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close this book The uncertain quest: science, technology, and development
View the document Note to the reader from the UNU:
View the document Foreword
View the document Preface
View the document Acknowledgements
close this folder Introduction: From tradition to modernity
View the document The importance of science and technology
View the document Science, technology, and society
View the document The institutional and policy requirements
View the document The new international context
View the document Modernity and the uncertain quest
View the document References
close this folder Part 1: Science, technology, and development
close this folder 1 Modern science and technology
View the document The emergence of modern science
View the document The expansion of modern science and technology
View the document Cultures and coexistence of rationalities
View the document References
close this folder 2 The story of development thinking
View the document Pioneers in development
View the document The discipline develops
View the document The centre and the periphery
View the document Questioning and crises
View the document Prospects
View the document References
close this folder 3 Measuring science, technology, and innovation
View the document The growing need for R&D and innovation indicators
View the document From macro-phenomena to innovation processes
View the document Towards a worldwide standard for R&D surveys
View the document Quantitative descriptions and qualitative assessments
View the document The overall scope of R&D statistics among developing countries
View the document Has R&D spending by developing countries increased?
View the document In which regions are the world's R&D resources concentrated?
View the document Science, technology, and new economic patterns
View the document Innovation indicators in the making
View the document The "second-generation" statistical manuals
View the document References
close this folder Part 2: From history to current challenges
close this folder 4 Western science in perspective and the search for alternatives
View the document What is Western science?
View the document The critiques
View the document The search for alternatives
View the document The example of India
View the document The significance of the alternatives
View the document References
close this folder 5 The institutionalization process
View the document Overview
View the document The Pandora's box of "colonial science"
View the document Strategies and styles of the major powers
View the document Cultural responses to Western learning
View the document The disciplines and institutions of colonial science
View the document Institutional growth in the moulds of "national science"
View the document The role of government science policy
View the document The interface between higher education and research capabilities
View the document Concluding remarks
View the document References
close this folder 6 The behaviour of scientists and scientific communities
close this folder The scientific communities in developing countries
View the document Scientific community: A concept open to challenge
View the document The widening gap and the need for a revised typology
View the document National scientific communities and styles of science
close this folder The origins, behaviours, and conditions of scientists
View the document Origins
View the document Higher education and research training
View the document Brain drain and brain gain
View the document Research scientists in search of statutes and status
View the document Choosing research topics and practicing research
close this folder Scientific production: Not very visible
View the document The place of third world science in mainstream science
View the document Mainstream science and local science: A needed revision
View the document Concluding remarks
View the document References
close this folder 7 Technology, economics, and late industrialization
View the document Lights and shadows of conventional neoclassical growth theory
View the document Alternative theoretical routes
View the document Import substitution industrialization in the 1960s and 1970s
View the document The 1980s: Towards a new socio-economic and technological scenario
View the document Concluding remarks
View the document References
close this folder 8 Technological capabilities
View the document Firm-level technological capabilities (FTC)
View the document National technological capabilities
View the document National technological capabilities: Some evidence from developing countries
View the document Conclusions and implications
View the document References
close this folder 9 The environmental challenge
View the document The first debate on environment and development
View the document Slow progress towards ecologically and environmentally friendly development
View the document Signposts for the future
View the document Concluding remarks: Disentangling Prometheus
View the document References
close this folder Part 3: The policy dimension
close this folder 10 Science and technology policy
View the document Science and technology policy: Rationale and issues
View the document Instruments for science and technology policy
View the document The implications of trade policy
View the document Experiences and approaches in the third world
View the document The United Nations system
View the document The knowledge base for STP
View the document Conclusion: Key contemporary issues for STP
View the document References
close this folder 11 Technology transfer and diffusion
View the document Elements and mechanisms of technology transfer
View the document Historical background
View the document The technology market
View the document Towards a revised framework
View the document Concluding remarks
View the document References
close this folder 12 Technology choice and development
View the document The 1950s and 1960s: Growth, investment allocation, and technology choice
close this folder The 1970s: Technology, employment, and basic needs
View the document Appropriate technology
View the document Appropriate products
View the document Technology and employment
close this folder The 1980s: Macro issues, new technologies, and capabilities
View the document Macroeconomic aspects of technology choice
View the document New technologies and blending
View the document Technological capabilities
View the document Prospects for the 1990s
View the document References
close this folder 13 New technologies: Opportunities and threats
View the document Information technology
View the document Biotechnology
View the document New and advanced materials
View the document References
close this folder 14 Technology assessment
View the document Historical background
View the document The methodology and its critics
View the document A typology of technology assessment and policy analysis
View the document Stakeholder participation in technology assessment
View the document Concluding remarks
View the document References
View the document Conclusion: Perspectives for the future
View the document Contributors
View the document Other titles of interest

The uncertain quest: science, technology, and development

Edited by

Jean-Jacques Salomon,

Francisco R. Sagasti, and

Céline Sachs-Jeantet

United Nations University Press

TOKYO - NEW YORK - PARIS

© The United Nations University, 1994

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

United Nations University Press

The United Nations University, 53-70, Jingumae 5-chome,

Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan

Tel: (03) 3499-2811 Fax: (03) 3499-2828

Telex: J25442 Cable: UNATUNIV TOKYO

Typeset by Asco Trade Typesetting Limited, Hong Kong

Printed by Permanent Typesetting and Printing Co., Ltd., Hong Kong

Cover design by Apex Production, Hong Kong

UNUP-835

ISBN 92-808-0835-4

United Nations Sales No. E.93.III.A.6

04300 P

The United Nations University is an organ of the United Nations established by the General Assembly in 1972 to be an international community of scholars engaged in research, advanced training, and the dissemination of knowledge related to the pressing global problems of human survival, development, and welfare. Its activities focus mainly on peace and conflict resolution, development in a changing world, and science and technology in relation to human welfare. The University operates through a worldwide network of research and postgraduate training centres, with its planning and coordinating headquarters in Tokyo, Japan