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close this bookCommunicable Disease Control in Emergencies - A Field Manual (WHO - OMS, 2003, 223 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentINTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 1: RAPID ASSESSMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: SURVEILLANCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: OUTBREAK CONTROL
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
View the documentANNEX 1: WHO REFERENCE VALUES FOR EMERGENCIES
View the documentANNEX 2: SAMPLE HEALTH SURVEY FORMS
View the documentANNEX 3: NCHS/WHO NORMALIZED REFERENCE VALUES FOR WEIGHT FOR HEIGHT BY SEX
View the documentANNEX 4: SAMPLE WEEKLY SURVEILLANCE FORMS
View the documentANNEX 5: RECOMMENDED CASE DEFINITIONS
View the documentANNEX 6: OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION FORMS
View the documentANNEX 7: ORGANIZATION OF AN ISOLATION CENTRE
View the documentANNEX 8: BASIC LABORATORY SERVICES
View the documentANNEX 9: LABORATORY INVESTIGATION KIT
View the documentANNEX 10: TREATMENT GUIDELINES
View the documentANNEX 11: MANAGEMENT OF THE CHILD WITH COUGH OR DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING6
View the documentANNEX 12: ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF DIARRHOEA
View the documentANNEX 13: FLOW CHARTS FOR SYNDROMIC MANAGEMENT OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
View the documentANNEX 14: SAMPLE HEALTH CARD
View the documentANNEX 15: LIST OF WHO GUIDELINES ON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentANNEX 16: LIST OF PUBLISHERS
View the documentANNEX 17: GENERAL REFERENCES

ANNEX 3: NCHS/WHO NORMALIZED REFERENCE VALUES FOR WEIGHT FOR HEIGHT BY SEX

WEIGHT-FOR-LENGTH (49-84 cm) AND
WEIGHT-FOR-HEIGHT (85-110 cm)

Boys' weight (kg)


Girls' weight (kg)

-4SD

-3SD

-2SD

-1SD

Median

Length

Median

-1SD

-2SD

-3SD

-4SD

60%

70%

80%

90%


(cm)


