| QAI - 4/89 - 1/90 - GATEs cooperation partner programme |
The ANADEGES Group is a network of some 20 autonomous NGOs working mainly in Mexico's rural sector, supporting peasant (campesino) and Indian groups, communities and organizations. The group was formed in 1982 by the amalgamation of three existing NGOs.
A new social phenomenon emerging in the South is the mass shift from traditional poverty to modern deprivation. The economy of the people involved may be compared to a barrel they keep trying to fill up with water - the fruits of their labour. Adverse socio-economic foces have bored many holes in the barrel, so that water flows out as soon as it is poured in. The barrel is al ways empty. Resources flow elsewhere: "modern" urban industry, the flight of capital, transnational corporations, government corruption and international transfers are some examples. Generally speaking, every type of campesino interaction with modern economic forces opens up a new "hole in the barrel". As a result the production capacity of the rural sector is close to zero and a social macro-crisis has ensued.
Many "rural development" projects simply try to pour more water into the empty barrels without plugging the holes first- a waste of time. Still worse, the holes usually get bigger. On the other hand, gigantic development programmes - many financed with foreign aid - are like tornadoes: they completely destroy the campesino economy' washing away the barrels, so to speak. In both cases the poor become even more deprived.
A different approach
Each one of the ANADEGES organizations tries to act as a plug that compesinos can use to counteract adverse forces - to plug the holes in the barrel. The results so far have been encouraging. Freed from these drains on resources, people are in a better position to satisfy their basic needs and define their own lifestyle.
After years of working in rural regions, ANADEGES has confirmed that campesinos are
1) generally well organized for whatever is possible at any given moment;
2) aware of their plight, and trying very hard to "plug the holes in their barrel";
3) not always in a position to do this successfully, and therefore in need of additional external assistance, on their terms and for their own purposes, especially in their dealings with the "modern" sector.
Anadeges has designed a number of specific programmes to provide this external support, including appropriate technologies (AT). However, it never promotes campesino participation in its projects. On the contrary, Anadeges informs campesinos and their local advisor(s) of the menu of programmes, and waits. If invited to join the campesinos' in their efforts to "plug holes in the barrel", Anadeges does its best to respond quickly and efficiently, but always in a subordinate position and keeping a low profile.
The Anadeges Group includes both regional and specialized organizations: credit, AT, marketing of produce, training and technical assistance in agriculture, husbandry, forestry, legal advice etc. Activities are coordinated around specific campesino-controlled projects. Women and the environment are two areas of special concern.
On the following pages our cooperation partners introduce themselves and their work. The brief descriptions of the individual groups, which they sent us at the request of gate's editorial staff, differ just as widely as the groups themselves. However, since we did not have datailed descriptions of all of the groups at the time of going to press we compiled "mini-portraits" of some of them (see page 37). The profiles of the partner groups are presented in alphabetical order.
APICA (Association for the Promotion of African Community Initiatives) was founded in 1980. It is an international, private, non-profit association registered in Switzerland, with headquarters in Douala, Cameroon, and operates throughout Central Africa. The association's objectives include provision of technical, organizational and administrative support to local organizations, private voluntary organizations, ad-hoc groups and NGOs engaged in development projects in various fields, e.g. public health, sanitation, agriculture, food production and food processing; the study of appropriate technologies with a view to improving traditional methods and developing innovative alternatives; dissemination of research findings and information in an effort to assist development programmes by proposing, evaluating and testing solutions to problems; maintaining contacts and channels for exchanges of information with development organizations; and providing training in management and organizational skills.
APICA's activities focus on supporting a variety of local development initiatives, in particular those of local non-governmental and private voluntary organizations. The type of support given falls into five broad categories:
1) Research into the improvement of traditional technologies, in order to perfect prototypes adapted to users and their environments. Commercial production of these prototypes is handled by small and medium-sized enterprises to which APICA transfers the production know-how.
2) Support and training of local authorities, development personnel and village-level participants in
development work. The topics dealt with include organizational skills, basic management and technical training, in order to facilitate technology transfer.
