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close this bookEducational Handbook for Health Personnel (WHO - OMS, 1998, 392 p.)
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View the documentFor whom is this Educational Handbook intended?
View the documentHow to use the Handbook
View the documentIdentification of your needs as an educator
View the documentList of educational objectives
View the documentTheoretical background that will help you reach the educational objectives of the workshop
View the documentRecapitulative table of exercises proposed in the Handbook
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1: Priority health problems and educational objectives
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2: Evaluation planning
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3: The teaching-learning concept and programme construction
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4: Test and measurement techniques
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View the documentChapter 6: Index and glossary
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Chapter 6: Index and glossary

6.01

Index and glossary*

6.02

* Adapted from Roger T. Lennon, “Test Department”, Harcourt, Brace and World Inc. Revised by J.-J. Guilbert (WHO); G. and L. Masse, ENSP, Rennes (France); B. Pissarro, University of Paris (France) and J.C. Chancerel, University of Neuch√Ętel (Switzerland).

This glossary of technical terms used in test and measurement, psychology and education is intended primarily for persons with limited training in test and measurement rather than for specialists. The terms defined are those most commonly found in test manuals and simple research reports. In the definitions, niceties of usage have sometimes been sacrificed for the sake of brevity, and, it is hoped, clarity.

The terms and definitions included are purely ad hoc, for the purposes of this Handbook alone; they represent only the view of the author and do not necessarily have any validity outside the context of the Handbook. There is not complete uniformity among writers in the measurement field with respect to the use of certain technical terms; in cases of varying usage, either these variations are noted or the definition offered is the one that the writer feels is the “best”.

A

Absolute criteria test 13, 4.02, 4.73-4.76, 4.90

Acceptability index 4.74-4.75, 4.90

Acceptable level of performance

Also called acceptable pass level (or minimum pass level). See also Criterion 13, 1.47, 1.55-1.56, 1.62-1.63, 1.66, 1.68, 2.04, 2.21, 2.46, 4.02, 4.29, 4.33-4.34, 4.37-4.38, 4.55-4.64, 4.74-4.75, 4.76, 4.90

Act

Action performed by a person 1.02, 1.30, 1.61-1.64, 1.66, 1.70, 1.71.

Act, professional

Corresponds to a practical skill; the knowledge of how to do something and adoption of the appropriate attitude 12, 1.02, 1.21, 1.49-1.55, 1.66, 1.68, 1.70, 1.74, 2.21-2.22, 3.07-3.09, 3.33, 3.41, 4.02, 4.30

Active methods

As opposed to the conventional methods described by Jean Piaget as “receptive”; an educational situation whereby the student assimilates the curriculum independently and progresses by means of individual exercises, the role of the teacher being limited to guidance of the student in choosing his/her educational objectives and monitoring of his/her performance. See also Non-directive method 3.21, 3.26, 3.77, 3.94-3.95

Activity

Group of acts and tasks performed by a person 6, 7, 12-13, 1.02, 1.22-1.23, 1.25-1.29, 1.32-1.33, 1.39-1.48, 1.53, 1.66, 1.70, 1.74-1.75, 1.78, 2.12-2.16, 2.45-2.47, 3.02, 3.05-3.10, 3.16-3.17, 3.24, 3.31-3.35, 3.37-3.38, 3.52, 3.61-3.63, 3.65, 3.71-3.72, 3.86, 3.96, 4.04, 4.07-4.09, 4.13-4.14, 4.24-4.25, 4.30-4.31, 4.42, 5.26

Affective

Concerning the feelings; affectivity is the combination of acts and tendencies which expresses feelings towards others; it is situated primarily on the level of interpersonal relationships. It is often employed to qualify attitudes. The word “affect” is a neologism used by psychologists to designate an affective state. See also Attitude 13, 2.46-2.47, 3.06-3.07, 4.02, 4.12

Aim

The end envisaged; a teaching or educational goal, the result expected from a programme 4, 6, 12-13, 1.02, 1.05, 1.06, 1.11, 1.21-1.23, 1.47, 1.56, 1.66, 1.75, 2.02, 2.15-2.19, 2.28, 2.34, 2.36, 2.37, 2.46, 3.02, 3.06-3.07, 3.16, 3.73, 3.75-3.76, 3.95-3.96, 4.02, 4.05-4.06, 4.25, 4.47-4.49, 4.73-4.74, 4.80, 5.02-5.11, 5.22-5.26

Aptitude

A combination of abilities and other characteristics, whether inborn or acquired, known or believed to be an individual's ability to learn in some particular area. Thus, musical aptitude would refer broadly to that combination of physical and mental characteristics, motivational factors and conceivably other characteristics, which is conducive to acquiring proficiency in the musical field. Some exclude motivational factors from the concept of “aptitude”, but the more comprehensive use seems preferable. The lay person may think of “aptitude” as referring only to some inborn capacity; the term is no longer so restricted in its psychological or measurement usage. See Skill

