| Pastoral associations in Chad |
|3 The original concept of the Ishtirak project|
This sub-chapter consists of the main issues of the original project document, and some additional information to clarify the project's conceptual basis.
1 The project's approach:
- achieving a better understanding of the mechanisms that are crucial for the functioning of the agro-pastoral societies of Chad;
- to install an institutional framework that will allow the agro-pastoralists to participate in decision making and the management of their own development;
- to search and experiment with appropriate animal husbandry techniques, that on the one hand take account of the enormous experience and knowledge of agro-pastoralists on matters like herd management and ecological changes, and that on the other hand introduce new subjects like animal production, improved grassland primary production and water conservation/management.
2 Project objectives:
- increasing livestock productivity;
- improving the living standards of the target population.
3 Project area:
- the Oum-Hadjer Sous-prefecture (for details see Appendix 1).
4 Project 'target group':
- the agro-pastoralists in the Qum-Hadjer Sous-Prefecture.
5 The activities of the project:
Research and surveys: relevant research and studies should accompany the project activities during the whole project period. In the long run these studies will allow a continuous evaluation, monitoring and eventually auto-evaluation of the project.
Creation of pastoral associations: with the result of the preliminary study, and after a period of animation of the target group, pastoral associations should be formed based on the existing socioeconomic structures. These pastoral associations will have the following features:
- a legallyrecognised structure under the Ministry of Cooperatives;
- 15-30 families as members (meaning 100200 persons), 2-3 camps;
- voluntary membership;
- at inception the members of the PA should chose their representatives, consisting of a President, Secretary, Treasurer and four advisers;
- according to the activities a technical committee to be installed with two people responsible for every activity;
- every two years every member should pay a contribution in kind or in cash.
It was planned to create 50 PAs over a period of four years and in a second phase several PAs together should unite to form a Union.
The revolving fund (RF) scheme: after the official recognition of the PA by the project they will be allocated a revolving fund (RF) on a credit basis. The amount allocated will depend on their initial contribution (RF= 40 X contribution). The revolving fund should be used to encourage economically sound productive activities. Each PA has to undertake a minimum of two and a maximum of four main activities:
- for each activity the PA will choose two people to be responsible;
- one activity cannot mobilise more than 50 per cent of the total RF;
- 5-10 per cent of the RF should be put aside for a crisis fund;
- the RF should be paid back in four to six years.
Possible activities with the RF were listed as follows:
- buying and storing of cereals for the 'periods de sou dure', the most difficult time for agropastoralists, June-August;
- buying and storing of basic food (onions, sugar, salt);
- buying of reproductive cows to improve the quality of the herds and to constitute a communal herd;
- a short-term internal credit system;
- a village pharmacy;
- fattening of steers;
- training of oxen for draft;
- fattening of sheep for the tabaski (Islamic celebration);
- buying of camels for transport;
- buying of materials and equipment for the women to make handicrafts;
- buying of seeds for cultivation;
- buying and storage of animal feed (concentrates);
- forage production;
- construction of storerooms;
- buying of necessary equipment (building, well-maintenance).
Protection of the environment: the value of the loan repayments will be doubled by the project and put into a special fund to be used for activities in the context of environmental protection. In addition, two expert consultations were planned to define activities on this subject.
Training of PA members: the project team in collaboration with different government departments will ensure a permanent training in animal health, human health, literacy, well digging! maintenance techniques, fabrication of handicrafts. For each area one member of the group will be assigned by the PA to be trained and to carry out the assigned task. In a second phase extension on the same subjects will be given to all members of the PA.
6 The project team:
Oxfam: 1 Oxfam project co-ordinator (for a period of two years)
SECADEV: 1 Secadev assistant to the project co-ordinator who will take over the co-ordination of the project after two years; 1 clerk; 2 animators; 2 drivers
Ministry of Livestock: 1 officer for animal husbandry/animal health (BSc); 2 livestock technicians.
Two pick-ups and four motorbikes enable the team to be mobile.
7 THE project budget:
256,807,950 CFA = £513,616 over the four-year period of which 80,000,000 CFA= £160,000 was earmarked for the revolving fund