3) Dissemination of documentation and information on locally appropriate and environmentally sound technologies. Information on technology and development activities for grass-roots communities goes hand in hand with this purpose and should permit the creation of networks among leaders and development personnel.
4) Studies on and research into development problems.
5) Finally, to furnish organizations which support grass-roots communities and their initiatives with the direct assistance needed to help them organize or plan their activites. This assistance can also be in the form of studies or evaluations of the projects of such communities.
The Appropriate Technology Association (ATA) is a private nonprofit development organization dedicated to research and the promotion of grass-roots technology for rural development. It was officially established in 1981 in response to a growing need for services related to village-level technology. ATA's members and personnel are specialists in various fields: engineering, economics, socio-anthropology and community development. The improved infrastructure and expanded base of activities make more effective and efficient programmes possible for the development, adaptation and dissemination of technological inputs among disadvantaged people.
• To create an awareness of AT among GOs and NGOs.
• To research and develop AT for the community: the technology should be cheap, easy to produce and maintain, and should reinforce the community's capacity for self-reliance.
• To obtain technological know-how from local and international sources and provide a question and-answer service for individuals and groups.
• To adapt and develop technology, test it, and disseminate in communities via training, demonstrations and publications.
• to provide technical assistance and basic technological knowledge to those in need of it.
Target groups and coverage
Individuals and groups in rural and urban areas, partners of GOs and NGOs, educational institutions, public organizations, newspapers, industrial enterprises, banks.
• Water resource technology, rower pump design and deep well digging machine (rotary rig).
• Sustainable agriculture system; soil and seed improvement and botanical pest control; integrated farming and fish-farming in paddy fields.
• Improvement of soya seed.
• Energy technology: micro-hydropower, electricity from biogas.
• Development of local weaving industries; improvement of sericulture, natural colour dyeing and cloth design techniques.
• Provision of reading and research facilities and documents (films, video tapes, microfilms and slides are already available).
• Provision of consultation and advice; monitoring; question-andanswer service.
• Publication of quarterly journals, brochures, slides, video tapes and posters to support all of ATA's activites.
• Organization and implementation of training courses and workshops.
• Setting up of a mobile dissemination team to provide service for the rural population.
• Assisting and cooperating with other NGOs as resource individuals.
The guiding principle on which ATA's work is based is cooperation with other NGOs, focussing on intensive technical development, by
• identifying the needs of rural populations and helping to solve their problems;
• investigation, experimental work on technological development and selection of target groups.
BASE - ECTA, Paraguay
BASE-ECTA is an NGO that works with organized self-help groups such as peasants and the urban poor in order to support their efforts to improve their own self-managed organizations and raise their living standards.
The Alternative Technology Area (ATA) of BASE attempts to support the work of the self-help groups in order to improve their quality of life and their capability for self management.
The work of the ATA focusses on the following: a) alternative energy: firewood cookstoves and gasifiers b) alternative construction: fibre concrete rooftiles (tejas), soil blocks and water filters c) microindustries: hand oil-presses, grain mills d) flood protection (soil dams).
The ATA has its own Alternative Technology Experimentation Center (completed in October 1989), a Documentation Center (bibliography with SATIS classification, using MICRO ISIS software), a Diffusion Department and a Consultant Department (to advise self-help groups on technological projects.
The ATA also works in close cooperation with the other areas of BASE-ECTA (education, communication, documentation and studies).
CCA-ONG (Comite de Coordination des Actions des Organisations non Governamentales - Coordinating Committee for the Activities of Non-Governmental Organizations) is a consortium of local and international NGOs working in Mali. The consortium currently has 83 members.
Since December 1985, the focus of CCA-ONG's work has shifted from relief to long-term development.
CCA-ONG has served as a major intermediary in the administration of funds from Trocaire, Band-Aid and Canada-Sahel Solidarity. Its logistics and information units have also been important resources for the Malian NGO community.
CCA-ONG will continue to play several key roles in Mali's development. It provides a forum where NGOs can exchange information and coordinate their response to the Malian government. Its information service includes a data base covering the activities of all member NGOs in Mali. And last but ot least, its logistics service hires heavy and light trucks and other equipment to member NGOs at reasonable rates.
• To improve communication and coordination among NGOs in Mali.