Arrangement of meeting room (for educational workshop) 5.17

Assessment See Evaluation

Attitude

The internal disposition reflected by one's behaviour with respect to persons, events, opinions or theories. In the Handbook it is used almost invariably to denote a relatively constant disposition of feeling towards someone (personal relations) 12, 1.02, 1.21, 1.49-1.54, 1.66, 1.68-1.70, 1.74, 1.78, 2.21, 2.30, 2.46, 3.05-3.10, 3.16-3.17, 3.19, 3.32, 3.41, 3.44, 4.29, 4.31-4.34, 5.26-5.29. See also Human values

Audiovisual aids See Media

B

Bedside teaching 3.41

Behaviour

The total reactions (of an individual) accessible to external observation. Thought and understanding are implicit aspects of behaviour which are observable not directly but solely by inference from other observable types of behaviour. 13, 1.04, 1.21-1.23, 1.50-1.53, 1.69, 1.73, 2.11-2.13, 2.21, 2.33-2.34, 2.45-2.47, 3.05-3.10, 3.16-3.18, 3.24, 3.31-3.35, 3.74, 3.93, 4.02, 4.31

Blackboard 3.43, 5.16

C

Central tendency, error of 4.69

Certifying evaluation 12, 1.20, 1.66, 2.02, 2.15-2.16, 2.19, 2.45, 2.46, 3.13, 3.76, 3.94-3.95, 4.19, 4.54, 4.65-4.66

Checklist (of action to be taken for educational workshop) 5.04, 5.05, 5.16, 5.18

Checklist (of equipment for educational workshop) 5.06, 5.16

Classification

Systematic division into classes 1.50-1.53

Coefficient of correlation (r)

A measure of the degree of relationship, or “going-togetherness” between two sets of measures for the same group of individuals. Two coefficients of correlation are used in psychology, first the Pearson (r), developed at the beginning of the century by the British statistician Karl Pearson, and, secondly, Spearman's correlation coefficient (r). The first is more powerful, but the data observed must be normally distributed and their variances must be homogeneous. Furthermore, the calculation takes longer unless a computer is available. The second, whose formula is:

(D = difference between ranks; N = number of pairs) is less powerful but does not assume any preliminary condition of the data and is easier to calculate. Unless otherwise specified, “correlation” usually means “coefficient of correlation”, which ranges from -1 to +1; a coefficient of 0 indicates complete absence of relationship while 1 denotes perfect correspondence. It is recommended that a statistics manual or a statistician be consulted before using these formulae. See Correlation

Coefficient of reliability

The coefficient of correlation between two forms of test, between scores on repeated administration of the same test, or between halves of a test, properly corrected. These three coefficients measure somewhat different aspects of reliability. See, for example, Kuder-Richardson formula 2.34

Competence

The professional ability required to carry out certain functions. Recognized aptitude to perform a specific act. Competence is a potential which is realized at the moment of performance 7, 11, 13, 1.06, 1.21-1.23, 1.36-1.37, 1.47, 1.66, 2.18, 2.36, 2.46, 3.02, 3.05-3.10, 3.16-3.17, 3.22, 3.31-3.35, 3.40-3.41, 3.73-3.78, 4.02, 4.07-4.09, 4.11-4.12, 4.21, 4.31, 4.35, 4.47-4.49, 4.80, 4.88-4.90, 5.02, 5.07

Completion item

Test question requiring completion of an unfinished sentence or phrase 12-13, 15, 2.02, 2.27, 2.38, 4.02, 4.29, 4.36-4.38, 4.66

Concept

A general and abstract mental representation of something; a conceptual model 12-13, 1.02, 1.36, 1.50-1.53, 2.02, 2.33-2.37, 3.02, 3.04, 3.05-3.10, 3.31, 3.42, 3.65, 3.69, 3.71-3.73, 3.75-3.76, 3.78, 3.80, 3.93, 4.25, 4.36, 4.43, 4.88-4.89, 5.07

Continuous evaluation 2.15-2.16, 4.65-4.68

Contract See Programme/contract

Contrast error 4.69

Coordinator, qualities of 3.82

Contributory objective See Enabling objective

Correlation

Relationship or “going-togetherness”, between two scores or measures. The existence of a high correlation between two variables does not necessarily indicate that one has any causal influence on the other. See also Coefficient of correlation

