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close this book Calliandra calothyrsus - Production and use: A Field Manual
View the document Preface
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document 1. Botany and Ecology
View the document 2. Seed Collection and Production
View the document 3. Establishment
View the document 4. Uses
View the document 5. Fodder Production
View the document 6. Pests and Diseases
View the document Seed and inoculant suppliers
View the document Authors
View the document Selected References
View the document Morphological and seedling keys to the identification of species in the Racemosae.

Morphological and seedling keys to the identification of species in the Racemosae.

Morphological Key

1. Pinnae greater than 6-jugate. Calyx less than 5 mm long and cup shaped Pinnae 2-6 jugate. Calyx inflated, bilabiate, and membranaceous, greater than 10 mm long. Pods rigidly membranaceous, short pubescent, undulate. Often multiple stemmed shrub (1.5 4 m tall).

7. C. physocalyx. Oaxaca-Guerrero, Mexico.

2. Leaves dark lustrous green above, pale beneath, rigid. Leaflets falcately truncate, somewhat inequilateral, sharply acute, overlapping. Stipules oblanceolate Leaves pale-mid green above and slightly paler green beneath, without a lustrous sheen, soft and tending to fold upon collection. Leaflets acute, but not falcate or overlapping. Stipules lanceolate

3. Stem and flowers white-cream incanous-velutinous. Flowers large, corolla greater than (13) 14 mm long. Pods always ligneous, canescent pilose. Stem and flowers ferruginous pubescent, rarely glabrescent. Corolla less than 14 mm long. Pods rigidly coriaceous, red pilose, velutinous or detachably hispid, very rarely white pubescent. Large shrub to small tree (1.5 6 m)

3. C. houstoniana. Nicaragua-Chihuahua, Mexico.

4. Leaves large (leaf rachis 12-25 cm long). Shrub, less than 1.5 m tall. Flowers on 1-5 well spaced nodes with long peduncle but short pedicel (0-4 mm)

6.C. palmeri. Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico.

Leaves mid-sized (leaf rachis 8-12 cm long). Large shrub, greater than 1.5 m tall.

Long peduncles and pedicels (2-8 mm)

4. C. juzepczukii Chiapas-Oaxaca, Mexico.

5. Corolla (6) 8-14 mm long. Pods either sub-ligneous or coriaceous and densely white, dark, or brown sericeous or short, red, pilose, and corrugated. Pinnae 10-26 jugate. Leaflets 0.5-1.4 mm wide. Stems and flowers white, dark, or ferruginous pubescent, rarely sparsely pubescent. Shrubs, few-branched, 1-6 m tall Corolla 6-8 mm long. Pods rigidly membranaceous 10-18 mm wide and glabrescent. Pinnae 4-19 jugate. Leaflets 0.8-2.5 mm wide. Stems and flowers glabrescent, rarely short white pilose. Small trees, 2-12 m tall

2. C. calothyrsus. Panama-Colima, Mexico.

6. Flowers borne on long peduncles (12-18mm) and long pedicels (5-8 mm). Flowers glabrescent or short pubescent. Pods 9-12 mm wide, short red pubescent, clearly corrugated in the intermarginal area. Large shrubs (2-6 m tall)

5. C longepedicellata. Jalisco, Mexico.

Flowers borne on medium length peduncles (5-12 mm) and short pedicels (1-2.5 mm). Flowers densely white, dark or ferruginous pilose. Pods 11-18 mm wide, white or dark sericeous. Small shrubs (1-2 (4) m tall)

1. C. grandiflora. Honduras-Sonora, Mexico.

Seedling key

1. First leaf pinnate

2

 

First leaf bipinnate

7

 

2. Cotyledons phaneroepigeal

3

 

Cotyledons cryptohypogeal or phanerogeal

5

 

3. Stipules lanceolate

4

 

Stipules ovate-oblanceolate. Cotyledons developing 0-1 cm above the ground. First leaves almost opposite, densely haired

3.

C. houstoniana. Nicaragua-Chihuahua, Mexico.

4. Seedlings with cotyledons 1-3 cm above the ground. First leaves clearly alternate

2.

.C. calothyrsus. Panama-Colima, Mexico

Seedlings with cotyledons 0-1 cm above the ground. First leaves opposite or scarcely alternate

7.

C. physocalyx. Oaxaca-Guerrero, Mexico

5. Stipules ovate-oblanceolate. Cotyledons opening at ground level; epicotyl scarcely elongated

4.

C. juzepczukii. Chiapas-Oaxaca, Mexico.

Stipules lanceolate. Cotyledons remain, at least partially beneath the ground; epicotyl 0.5-1.5 cm

6

 

6. Cotyledons remain below ground. First leaf with 8-10 pairs of leaflets

1.

C. grandiflora. Honduras-Sonora, Mexico.

Cotyledons open at ground level. First leaf with 10-15 pairs of leaflets

5.

C. longepedicellata. Jalisco, Mexico.

7. Cotyledons opening at ground level, first leaves clearly alternate

6.

C. palmeri. Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico.

Cotyledons opening from close to ground level to 1 cm, first leaves opposite or nearly so...

3.

C. houstoniana. Nicaragua-Chihuahua, Mexico.

 

Source: D.J. Macqueen (1996), p. 12-13.

 

Glossary of technical botanical terms.

Source: D.J. Macqueen (1993), p. 57

Acropetally

Developing towards the apex.

Actinomorphic

Parts radiating equally from the center.

Anthesis

Time of anther opening and pollen release.

Acuminate

Having a gradually diminishing point.

Adaxial

The side facing the main plant axis.

Angulate

Showing a determinate number of angles.

Campanulate

Bell-shaped.

Canescent

Growing grey.

Capitate

Pin-headed or growing in heads.

Ciliate

Fringed with hairs.

Ciliolate

Slightly fringed with hairs.

Coriaceous

Leathery.

Eglandular

Without glands.

Foliaceous

Leafy.

Glabrous

Without hairs.

Hirsute

Covered with long weak hairs.

Hispid

Covered with coarse rigid hairs or bristles.

Jugate

Joined (Paired).

Lanceolate

Sharply pointed or lance-like.

Ligneous

Woody.

Membranous

Thin and semi-transparent.

Obovate

Upside down egg-shaped.

Ovate

Egg-shaped.

Paniculate

With a branched conical inflorescence.

Pedicel

The stalk of a single flower.

Peduncle

The stalk of a flower cluster.

Pentamerous

With parts in fives.

Petiole

Leaf stalk.

Pilose

Hairy.

Pleurogram

The horse-shoe marking on the seed coat.

Puberulent

Slightly hairy.

Rachilla

A secondary axis.

Rachis

The main axis of a compound leaf.

Rostrate

Narrowed into a point or beak.

Sericeous

Covered with very fine hairs, silky to the touch.

Sessile

Without a stalk.

Setose

Bristly.

Striate

Striped.

Sub-

Less than

Terete

Round in cross-section.

Trigonus

Three angled.

Umbelliform

Shaped like the ribs on an umbrella.

Verticillate

Whorled.