• To provide information via data bases, documentation/publications and meetings.
• To provide training according to members" needs.
• To provide logistical support for NGOs in project implementation.
• To facilitate the information exchange and the discussion of issues relevant to the NGO community.
The Center for Mesoamerican Studies on Appropriate Technology (CEMAT), is a private non-profit organization based in Guatemala City. CEMAT's main purpose is to help promote economic development, technical cooperation and social progress in Guatemala and other Central American countries. In order to accomplish this purpose CEMAT is pursuing the following objectives:
a) To promote and systematize the transfer of appropriate technical knowledge to Guatemala and the Central American region from countries with more technological experience.
b) To promote and systematize local scientific investigations and appropriate technologies throughout the region.
c) To develop and implement projects involving appropriate technologies and training systems for specific target groups.
d) To promote communication and an exchange of experience related to appropriate technology at regional, national and international level.
CEMAT owes its foundation to the initiative of individuals, groups and institutions who considered it important to create an instrument which would specifically promote, in Guatemala and the Central American region, appropriate technologies necessary for the socio-economic development of rural and suburban areas.
Sustainable Development Model
Today CEMAT can look back on 12 years of active participation in the testing, evaluation and dissemination of various technologies offered as alternatives for rural development. The experience gained during this time includes several ways of utilizing bioenergy systems, with which CEMAT has been successfully experimenting. Within this framework a Sustainable Development Model has been devised, with three levels of action - domestic, entrepreneurial and communal.
There are two different concepts of appropriate technology:
1) technology suited to human, financial and material resources and conditions in the poor regions of developing countries;
2) technology which is affordable by low-capital rural and/or suburban communities.
The first concept addresses technology directed towards local collectivities; the second addresses it as a goal of community action, reached through a process of appropriation. The area between these two concepts in CEMAT's frame of reference.
Consortium on Rural Technology (CORT) was established in 1980 by a group of dedicated individuals motivated by Gandhi's ideas and actions. The consortium's aims are to reach and help develop rural areas using technologies appropriate for local situations and local people. India is a huge country with many different cultures and languages, and where agro-climatic conditions vary from one region to another. Such technologies should therefore fit into the cultural and rural setting in different areas.
CORT is a non-profit, non-governmental organization. It provides an NGO forum for scientists, technologists and grass-roots organizations to discuss different technologies.
Technical panels have been constituted within the various groups to appraise some of these technologies.
To ensure that development work reflects established scientific and technical knowledge, CORT has been providing training help to voluntary groups based in rural areas.
As far as dissemination of these technologies is concerned, demonstrations have been organized at village level in different parts of the country.
To support these activities and develop communications CORT has published many technical manuals and do-it-yourself guides. It also regularly publishes a journal entitled "Changing Villages".
In addition, a resource centre has been established to promote technical knowledge and to answer technical enquiries received from different grass-roots organizations.
As a participant in and contributor to the Special Energy Programme and the programme for environmentally compatible sanitation, CORT was designated a "focal point" by the Foundation for Woodstove Dissemination of Kenya, for improved cookstoves, and by Approtech Asia, of the Philippines, for water and sanitation.
As one of GATE's Cooperation Partners, CORT has been able to establish relations and share experience and knowledge with similar organizations in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific region. These relationships have been further strengthened by CORT's member ship of SATIS.
The Development Technology Centre (DTC) is a small multidisciplinary information and resource centre based at the University of Zimbabwe in Harare. The Centre's purpose is to provide appropriate technology, or development technology as it is often called in Zimbabwe, to men, women or young people who need it.
Started by a university lecturer in the mid-1970s, the Centre has grown rapidly since Zimbabwe's independence in 1980. With assistance from GTZ/GATE, UNESCO and ITDG, it now has a staff of five and is a non faculty department of the University and is available for use by anyone, both inside and outside the University.
With its mixed economy, Zimbabwe has a complex infrastructure. The country's institutions range from central government through local government, rural councils, quasi government parastatals, non government organizations, schools, cooperatives and training centres to industrial and commercial organizations. Many of these are interested in various aspects of small-scale technology but often do not know where to find it.
