|Educational Handbook for Health Personnel (WHO - OMS, 1998, 392 p.)|
|Chapter 4: Test and measurement techniques|
The practice of test and measurement techniques
This fourth chapter reviews a certain number of measuring instruments, their advantages and limitations, and how they should be used. It shows the wide range of such instruments and the importance of choosing them in accordance with the educational objectives to be measured. It is stressed that every teacher should make a certain minimum of statistical calculations when he carries out an item analysis of a test.
Those with a deeper interest in these problems are strongly advised to consult the following publications:
Public Health Papers - WHO
No. 36 A review of the nature and uses of examinations in medical education, 1968.
No. 52 Development of educational programmes for the health professions, 1973.
No. 72 Assessing health workers' performance: A manual for training and supervision, 1980.
After having studied this chapter and the references indicated, you should be able to:
1. Indicate the different elements that should be considered in the evaluation of a teaching programme.
2. Indicate the different elements that should be considered in the evaluation of the educational objectives, learning materials and human resources for a teaching programme.
3. Define the advantages and limitations of a system of evaluation of teaching by the students.1
4. Construct an observational rating scale and/or a practical test to evaluate the behaviour of a student in the domain of communication and/or practical skills.1
5. Propose a question for a written (open-book) examination of the essay type or a series of six short, open-answer questions and indicate the norms of performance permitting objective marking (marking table).1
6. Draw up three multiple-choice questions (MCQ) in the domain of intellectual skills - at least two of the objectives must measure an intellectual process superior to level 1 simple recall (either level 2 interpretation of data or level 3 problem-solving).1
7. Indicate the advantages and limitations of a programmed examination.
8. Define the following terms: prerequisite level test, pre-test, interval test, comprehensive, pre-final; indicate their purpose and the stages at which they are set.
9. Explain the difference between a relative and an absolute criteria test.
10. Calculate the acceptable pass level for an MCQ examination and establish the scoring criteria and norms which permit determination of the passing grade of a mini-test (made up of the questions mentioned in objectives 5 and 6).1
11. Do an item analysis of a question (calculate the difficulty index and the discrimination index) and draw the relevant conclusions.
1 Work in small groups is recommended for these objectives. Individual work will usually be appropriate for the others.
The educational planning spiral