Criterion

A standard by which a test may be judged or evaluated; a set of scores, readings, etc., that a test is designed to predict or to bring into correlation. See also Validity 12-13, 1.02, 1.22, 1.32, 1.41, 1.55-1.56, 1.61-1.64, 1.66, 1.69-1.71, 1.73, 1.75, 2.04, 2.12, 2.14-2.15, 2.20, 2.34, 2.38, 3.09-3.10, 3.33-3.34, 3.60, 3.70, 3.74-3.75, 3.88, 3.94, 4.02, 4.07, 4.10, 4.30, 4.32-4.34, 4.73-4.77, 4.84, 4.88-4.90, 5.03, 5.07-5.08, 5.15

Curriculum

Plan worked out in advance fixing the order or the timetable of a group of educational activities 3.05-3.15, 3.78-3.85

D

Defects (limitations and outside factors affecting tests and examinations) 12, 2.02, 2.28-2.31

Demonstrations 3.40

Diagnostic evaluation. See Formative evaluation

Diagnostic test

In education, a test used to “diagnose” or locate specific areas of weakness or strength and to determine the nature of the weaknesses or deficiencies; it yields measures of the components or sub-parts of some larger body of information or skill. Diagnostic achievement tests are most commonly prepared for assessing skills. See Formative evaluation

Diascope. See Overhead projector 3.44, 3.94, 4.20, 5.16

Difficulty index

The percentage of a specified group of students that answers an item correctly. Also called Facility index 13, 15, 4.02, 4.74, 4.77, 4.80-4.85, 4.87-4.90

Discrimination index

The discriminating power of an item 6, 13, 15, 2.34, 2.36-2.37, 2.47, 4.02, 4.74, 4.77, 4.80-4.85, 4.87-4.90

Distractor

Any of the incorrect choices in a multiple-choice question 2.28, 4.39, 4.46, 4.75, 4.88

Distribution (frequency distribution)

A tabulation of scores from high to low or low to high, showing the number of individuals that obtain each score or fill in each score interval 3.62-3.64, 4.24, 4.69, 4.79

E

Education

Action or process of encouraging the formation and development of a person's physical, intellectual and moral faculties 7-9, 13, 1.04-1.06, 1.20, 1.22, 1.25-1.28, 1.36-1.37, 1.43, 1.50-1.53, 1.66, 1.73, 2.02, 2.05, 2.12, 2.15, 2.33-2.34, 2.39, 3.02, 3.05-3.10, 3.13, 3.16-3.17, 3.33, 3.39, 3.65, 3.75, 3.80-3.82, 3.86-3.88, 3.93, 4.03, 4.10, 4.14, 5.02-5.14, 5.25-5.28

Educational

Directed towards education. Used to qualify the objectives defining student behaviour 7-9, 12-13, 1.02, 1.04-1.06, 1.19-1.20, 1.22-1.23, 1.29-1.32, 1.36-1.39, 1.44-1.45, 1.47-1.48, 1.50-1.53, 1.55-1.56, 1.60-1.62, 1.64-1.69, 1.71, 1.73, 1.78, 2.02, 2.05, 2.16, 2.23, 2.26, 2.33, 2.38, 2.45, 3.02-3.10, 3.13, 3.31-3.32, 3.60-3.61, 3.65, 3.69-3.70, 3.73-3.76, 3.80-3.81, 3.88, 3.94-3.96, 4.02-4.04, 4.10-4.11, 4.30-4.34, 4.66, 4.73, 5.02, 5.13-5.14

Effectiveness

Capacity to produce the desired result. See also Efficiency 1.04, 1.66, 2.33-2.34, 3.02, 3.05-3.10, 3.31-3.35, 3.39, 3.70, 3.71-3.72, 3.95, 4.08-4.09, 4.23, 4.73, 5.02, 5.06, 5.10

Efficiency

Capacity to produce the desired result at least cost. A system that is efficient is preferable to one that is merely effective as there will be no waste of resources 2.34, 2.37, 3.34, 3.39, 3.70

Enabling objective 1.55

Epidiascope 3.43-3.44, 3.94

Equilibrium (of an examination) 2.33-2.37

Equivalent form

Any of two or more forms of a test that are closely parallel with respect to the nature of the content, the difficulty of the items included and their discriminating power, and that will yield very similar average scores and measures of variability for a given group. Used for studies on reliability of a test 4.66

