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close this book Humanistic economics and basic ideas of Hindu thought
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Annexure 4

Ultimate Reality and GOAL OF LIFE (Based on Hindu philosophical systems)


* BRAHMAN is conceived as EKAM (unified) SAT (existence) with CHIT (consciousness) and ANANDA (BLISS)

* BHAVA (conception or life of individual existence) is conceived as crystallisation of ICCHA (will) into NAMA (name) and RUPA (form) with AHAM (localised identity).

Conception of individual life is limited by existence with consciousness and bliss in terms of extension in DESA (space) and KALA (time). Living with AHAM (localised identity) is marked by KAMA (desire) to overcome limitations of individual self-centered living.

* NIJA-SREYAS or MOKSHA is release from KAMA (desire) springing from limited conceptions of individuality and is conceived as PARAM-ARTHA (ultimate purpose and means) characterised by SAT-NYASA giving up notion of AHAM (limited conceptions of individuality) and effort to fulfill KAMA (desire) springing from them.

* An individual is conceived to achieve ABHYUDAYAM (progress) towards PARAM-ARTHA (moksha) through DHARMA (value based) JIVAN (living) prescribed for individual self-centered living persons to guide their efforts in employing means (ARTHA) to fulfill KAMA (desire).

* Living in accordance with DHARMA is progressive resulting in promotion to states of being with enhanced opportunities for realising PARAM-ARTHA (ultimate purpose of individual existence).

Where as, living contrary to DHARMA is conceived as regressive resulting in demotion to states of being with reduced opportunities for realising PARAM-ARTHA (ultimate purpose of individual existence)

* An individual is endowed with limited powers: Iccha (to will), Jnana (to comprehend), Samkalpa (to intend) and Kriya (to accomplish). These must not be exercised contrary to DHARMA in fulfilling Kama (desires).

Existential-Individual-Identity is provided by AHAM; Instrument to will is CHITTAM; Instrument to comprehend is INTELLECT backed by organs of perception; Instrument to intend is MIND and Instrument to accomplish is BODY backed by organs of action.

An individual goes through different stages of life and chooses a vocation of life according to what he desires and employ the instruments to fulfill that. In fact, according to his ICCHA (will), he fashions the instruments and employs them to fulfill KAMA (desires).

The law of learning is SWANUBHAVA (experiential) and hence through reciprocity of experiencing the consequences of ones KARMA (intentions, words and deeds). Positive consequences of one’s KARMA are experienced as SUKHA and negative consequences as DUHKHA. Attachment to SUKHA KARAKA is RAAGA and avoidance of DUHKHA KARAKA is DWESHA. Learning through SWANUBHAVA (individual experience) is to realise the invalidity of the notion of AHAM (existential-individual-identity) and discarding that notion in favour of BRAHMAN (unified existence).