90%

80%

70%

60%

1.8

2.1

2.5

2.8

3.1

49

3.3

2.9

2.6

2.2

1.8

1.8

2.2

2.5

2.9

3.3

50

3.4

3

2.6

2.3

1.9

1.8

2.2

2.6

3.1

3.5

51

3.5

3.1

2.7

2.3

1.9

1.9

2.3

2.8

3.2

3.7

52

3.7

3.3

2.8

2.4

2

1.9

2.4

2.9

3.4

3.9

53

3.9

3.4

3

2.5

2.1

2

2.6

3.1

3.6

4.1

54

4.1

3.6

3.1

2.7

2.2

2.2

2.7

3.3

3.8

4.3

55

4.3

3.8

3.3

2.8

2.3

2.3

2.9

3.5

4

4.6

56

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.4

2.5

3.1

3.7

4.3

4.8

57

4.8

4.2

3.7

3.1

2.6

2.7

3.3

3.9

4.5

5.1

58

5

4.4

3.9

3.3

2.7

2.9

3.5

4.1

4.8

5.4

59

5.3

4.7

4.1

3.5

2.9

3.1

3.7

4.4

5

5.7

60

5.5

4.9

4.3

3.7

3.1

3.3

4

4.6

5.3

5.9

61

5.8

5.2

4.6

3.9

3.3

3.5

4.2

4.9

5.6

6.2

62

6.1

5.4

4.8

4.1

3.5

3.8

4.5

5.2

5.8

6.5

63

6.4

5.7

5

4.4

3.7

4

4.7

5.4

6.1

6.8

64

6.7

6

5.3

4.6

3.9

4.3

5

5.7

6.4

7.1

65

7

6.3

5.5

4.8

4.1

4.5

5.3

6

6.7

7.4

66

7.3

6.5

5.8

5.1

4.3

4.8

5.5

6.2

7

7.7

67

7.5

6.8

6

5.3

4.5

5.1

5.8

6.5

7.3

8

68

7.8

7.1

6.3

5.5

4.8

5.3

6

6.8

7.5

8.3

69

8.1

7.3

6.5

5.8

5

5.5

6.3

7

7.8

8.5

70

8.4

7.6

6.8

6

5.2

5.8

6.5

7.3

8.1

8.8

71

8.6

7.8

7

6.2

5.4

6

6.8

7.5

8.3

9.1

72

8.9

8.1

7.2

6.4

5.6

6.2

7

7.8

8.6

9.3

73

9.1

8.3

7.5

6.6

5.8

6.4

7.2

8

8.8

9.6

74

9.4

8.5

7.7

6.8

6

6.6

7.4

8.2

9

9.8

75

9.6

8.7

7.9

7

6.2

6.8

7.6

8.4

9.2

10

76

9.8

8.9

8.1

7.2

6.4

7

7.8

8.6

9.4

10.3

77

10

9.1

8.3

7.4

6.6

7.1

8

8.8

9.7

10.5

78

10.2

9.3

8.5

7.6

6.7

7.3

8.2

9

9.9

10.7

79

10.4

9.5

8.7

7.8

6.9

7.5

8.3

9.2

10.1

10.9

80

10.6

9.7

8.8

8

7.1

7.6

8.5

9.4

10.2

11.1

81

10.8

9.9

9

8.1

7.2

7.8

8.7

9.6

10.4

11.3

82

11

10.1

9.2

8.3

7.4

7.9

8.8

9.7

10.6

11.5

83

11.2

10.3

9.4

8.5

7.6

8.1

9

9.9

10.8

11.7

84

11.4

10.5

9.6

8.7

7.7

7.8

8.9

9.9

11

12.1

85

11.8

10.8

9.7

8.6

7.6

7.9

9

10.1

11.2

12.3

86

12

11

9.9

8.8

7.7

8.1

9.2

10.3

11.5

12.6

87

12.3

11.2

10.1

9

7.9

8.3

9.4

10.5

11.7

12.8

88

12.5

11.4

10.3

9.2

8.1

8.4

9.6

10.7

11.9

13

89

12.7

11.6

10.5

9.3

8.2

8.6

9.8

10.9

12.1

13.3

90

12.9

11.8

10.7

9.5

8.4

8.8

9.9

11.1

12.3

13.5

91

13.2

12

10.8

9.7

8.5

8.9

10.1

11.3

12.5

13.7

92

13.4

12.2

11

9.9

8.7

9.1

10.3

11.5

12.8

14

93

13.6

12.4

11.2

10

8.8

9.2

10.5

11.7

13

14.2

94

13.9

12.6

11.4

10.2

9

9.4

10.7

11.9

13.2

14.5

95

14.1

12.9

11.6

10.4

9.1

9.6

10.9

12.1

13.4

14.7

96

14.3

13.1

11.8

10.6

9.3

9.7

11

12.4

13.7

15

97

14.6

13.3

12

10.7

9.5

9.9

11.2

12.6

13.9

15.2

98

14.9

13.5

12.2

10.9

9.6

10.1

11.4

12.8

14.1

15.5

99

15.1

13.8

12.4

11.1

9.8

10.3

11.6

13

14.4

15.7

100

15.4

14

12.7

11.3

9.9

10.4

11.8

13.2

14.6

16

101

15.6

14.3

12.9

11.5

10.1

10.6

12

13.4

14.9

16.3

102

15.9

14.5

13.1

11.7

10.3

10.8

12.2

13.7

15.1

16.6

103

16.2

14.7

13.3

11.9

10.5

11

12.4

13.9

15.4

16.9

104

16.5

15

13.5

12.1

10.6

11.2

12.7

14.2

15.6

17.1

105

16.7

15.3

13.8

12.3

10.8

11.4

12.9

14.4

15.9

17.4

106

17

15.5

14

12.5

11

11.6

13.1

14.7

16.2

17.7

107

17.3

15.8

14.3

12.7

11.2

11.8

13.4

14.9

16.5

18

108

17.6

16.1

14.5

13

11.4

12

13.6

15.2

16.8

18.3

109

17.9

16.4

14.8

13.2

11.6

12.2

13.8

15.4

17.1

18.7

110

18.2

16.6

15

13.4

11.9

Notes:

1. Length is generally measured in children below 85 cm, and height in children 85 cm and above. Recumbent length is on average 0.5 cm greater than standing height; although the difference is of no importance to the individual child, a correction may be made by deducting 0.5 cm from all lengths above 84.9 cm if standing height cannot be measured.

2. SD = standard deviation score (or Z-score). The relationship between the percentage-of-median value and the SD-score or Z-score varies with age and height, particularly in the first year of life, and beyond 5 years. Between 1 and 5 years median -1 SD and median -2 SD correspond to approximately 90% and 80% of median (weight-for-length/height, and weight-for-age), respectively. Beyond 5 years of age or 110 cm (or 100 cm in stunted children) this equivalence is not maintained; median -2 SD is much below 80% of median. Hence the use of "percentage-of-median" is not recommended, particularly in children of school age. Somewhere beyond 10 years or 137 cm, the adolescent growth spurt begins and the time of its onset is variable. The correct interpretation of weight-for-height data beyond this point is therefore difficult.