Error of measurement See Standard error

Essay question. See also Modified essay question 15, 2.02, 2.22, 4.36-4.37, 4.89

Evaluation

Provides the basis for value judgments that make better educational decision-making possible. Includes a “measurement” component and a “judgment and decision” component 12-13, 15; 1.02, 1.04-1.05, 1.19-1.20, 1.22, 1.32, 1.37, 1.39, 1.41, 1.47, 1.49-1.52, 1.56, 1.66, 1.73-1.74, 2.02-2.09, 2.11-2.23, 2.27, 2.29, 2.33-2.34, 2.38-2.47, 3.03, 3.05-3.10, 3.13, 3.15, 3.33, 3.40, 3.65-3.66, 3.81-3.82, 3.93, 3.95, 4.02-4.15, 4.27-4.32, 4.42, 4.47-4.49, 4.66-4.69, 4.73-4.74, 4.81, 4.88-4.90, 5.06, 5.11, 5.14-5.15, 5.23-5.25, 5.28, 5.30, 5.32

Explicit

Stated in a sufficiently clear and precise manner, so as to leave no doubt. Opposite: implicit, confused, equivocal, ambiguous, obscure 1.22, 1.51-1.52, 1.62, 1.78, 2.45-2.46, 3.32, 3.65

F

Factor

In mental measurement, a hypothetical trait, ability or component of ability that underlies and influences performance on two or more tests, and hence causes scores on the test to be correlated. The term “factor” strictly refers to a theoretical variable, derived by a process of factor analysis from a table of interrelationships among tests; but it is also commonly used to denote the psychological interpretation given to the variable, i.e. the mental trait assumed to be represented by the variable, as verbal ability, numerical ability, etc. 12, 1.21-1.23, 1.47, 2.02, 2.29-2.30, 2.34, 2.47, 3.34, 3.63-3.64, 3.80, 3.93, 4.11, 4.69

Factor analysis

A group of statistical methods for analysing the intercorrelations among a set of variables (for example, test scores). Factor analysis uncovers factors which explain the common characteristics of and the differences between the examinees and the questions. Factor analysis has contributed to the understanding of the organization or components of intelligence, aptitudes and personality, and it has pointed the way to the development of tests of the several components. “Factor” is used in its mathematical sense and is not intended to express a causal relationship 4.87

Feedback

An informative reaction to the message of teaching. It is useful not only as a means of checking but also as a means of increasing the student's learning activity 2.16, 2.18-2.19, 3.25, 4.66, 5.28

Field work 3.41

Final testing 4.65-4.67

Flannelboard (flannelgraph) 3.44, 4.20

Follow-up evaluation See Formative evaluation

Follow-up test See Post-test

Formative evaluation 12, 1.20, 1.66, 2.02, 2.13-2.16, 2.19, 2.45, 2.46, 3.13, 3.65, 3.74, 4.19, 4.68, 5.11

Function, professional

Set of activities (directed towards the same aim) that a person performs to fulfil his or her role in society 6, 12, 15, 1.02, 1.06, 1.19-1.20, 1.22-1.23, 1.30-1.39, 1.45-1.46, 1.48, 1.66, 1.73, 2.27, 2.42, 3.06-3.07, 3.17, 3.29, 3.31-3.35, 3.37-3.38, 3.60-3.61, 3.73, 3.75-3.76, 3.79, 3.89, 3.97, 4.04-4.05, 4.11, 5.07

G

Goal See Aim

Groups, high and low 4.80-4.81, 4.83-4.85, 4.88

H

Halo effect

An interference effect created by the idea the examiner has already formed of a student on the basis of previous test results 4.69

Human values 1.67, 4.35

I

Incident analysis 1.21-1.22, 4.47-4.48

Indicator, health

Indirect measure of the level of health of the community.

Institutional objectives See Objectives, general

Instruction

Process of communicating knowledge and training the mind of a person

Integrated learning 3.67, 3.71-3.77

Integrated teaching 3.71-3.72

Integration

To join parts together to form a consistent whole. Coordination of different learning/teaching activities with a view to the harmonious functioning of the educational process and more effective training of personnel. See Integrated teaching and Integrated learning 3.05-3.11, 4.08

Intellectual process

Process of thinking in general ideas or concepts; process of using knowledge, interpreting data, solving problems, etc. 1.49-1.55, 1.66, 2.21-2.22, 2.27, 4.02, 4.43-4.46

Interpretation of data 1.51-1.53, 2.27, 4.02, 4.43, 4.45

Interval testing 13. 4.02, 4.65-4.67

Item

A single question or exercise in a test 2.36, 4.77

Item analysis See Question analysis

K

Knowledge 9, 12, 1.02, 1.06, 1.21-1.23, 1.47, 1.49-1.52, 1.55-1.57, 1.66, 1.69-1.70, 1.73-1.76, 2.12, 2.15-2.16, 2.21, 2.28-2.29, 2.31, 3.05-3.10, 3.16-3.17, 3.19, 3.32-3.34, 3.62-3.63, 3.74, 3.81-3.82, 3.93, 4.35, 4.40-4.42, 4.44, 4.46, 4.66, 4.87-4.88, 5.22-5.23, 5.26, 5.27-5.28

Kuder-Richardson formula

Formula for estimating the reliability of a test from information about the individual item in the test, or from the mean score, standard deviation and number of items in the test. Because the Kuder-Richardson formula permits estimation of reliability from a single administration of a test, without the need to divide the test into halves, its use has become common in test development. It is not appropriate for estimating the reliability of speed tests. The Kuder-Richardson formula (No. 21) is as follows:


k = number of questions in test
M = arithmetic average of scores obtained by the student
S = standard deviation of scores.

