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close this bookCommunicable Disease Control in Emergencies - A Field Manual (WHO - OMS, 2003, 223 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentINTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 1: RAPID ASSESSMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: PREVENTION
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: SURVEILLANCE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: OUTBREAK CONTROL
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
View the documentANNEX 1: WHO REFERENCE VALUES FOR EMERGENCIES
View the documentANNEX 2: SAMPLE HEALTH SURVEY FORMS
View the documentANNEX 3: NCHS/WHO NORMALIZED REFERENCE VALUES FOR WEIGHT FOR HEIGHT BY SEX
View the documentANNEX 4: SAMPLE WEEKLY SURVEILLANCE FORMS
View the documentANNEX 5: RECOMMENDED CASE DEFINITIONS
View the documentANNEX 6: OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION FORMS
View the documentANNEX 7: ORGANIZATION OF AN ISOLATION CENTRE
View the documentANNEX 8: BASIC LABORATORY SERVICES
View the documentANNEX 9: LABORATORY INVESTIGATION KIT
View the documentANNEX 10: TREATMENT GUIDELINES
View the documentANNEX 11: MANAGEMENT OF THE CHILD WITH COUGH OR DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING6
View the documentANNEX 12: ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF DIARRHOEA
View the documentANNEX 13: FLOW CHARTS FOR SYNDROMIC MANAGEMENT OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
View the documentANNEX 14: SAMPLE HEALTH CARD
View the documentANNEX 15: LIST OF WHO GUIDELINES ON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentANNEX 16: LIST OF PUBLISHERS
View the documentANNEX 17: GENERAL REFERENCES

ANNEX 1: WHO REFERENCE VALUES FOR EMERGENCIES

Table A1.1. Cut-off values for emergency warning

Health status

More than:

Daily crude mortality rate

1 per 10 000 population

Daily under-5 mortality rate

2 per 10 000 children under 5


Table A1.2. Basic needs

Water

Average requirements

Quantity

20 litres per person per day

Quality

250 people per water point


Not more than 150 metres from housing

Sanitation


Latrine

Ideally 1 per family


Minimum 1 seat per 20 people


30 metres from housing

Refuse disposal

1 communal pit per 500 people


2 × 5 × 2 metres

Shelter


Individual requirements

3.5 square metres per person

Collective requirements

30 square metres per person


Including shelter, sanitation, services, warehousing, access

Household fuel


Firewood

15 kg per household per day


With one economic stove per family, the needs may be reduced to 5 kg per stove per day

Table A1.3. Health care needs

Predicted morbidity

Expected attack rate in emergency situations

Acute respiratory infections, < 5 years

10% per month in cold weather

Diarrhoeal diseases, < 5 years

50% per month

Malaria, non-immune population

50% per month



Essential primary health care activities

Target

Under-5 clinic and growth monitoring

all children aged 0 - 59 months

Antenatal clinic

all pregnancies

Assisted deliveries

all deliveries



Immunization

Target

Tetanus toxoid

all deliveries

BCG

all newborns

DPT1-TT1

all children aged 0 - 1 year

DPT2-TT2

all children aged 0 - 1 year

DPT3

all children aged 0 - 1 year

Measles

all children aged 9 - 12 months

Table A1.4. Health personnel requirements

Activity

Output of 1 person per hour

Vaccination

30 vaccinations

Under-5 clinic and growth monitoring

10 children

Antenatal clinic

6 women

Assisted delivery

1 delivery

OPD* consultation

6 consultations

OPD* treatments, e.g. dressings

6 treatments

Health worker requirements

60 staff per 10 000 population

Note: 1 person per day = 7 hours of field work

*OPD: outpatient department

Table A1.5. Health supply requirements

Essential drugs and medical equipment


WHO Basic Emergency Kit

1 kit for 10 000 population for 3 months

WHO Supplementary Emergency Kit

1 kit for 10 000 population for 3 months

Safe water


Preparing 1 litre of stock solution

Calcium hypochlorite 70%: 15 g/l water
or bleaching powder 30%: 33 g/l water


or sodium hypochlorite 5%: 250 ml/l water


or sodium hypochlorite 10%: 110 ml/l water

Using the stock solution

0.6ml or three drops/l water


60 ml/100 litres water

Note: allow the chlorinated water to stand at least 30 minutes before using