The Centre provides information and expertise, sometimes directly, from in-house sources, but often through referral to other specialists and researches. Where information is scarce the Centre facilitates and encourages new research and development, especially relating to local needs and conditions.
The Centre provides a technical question-and-answer service and operates a resource room with a microfiche information unit and a selection of books, documents and local publications. Users come from the University, from all over Zimbabwe, from the SADCC/PTA region, other Third World countries, and more recently also from universities and research and aid organizations throughout the world. Seminars and one-day training courses on selected topics are provided on request.
Recent projects include cookstoves, bread-baking, small carpentry tools, a low-cost wheelchair, home soap-making, rabbit breeding, affordable housing, alternative energy applications and school curriculum development.
GSS, Sri Lanka
Gami Seva Sevana (Rural Service Centre) is a brainchild of the Christian Workers' Fellowship (CWF). On 28th July 1979, the CWF Working Committee endorsed the following as its basic objectives:
• A programme of development education including the training of people for service in farming and rural work. To begin with, the Centre will give basic training in the practical aspects of animal husbandry and agriculture, and later hold courses covering management techniques and motivation, elementary book-keeping and any other skills that may be required. Follow-up courses and seminars will also be planned.
• A viable model farm unit to promote new methods and forms of farming.
• A place where people can come together for adult education, health programmes and other educational and cultural programmes of interest to inhabitants of rural areas. This Centre will also serve as a meeting place for inter-religious dialogue and meditation, open to people of all faiths and races. It will seek to foster community-bulding activities and programmes.
On 7th January 1981, Gami Seva Sevana was registered as a limited company.
Gami Seva Sevana is based at Galaha, a small village in the mid country plantation area of Sri Lanka, in the Kandy District. A hundred years ago the British selected the area to begin planting tea. Today, the land has no topsoil and tea can no longer be grown economically. Hence the plantation estates have been fragmented and used for village expansion. Most villages do some backyard farming (dairy, poultry, goats) and grow vegetables and spices. The marketable produce of the area includes milk, eggs, meat, black pepper and vegetables. The objectives outlined above are aimed at helping these village communities develop on a self-reliance basis.
Since 1979, the programmes initially implemented have evolved according to local needs. The farm operated by the Centre has provided a place for practical training of young people. In response to popular demand a milk cooperative and a credit council were set up and a handloom workshop was established. Educational and cultural programmes have developed. The emphasis placed on using locally available resources to develop the soil has been of major importance, leading Gami Seva Sevana into organic farming and the study and use of appropriate technologies. With the experience thus gained, the Centre is now able to disseminate information on integrated organic farming and rural technologies appropriate to farming communities by way of seminars, workshops and a reference library with a question-andanswer service.
At Gami Seva Sevana trainees, instructors and other workers live together as members of an inter-faith, multi-ethnic community which emphasizes sharing and mutual responsibility.
Ghana's first Intermediate Technology Transfer Unit (ITTU) was launched in 1980 at Suame Magazine, Kumasi by the Technology Consultancy Centre (TCC). It was such a success that the Ghana Government decided to establish the Ghana Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service (GRATIS) for the purpose of setting up ITTUs in each of the country's ten regions.
The GRATIS Project was established under the aegis of the Ministry of Industries, Science and Technology. Government aproval was granted in February 1987 and the Board of Directors took up their duties on 25 March 1987.
The GRATIS Project is an autonomous body controlled by its Board of Directors, with headquarters at Tema. The Director, Dr. J.W. Powell, is assisted by a Co-Director, Dr. K. Praka - Asante. In September 1987 a busy programme of action was implemented to achieve the aims of the project, initially with eight Ghanaian professional staff and three British VSO workers. More Ghanaian professionals have since joined the Project.
Objectives of the ITTU
The ITTU is a group of production workshops where new production methods are demonstrated. The unit attempts to transfer technology to small-scale industrialists and entrepreneurs who are seeking to introduce new products or employ new manufacturing techniques. The technology transferred is new in the sense that it is not widely known or used by the small-scale and informal-sector industrialists in the locality. The unit selects, adapts or develops an appropriate technology that is more advanced than the technology generally employed, but not so advanced that it is beyond the skills and horizon of the local people.
