|Environmentally-Induced Population Displacements and Environmental Impacts Resulting from Mass Migrations (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) / Alto Comisionado de Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados (ACNUR), 1996, 128 p.)|
|Extracts of Main Contributions|
PEKO PE, THE MULTI-FUEL COMBUSTION SYSTEM: ENERGY FOR EVERYONE
Based on the same simple principles as the MFC-stove, the grass-stove, Peko Pe was developed in East Moyo Refugee Camps. Adjumani Uganda in 1995. The name Peko Pe was given by a group of refugee women who saw it demonstrated and Peko Pe in local language means: it will solve our problem. The Peko Pe is tested technically at the University of Denmark, Technical High School and was used 3 times per day for one year by the cook in the Adjumani camp for all types of cooking with grass Hyperrhenia Rufa as fuel without any problem. Due to high efficiency and clean flame it is highly appreciated by the cook. One kg of grass can replace 5 kg of wood on the 3-stone fireplace.
· there is no doubt that the Peko Pe is working
· there is no doubt that the system can replace both firewood and charcoal if other combustible biomass is available
· there is no doubt that fuel, trees and environment can be saved with this simple device
One single standard unit will give the basic energy for all types of cooking. By multiplying the units, energy enough for all size of saucepans can be obtained and when water or food is boiling only one is needed to keep on boiling. Each unit will last for a certain period of time and that is how fuel will be saved. The Peko Pe has to be ignited on top of the fuel. Preheated air will be drawn in from the cover and the heat going downwards will force out combustible gasses from the fuel, meeting the hot air and ignite under the saucepan. All hot gasses will be concentrated upwards where it is needed. Cold air taken in at the bottom will slow down the process.
The MFC system differs in one way from traditional cooking. It will give very high temperature at the first flame stage the very minute is ignited and that will last for 20-30 minutes, bringing water fast to a boil. Then gradually the fuel will be carbonized and the glowing mass will continue giving enough heat to have the water boiling another 20-30 minutes.
One unit will cover the basic need of energy for cooking. With two units you can boil beans and with three or more, arranged the way the burned out units can be replaced, all size of saucepans can be covered with energy needed.
Almost all types of dry combustible biomass will burn more or less with the same result, it is more how the fuel is organized in the device. There are two possibilities in the same stove; the main with periphery draught for loose fuel and the other with central draught. The last one fits to compressed fuel, which needs more air such as sawdust, wood-shaving, weeds and fine types of grass. The hole is obtained by using a bottle or a stick put in the middle. Hyperhenia Rufa is definitely the best fuel. Elephant-grass and some types of reeds are excellent fuel as well as all types of stalks and cobs, matoke peals, woodchips, shells and husks.