L

Law of effect, Thorndike's 2.13, 2.45

Learning 6, 13. 1.19, 1.29, 1.49, 1.52, 1.66, 1.73-1.76, 1.79, 2.03, 2.12-2.16, 3.02, 3.05-3.11, 3.16-3.17, 3.21-3.29, 3.31-3.35, 3.39-3.58, 3.60-3.77, 3.83-3.90, 3.93-3.96, 4.05, 4.07, 4.12-4.13, 4.24-4.25, 5.26-5.28

Lecture

A lesson given orally by a teacher, with virtually no student participation. It could be, and often is, distributed in printed form. This lack of real participation is the main characteristic of the lecture in its traditional form 1.76, 3.16, 3.39-3.40, 3.70, 4.25

Leniency, errors of 4.69

Logical error 4.69

M

MCQ See Multiple-choice question

Machine-scorable (machine-scored) test

A test that can be scored by means of a machine. In taking tests that are to be scored by machine the examinee records his answers on separate answer sheets. The machine rapidly distinguishes between right and wrong answers and can combine groups of responses in order to yield total or part scores or carry out an item analysis with difficulty and discrimination indexes 4.48

Matching item

Type of multiple-choice item calling for the correct association of data given in one list with those given in a second list. There are several types: simple matching, excluded term matching, causal relationship, quantitative comparison, relative variation 4.40-4.41, 4.89

Media, teaching 3.32, 3.40-3.46

Modified essay question 12-13, 15, 2.02, 2.27, 2.38, 4.02, 4.29, 4.36-4.38, 4.66

Motivation

The conscious and unconscious forces that determine behaviour (independently of any moral consideration) 1.48, 2.13, 2.18, 3.05-3.10, 3.24-3.25, 3.60, 3.74, 3.93, 5.02

Multiple-choice question (MCQ)

A test item in which the examinee's task is to choose the correct or best answer from several given answers or options (distractors) 12-13, 15, 2.02, 2.27-2.28, 4.02, 4.29, 4.36, 4.39-4.46, 4.47-4.49, 4.66, 4.74-4.75, 4.85, 4.88-4.90

Multiple response items

Type of multiple-choice question in which two or more of the given choices may be correct and where there is generally a code permitting only one answer to be given on the answer sheet 4.90

N

N The symbol commonly used to represent the number of cases in a distribution, study, etc. 3.61, 4.80, 4.82

Non-directive method

Teaching method whereby the teacher gives no direction but adopts an attitude which encourages students asking for advice to work out solutions to their problems themselves 3.16

Norm-referenced test See Relative criteria test

O

Objective, contributing

Description, having all the elements of a specific educational objective, of the theoretical knowledge needed to implement a professional task 12, 15, 1.02, 1.56, 1.62, 1.66, 1.69, 3.53

Objective test

A test in the scoring of which there is no possibility of differences of opinion among scorers as to whether responses are to be scored right or wrong. It is contrasted with tests such as the traditional essay examination to which different scorers may assign different scores, ratings or grades. Examples: MCQ, programmed examination, restricted response test. See these terms

Objectives, educational 8, 12-13, 15, 1.02, 1.04-1.05, 1.07, 1.19-1.23, 1.29-1.32, 1.36-1.39, 1.41-1.44, 1.47-1.48, 1.50-1.52, 1.55-1.56, 1.60, 1.61-1.64, 1.65-1.66, 1.68-1.69, 1.71, 1.73-1.75, 1.78, 2.02, 2.04-2.05, 2.07-2.08, 2.11, 2.15-2.16, 2.20, 2.23, 2.25-2.26, 2.33-2.34, 2.38, 2.45, 3.02-3.03, 3.05-3.10, 3.13, 3.15, 3.32, 3.39, 3.41, 3.60-3.61, 3.69-3.70, 3.71-3.72, 3.74-3.76, 3.79-3.82, 3.88, 3.94-3.96, 4.02-4.04, 4.10-4.14, 4.19, 4.29-4.30, 4.32, 4.34, 4.66, 4.73-4.76, 5.14