GRATIS, as its acronym implies, is a free service. The range of services it can offer include the following:
Free training on the job, to develop skills ranging from weaving to welding, from carpentry to casting; and teaching of cheap, modern methods to masters and apprentices to help maximize production.
Free information on how and where the best and cheapest machines, tools and materials can be obtained.
Free advice on how best to turn business dreams into reality. Whether a client is planning to set up a small-scale industrial enterprise, or is planning to expand an existing business. GRATIS and the ITTU have the experience and expertise to help.
Each ITTU which is set up has machine tools and equipment to enable it to cater for the training aspect of the project. The expertise for the training is supplied by the individual ITTU and GRATIS at Tema.
The Operations, Socio-Economic, Rural and Women's Industries, and Finance Division at GRATIS headquarters in Tema are capable of providing all the information and advice needed by the service's clients.
SEMTA (Centre for Multiple Appropriate Technology Services) was founded in 1980 with the aim of promoting the social, economic and cultural development of Bolivia by giving support to inhabitants of both rural and urban communities.
At present SEMTA is running a regional rural development programme in the El Alto district in the province of Pacajes (Department of La Paz), and a technical-organizational programme in Achocalla, advising associated urban-suburban groups and communities. Similar services are being provided in other parts of La Paz Department and of the country in coordination with other institutions.
Planning of self-sustaining agricultural systems. Technical assistance to communities, establishment of self-managed revolving funds compatible with intensive (vegetables, fodder) and extensive farming methods (tubers, beans, grain) and livestock farming (cattle, sheep, llamas).
Artisanal weaving, basic nutrition and services (laundries and public showers, solar-powered/manually operated), family dry latrines.
Socio-economic studies and coordination of these with technical-scientific studies, economic analysis of profitability and feasibility, evaluation and selection of technological alternatives etc.
Information and documentation:
Documentation through approx. 5,000 specialized documents on AT and other documents classified using the SATIS system; computerized searches for bibliographic and documentary information; reading room; question-and-answer service by mail.
Transfer of technology and basic knowledge relating to organization and self-administration to rural and urban dwellers.
Communication - dissemination:
Production of educational packages, socio-economic, technical and scientific studies, catalogues (bibliographic material, technological products), technical manuals, audiovisual materials, radio programmes etc.
The metal-timber workshop designs and makes the following products: windmills (air pumps), manually operated water pumps, drilling equipment, micro-turbines, tripods, laminated plastic sheet, tools for the artisanal wool industry (looms, silkspinners, carders etc.).
The construction workshop builds greenhouses, silos, stables, wells, water reservoirs, latrines, reinforced concrete (reservoirs and tanks), micro-hydropower plants, manual water pumps and windmills.
SIBAT, The Philippines
SIBAT, Sibol ng Agham at Teknolohiya, or Spring of Science and Technology, is a non-stock, nonprofit, non-government network of Philippine regional organizations supporting people's socio-economic activities through the application of science and appropriate technology. The common goal is to develop and disseminate appropriate and alternative production, manufacturing and processing technologies and systems with the grassroots.
The network was established in April 1984 to coordinate research, training and cooperative efforts in organic agriculture and appropriate technology. Since then, SIBAT has promoted numerous technologies that enhance people's capacity for self-development and self-reliance.
Its network secretariat, based in Manila, is responsible for network coordination and integration. It has three major programs:
1 ) Appropriate Technology (AT),
2) Science and Technology Resources Information Program (STRIP) and
3) Projects Development and Evaluation (PDE).
The AT program conducts sustainable agriculture projects with network members. STRIP maintains a library, a question-and-answer service and a publications unit. PDE administers project funds for the network's small-scale livelihood projects and conducts pilot projects that are integral to developing sustainable agricultural models.
The network secretariat also provides regular services through training, technical support and hosting of fore, symposia and conferences.
Starting in 1989, SIBAT embarkes into research-inventory, verification and replication of appropriate farming systems in lowland rainfed, irrigated and upland rice-growing areas in the Philippines.
Yayasan Mandiri, Indonesia
Yayasan Mandiri means "the foundation for self-reliance". It is a private, non-profit organization founded on December 21, 1979 by a group of students at Bandung Institute of Technology.
