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close this book Agroforestry in-service training: A training aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands
close this folder Training sessions
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Day four

0800 - 0900 hrs.



For the participants to have a working knowledge of and be able to discuss the integration of animals (both large and small) into an agroforestry system. In this relationship the animals can serve as an active component, e.g., grazing in a field under trees, or as a passive component, e.g., utilization of leaf litter as fodder.

Procedure: Lecture should include:

• Discussion of animals most commonly found on farms within the training participants countries and the feeding and grazing needs of those animals.

• How those feeding and grazing needs can be met through agroforestry, e.g., planting pasture grasses under trees; using hedgerows of leguminous forage trees, i.e., leucaena; planting shade trees in existing pastures etc.

• The symbiotic relationships between certain animals and plants.

• The nutritive and economic benefits of silvo-pastoral systems.



0900 - 1000 hrs.



To provide the participants with information on the production of fuelwood in forest plantations, and integrating this information into agroforestry systems. They will understand the difference between tree production for fuelwood as compared to traditional forestry plantations and the intense management needs of these fuelwood systems.

Procedure: Lecture should include:

• The difference between traditional forestry plantations and fuelwood production; fuelwood production requires shorter rotations, higher planting density and more intensive management practices.

• The basics of management practices; i.e., managed more like agricultural crops; when to harvest, how often to harvest etc.

• The importance of proper species selection to suit the characteristics and capabilities of the land.

• Land availability should be determined with the farmer. It may be decided to plant in blocks or as live fences, hedges or on other underutilized areas.

• The process of choosing species and the importance of setting up trial plots for growth rates - How to set them up and evaluate their results.

• Two different aspects of sustainable plantation management: fertility management and soil erosion control.


Handout: Production of Fuelwood and Small Timber in Community Forestry Systems. By Kenneth MacDicken



1015 - 1200 hrs.



The participants will have an understanding of the management practices in agroforestry to achieve sustained fodder and fertilizer production.

Procedure: Lecture should include:

• Distinction between food products, wood products and green biomass.

• Discussion of the best fodder producing tree species.

• Methods of fodder harvest; direct and indirect and the associated advantages and disadvantages.

• The concept of carrying capacity carrying capacity of a land area for livestock as it relates to fodder availability.

• Timetable for trimming trees for best production of fodder and/or green manure, compared to the production of fuelwood.

• Economics of trimming trees for fodder and/or green manure production.

• Impact of solar energy and soil nitrogen on fodder production.

• Acacia and other fast growers and precautions that should be taken if they are included in an agroforestry system geared to fodder production (non-palatability).

• Effects of green manure consumption on cattle; specifically mimosene in Leucaena and hair loss in cattle and swine.


Handout: New Directions in Agroforestry:

The Potential of Tropical Legume Trees;

Sustained Outputs From Legume-Tree-Based Agroforestry Systems. By Dr. Napoleon Vergara.



1200 - 1630 hrs.



Participants were given this time to relax, tour the city of Honiara, swim, scuba dive, snorkle, work on their agroforestry projects, and in general, provide a break in the hectic training schedule.


This time was not originally scheduled into the agenda; however, due to the intensive schedule, we thought that this would be an excellent replacement for a session which was combined with another.


1630 - 1800 hrs.



The participants will have an understanding of what it means to be an "extensionist" and be able to discuss what is involved in the extension process.

Procedure: Lecture should include:

• A definition of an extensionist: A person who helps people understand; a middle person between farmers and farmers, farmers and researchers, farmers and other extensionists, farmers and organizations.

• Steps in the extension process:

- information gathering,

- planning (with farmer participation),

- communicating (how to communicate information to others),

- education and training,

- implementation of the plan (either with an individual farmer, a group or community),

- follow-up and evaluation (stress the importance of maintaining contact with the people after implementation).

• Communication methods (ask participants what they have used);

- individual contact,

- group meetings,

- demonstrations in the field,

- demonstration plots,

- field days,

- mass media,

- materials and audio visual aids "pamphlets flyers, posters, slides, movies, etc.).

• Discussion should include techniques that the participants have utilized both successfully and unsuccessfully. A link between the material presented and its importance/relevance to the trainee's agroforestry projects should be made.

1800 - 1830