Objectives, general 12, 1.02, 1.30-1.31, 1.36-1.39, 1.45-1.46, 1.73, 2.44, 3.79, 4.10

Objectives, institutional See Objectives, general

Objectives, intermediate 1.30-1.31, 1.36, 1.41-1.43, 1.45-1.46, 2.44, 3.60, 3.78, 3.81, 4.04, 4.10

Objectives, learning 1.29, 1.73, 3.31-3.32

Objectives, specific 12, 1.02, 1.30-1.31, 1.41, 1.55-1.56, 1.58, 1.61-1.62, 1.64, 1.66, 1.68-1.71, 1.75, 1.78, 2.02, 2.04, 2.44, 3.60-3.61, 3.69-3.70, 4.24, 4.47, 4.50, 5.03

Objectives, teaching 1.29

Objectivity 12, 1.78, 2.02, 2.30-2.31, 2.33-2.35, 2.37, 2.46-2.47, 4.68, 5.03

Observational rating scale See Scale

Obstacles to change 2.43, 3.91

Oral examination 2.02, 2.22, 2.28-2.30, 4.35, 4.89

Organizational diagram

A diagram or chart showing the structure of a complex organization, representing its various components and the relationships between them. The organizational diagram shows the place and responsibilities of each department or section 12, 1.20, 2.02, 2.40, 2.42, 2.44, 3.92

Overhead projector

An apparatus for projecting images from transparencies onto a screen so that they are visible in ordinary daylight. Also called Diascope 3.44, 3.94, 4.20, 5.16

P

Peer learning

The process of students assisting in the teaching/learning system; an educational method which actively involves peers in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the educational process 1.48, 3.17, 3.35, 3.67, 3.75, 4.23

Performance

Accomplishment of an act (task) by a person. It is not used in the Handbook in the sense of establishing a record. Individual result obtained in carrying out a task, depending largely on aptitude and motivation. Level of performance = degree of individual success 13, 1.20, 1.55-1.56, 1.62, 1.66, 1.68, 1.73, 2.04, 2.13, 2.21, 2.25-2.27, 2.30, 2.33, 2.46, 3.24, 3.31-3.35, 3.75-3.76, 4.02, 4.04, 4.09, 4.29, 4.33-4.34, 4.37-4.38, 4.55-4.64, 4.68, 4.73-4.76, 4.81, 4.89-4.90, 5.03

Post-test (follow-up test) 4.65, 4.67-4.68, 5.11

Practicability.

General simplicity of use of a method (for teaching or evaluation) 2.25, 2.33-2.35, 2.38, 3.70, 4.46

Practical tests 13, 2.22, 2.30, 4.29-4.30

Practical work 3.41

Practice effect

The influence of previous experience with a test on a later administration of the same test or a similar test. Usually there is an increase in the score on the second testing, attributed to increased familiarity with the directions, kinds of question, etc. Practice effect is greater when the interval between testings is short, when the materials in the two tests are very similar, and when the initial test is a relatively novel experience for the subjects 4.24

Pre-final feedback comprehensive testing 13, 4.65-4.67

Prerequisite level test

In education, a test that measures the extent to which an individual has acquired a certain level of competence needed to undertake some new learning activity successfully. For example, a prerequisite level test in pharmacology shows whether a student has reached a level whereby he or she may profitably begin a course on therapeutics. Also called Readiness test 13, 1.56, 1.69, 4.02, 4.50, 4.65-4.67

Pre-test

Test which shows to what extent a student has acquired certain competences (knowledge and skills) expected from a course before the commencement of the corresponding teaching 9, 10. 13, 4.02, 4.65-4.67, 4.87, 5.11, 5.22-5.23, 5.28

Priority health problems 12-15, 1.02, 1.04-1.05, 1.07, 1.09-1.11, 1.17-1.18, 1.20, 1.47, 1.66, 1.78, 2.05, 2.07, 2.17, 3.03, 3.15, 3.34, 3.47-3.48, 3.52, 3.79, 3.83-3.84, 4.03-4.05, 4.07, 4.11, 4.71-4.72

Problem-based learning 1.66, 3.47-3.48, 3.51-3.55, 3.66, 3.75-3.76

Problem solving 8, 13, 1.42-1.43, 1.51-1.53, 1.66, 1.72, 2.13, 2.17, 2.27-2.29, 2.47, 3.02, 3.05-3.10, 3.16-3.17, 3.19, 3.31-3.35, 3.40-3.41, 3.46, 3.47-3.48, 3.49, 3.51-3.55, 3.65-3.66, 3.73-3.77, 3.79, 3.95, 4.02, 4.04, 4.12, 4.19, 4.44-4.45, 4.47, 4.89

