farms in Western Kenya M.Sc. thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Veen, W. van der, and R. Swinkels. 1993. Fodder trees: A profitable option for a higher milk production. West Kenya Agroforestry Newsletter 4(July 1993).

Wina, E., B. Tangendjaja, and E. Tamtomo. 1993. The effect of drying on the digestibility of Calliandra calothyrsus. Ilmu den Peternakan 6(1): 32-36.

Pests and diseases

Boa, E. R. 1995. A guide to the identification of diseases and pests of neem (Azadirachta indica). RAP Publication 1995/41. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Bangkok.

Boa, E. R., and J. M. Lenné. 1993. Pilot assessment of diseases of important woody legumes in Central America and Mexico. Project R4852, Final Report. Natural Resources Institute. Chatham, UK.

Boa, E. R., and J. Lenné. 1994. Diseases of nitrogen fixing trees in developing countries: An annotated list. Natural Resources Institute. Chatham, UK.

Boa, E. R., and J. M. Lenné. 1996. Diseases and insect pests. In J. L. Stewart, G. E. Allison, and A. J. Simons, eds. Gliricidia septum: Genetic resources for farmers. Oxford Forestry Institute. Oxford, UK. p. 73-76.

Braza, R. D. 1991. Insects damaging Calliandra calothyrsus in the Philippines. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 9:38-39.

Browne, F. G. 1968. Pest and diseases of forest plantation trees. Clarendon Press. Oxford, UK.

Hilje, L., C. Araya, and F. Scorza. 1991. Plagas y enfermedades forestales en America Central: Guía de campo. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Turrialba, Costa Rica.

Johnson, C. D., and G. P. Lewis. 1993. New host records for Stator sordidus and Stator limbatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with comments on bruchid feeding guilds. Coleopterists Bulletin 47:246248.

Johnson, W. T., and H. H. Lyon. 1994. Insects that feed on trees and shrubs. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York.

Kaudia, A. 1990. Report of an insect pest on Calliandra calothyrsus (Meissn.) in Kenya. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 8:126.

Lenné, J. M. 1990. A world list of fungal diseases of tropical pasture species. Phytopathological Paper No. 31. International Mycological Institute. Egham, UK.

Lenné, J. M. 1992. Diseases of multipurpose woody legumes in the tropics: A review. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 10:13-29.

Luego, J. N. 1989. Contributed papers involving one NFT genus: Calliandra. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 7:76.

Mukhtar Ahmed. 1989. Feeding diversity of Myllocerus viridanus Fab. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from south India. Indian Forester 115:832-838.

Nair, K. S. S. 1982. Seasonal incidence, host range, and control of the teak sapling borer, Sahyndrassus malabaricus. KFRI Research Report No. 16. Kerala Forest Research Institute. India. 36 p.

Paterson, R. T., and L. M. Mwangi. 1996. Honey fungus in agroforestry. Agroforestry Today 8:19-20.

Smith, F. W., and P. J. Vanden Berg. 1992. Foliar symptoms of the nutrient disorders in the tropical shrub legume Calliandra calothyrsus. Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures Technical Paper No. 31. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Canberra, Australia.