The founders of Yayasan Mandiri believed that the philosophy and methods of appropriate technology were particularly suited to facing the urgent challenge of finding efficient and socially acceptable solutions to the problems faced by Indonesia's rural inhabitants (who make up 80 per cent of the country's population of 170 million).
1) To increase prosperity, in particular that of the Indonesian people.
2) To develop self-reliance and the ability of the Indonesian people to solve the problems they face.
3) To improve appropriate technology to suit the Indonesian character and Indonesian culture.
Yayasan Mandiri has two institutional levels. The top level is the Board of Directors, the second the executive institutions.
Board of Directors: This is Mandiri's "parliament". It functions as a forum where members can study, discuss and develop ideas. The Board controls all the organization's activities. It has five members and is re-elected every two years.
Executive institutions: These are organizations which were specially developed to implement Mandiri's programme of activites. They function as a link between the 47 members of Mandiri and the communities, and between the members and other institutions.
Lembaga Pengembangan Masyarakat Dan Teknologi (LPMT)
LPMT (Technology and Community Development Institution) is at present Mandiri's most important institution. It is a non-profit organization whose aims are as follows:
1) To promote and participate in every activity designed to help the poor in Indonesia to improve their living standards by their own efforts.
2) To cooperate with participant groups on a basis of solidarity and a shared determination to achieve goals.
3) To consistently encourage self-reliance and avoid dependence on instiutions and participant groups.
Scope of acitivities
LPMT's acitivities focus on a programme of community development through the development of appropriate technology. The basic aims of this programme are as follows: satisfying the needs of the local population, using local natural resources, improving local human resources, and conserving local natural resources and local culture.
This appropriate technology development programme is implemented via four types of activity, namely application of appropriate technology, education and training, research and development, and an information service.
Main fields of activity
CCTA (ComisiÃ³n de coordina- ciÃ³n de Tecnologia Andina), Peru
• Coordinating the work of nine of the best-known Peruvian NGOs for rural development in
- watershed management
- Andean livestock farming and grazing management
- simple food technologies
CETEC (CorporaciÃ³n Para Es- tudios Interdisciplinarios y As- esoria Tecnica, A.C.), Colombia
• Cooperation with self-help groups
• Setting up of small-scale rural industries and workshops
• Regional networking of AT groups
• Agricultural advisory service
• Health programmes
CITA (Centro de Ingenieria de Tecnologias Adecuadas), Ecuador INDES (Instituto de Desarrollo Social y PromociÃ³n Humana), Argentina
• Provision of technological advice at village level
• Promotion of small-scale farmer's organizations
• Improvement of rural production by small loans and procurement of seed
• Training of small-scale farmers
• Appropriate technology in agriculture
PTA-FASE (Centro de Pes- quisa e Assesoria/Federacao de Orgaos pare Assistencia Social e Educacional), Brazil
• Appropriate technologies for agriculture in Brazil's semi-arid north-eastern region
• Organic agriculture and horticulture
• Water raising and water-saving farming methods
• Recording of AT solutions adopted by small-scale farmers
RIP/RIIC (Rural Industries Pro- motion/Rural Industry Innova-tions Centre), Botswana
• Adaptation of adopted technologies to local conditions
• Commercial dissemination of appropriate technologies and setting up of
small-scale rural industrial enterprises
• wide-ranging village artisan programme with basic and further training courses
• Dissemination of AT information in close cooperation with the Botswana
Technology Centre (BTC), on a joint newsletter etc.
SPATF (South Pacific Appropriate Technology Foundation) Papua New Guinea
• Development and dissemination of AT (Products: portable sawmills, coffee dehuskers, various agricultural implements, driers)
• Advice, service for and training of user groups
• Question-and-answer service and publications ("Liklikbuk")
• Promotion of small and medium-sized industry (metalworking, woodwork ing, leather goods)
UNDUGU Society, Kenya
• Social work and community development
• Appropriate primary school education and training in craft trades
• support of self-help initiatives
• Setting up of small-scale enterprises
• Management training
• Implementation of special education programmes in slums