Professional profile 3, 12, 15, 1.06, 1.19, 1.28, 1.31, 1.32, 1.33, 1.37, 1.38, 1.41-1.46, 1.65-1.66, 2.07, 3.13, 3.19, 3.55, 3.59, 3.77, 3.80, 3.97, 4.86

Programme

A series of planned educational activities a student is to go through with the assistance of teachers 13, 1.04-1.05, 1.20, 1.24, 1.29, 1.47, 1.50, 2.03-2.05, 2.08, 2.14, 2.44, 3.02-3.03, 3.05-3.15, 3.22, 3.67, 3.73, 3.77, 3.78-3.85, 3.86, 3.88-3.90, 3.92, 3.96-3.97, 4.02, 4.03, 4.05-4.09, 4.13

Programme/contract 3.75-3.76

Programme preparation (for educational workshop) 5.05, 5.19-5.22

Programmed examination 13, 15, 4.02, 4.29, 4.47-4.64, 4.89

Programmed teaching

Method of instruction consisting of a system of graduated questions with an immediate check of the answer; the right answer is needed in order to answer the following question correctly. Such teaching can be automated by using, for example, teaching machines or computers 3.39-3.40, 3.96, 4.47-4.64

Project 2.22, 4.29-4.30

Prospective (studies) - concerning the future; research on the future evolution of mankind; predictions on future conditions 1.22, 1.47, 3.13

Proximity error 4.69

Psychomotor See Skill

Q

Question (or item) analysis

The process of evaluating a single test item by any of several methods, in particular by determining its difficulty index, discrimination index and often its correlation with some selected criteria 13, 4.02, 4.77-4.85

Question analysis card 4.85

Question bank 4.81, 4.85, 4.88

Questionnaire (for evaluation of workshop) 4.18-4.20, 4.23-4.25, 4.27, 5.11, 5.23-5.24, 5.25-5.31

R

Random sample

A sample of the members of a population drawn in such a way that every member of the population has an equal chance of being included. This method precludes any bias or selection. The purpose of using the method is, of course, to obtain a fairly “representative” sample of the total population, so that the sample findings may be generalized to the whole population. Random sampling has also the following advantage: in accordance with the calculus of probabilities, formulae are available for predicting the relative frequencies, or parameters, such as the mean or standard deviation of the sample, from the true values of the relative frequencies or parameters in the total population; conversely, the limits within which are very probably situated the relative frequencies or parameters of the population from which the sample is drawn can be estimated from the relative frequencies or parameters observed within the sample. There are various methods, in particular random number tables, for drawing such a sample in practice 3.61-3.62

Range

The difference between lowest and highest scores obtained in a test administered to a given group 4.79

Rank ordering

The process of arranging students in order of merit as determined by scores obtained in one or more tests 1.22, 2.45-2.46, 4.74, 4.77, 4.79-4.80, 4.84

Raw score

The first quantitative result obtained in scoring a test (for example, the number of right answers, number of errors, or similar, direct, unconverted, uninterpreted measure) 9, 4.25, 4.26, 4.77-4.79

Recall item

An item that requires the examinee to supply the correct answer from memory. This item differs from the recognition item in which he or she need only identify the correct answer. For example, “Claude Bernard published the 'Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine' in...?” is a recall item, whereas “Claude Bernard published the 'Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine' in (a) 1785, (b) 1815, (c) 1865, (d) 1905” is a recognition item in the form of a multiple-choice question 4.36-4.38, 4.39

Relative criteria test 13, 4.02, 4.73-4.76, 4.90

Relevance

Quality of being perfectly appropriate to the object pursued. In the context of the Handbook, the extent to which training programmes correspond to the health problems of the community and the resources available 12-13, 15, 1.02-1.03, 1.06-1.07, 1.09-1.10, 1.23, 1.31-1.32, 1.39, 1.41, 1.44, 1.47-1.48, 1.55-1.56, 1.60, 1.65-1.66, 1.71-1.73, 1.78, 2.02, 2.25, 2.33-2.34, 2.36-2.37, 2.39, 2.47, 3.02, 3.65, 3.70, 3.73, 3.83-3.85, 3.88-3.90, 3.94, 3.97, 4.36, 4.68, 4.88, 5.26

Reliability

The extent to which a test is consistent in measuring whatever it has to measure; dependability, stability, and relative freedom from errors of measurement. Reliability is usually estimated by some form of correlation coefficient (see Coefficient of reliability, Standard error) 12, 2.02, 2.30-2.31, 2.33-2.37, 2.46-2.47, 3.34, 3.74, 4.68, 4.87, 4.89

Representative sample

A sample that corresponds to or matches the population of which it is a sample with respect to characteristics important for the purposes of the investigation 1.22, 3.61-3.64

Restricted response test See Modified essay question

Role, professional

The functions fulfilled by a person 1.66

Role, teacher's 3.31-3.35, 3.39, 3.47-3.48

Role playing

Group learning/teaching technique in which students learn to approach a problem situation by acting out freely the roles of the protagonists in the situation 3.41

S

Safety evaluation 4.65, 4.67-4.68

Scale

Continuous series of programmed values in which data are situated in order to assess them with respect to a whole. Also called Observational rating scale 1.55, 1.74, 2.21, 4.02, 4.23-4.25, 4.31-4.34, 4.36, 4.68-4.69

Score See Raw score

Scoring, alphabetical or numerical 2.25, 2.31, 2.35, 3.09, 4.36, 4.46, 4.48-4.49, 4.69, 4.76, 4.79.

Selection (of students) 4.31

Self-learning package 13, 3.02, 3.42, 3.52, 3.60-3.66, 3.94-3.95

Seminars 3.39

Sensorimotor See Skill

Short open-answer question. See Modified essay question

Simulation 2.22, 3.41-3.42, 4.19, 4.35, 4.46

Skill, professional

Can be an intellectual skill (cognitive domain), a communication skill (affective domain) or a practical skill (sensorimotor or psychomotor domain, referring simultaneously to sensitivity, sensation and motricity) 12-13, 1.02, 1.21-1.23, 1.48-1.54, 1.55-1.56, 1.68-1.70, 1.74, 1.78, 2.21-2.22, 2.30, 3.05-3.10, 3.19, 3.22-3.23, 3.65, 3.73-3.78, 4.02, 4.08-4.09, 4.12, 4.30-4.31, 4.71-4.72

Slides 3.44, 3.60, 3.94

Spearman-Brown formula

A formula giving the relationship between the reliability of a test and its length

This formula:


rtt = coefficient of reliability
r = coefficient of correlation between the two halves of the test

permits estimation of the reliability of a test lengthened or shortened by any amount, from the known reliability of a test of specified length. Its most common application is in the estimation of reliability of an entire test from the correlation between the two halves of the test (split-half reliability).

Specification table 12-13, 1.39, 2.02, 2.38-2.44, 3.02, 3.70, 3.88, 3.96, 4.02, 4.70-4.72

Specificity (of a test) 2.34, 2.36-2.37, 2.47

Stages (of assessment) 13, 4.02, 4.65-4.68

Standard error

The standard error is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution. The use of the standard error is very important when the sampling distribution follows the normal distribution law (i.e. when the sample is drawn at random and is sufficiently large: for example, n>30 in the case of the sampling distribution of a mean).

Its formula is as follows:

E = standard error
S = standard deviation
rtt = coefficient of reliability

See Kuder-Richardson formula

Student record 4.86

Summative evaluation See Certifying evaluation

Supervision

Guidance and monitoring of activities of health personnel to ensure an acceptable level of performance 1.20, 1.66

System

A coherent group of interacting abstractions and components forming both a theoretical structure and practical method. Subsystem: part of a system 12-13, 1.02, 1.04-1.07, 1.12-1.15, 1.17-1.18, 1.20, 1.74, 4.11, 4.19

Systematic approach

Theory highlighting the interdependence of the components of something seen as a whole; approaching the elements of a problem by considering them as an interdependent whole 1.12-1.14, 1.72, 3.16, 3.86, 3.93, 5.02-5.04, 5.27

Systems analysis

Process of studying an activity by mathematical means in order to define its goals and purposes and to discover ways of accomplishing it more efficiently; a constructive method in three phases: collection of data, analysis, and synthesis leading to solving of problems 1.22, 2.33, 3.86

T

Task, professional

A specific piece of work that has to be done 6, 8. 11-13, 1.02-1.06, 1.19-1.24, 1.29-1.32, 1.47-1.49, 1.50-1.55, 1.61-1.64, 1.66, 1.68-1.70, 1.73-1.76, 1.78, 2.25, 2.27, 2.40, 3.05-3.06, 3.12-3.15, 3.31-3.35, 3.60, 3.65, 3.73-3.76, 3.78, 3.97, 4.05-4.06, 4.08-4.09, 4.30, 4.32-4.36, 4.48-4.49, 4.66, 4.73, 4.76, 4.90, 5.02, 5.10, 5.32

Task analysis 1.21-1.22, 3.06-3.07

Taxonomy

Classification into categories according to a given system. See Classification

Teaching

Helping a person to know how to act, think or feel 6, 12-13, 15, 1.02, 1.06, 1.19-1.23, 1.29, 1.37-1.39, 1.47, 1.49-1.53, 1.56, 1.58, 1.73, 1.78, 2.02, 2.12-2.16, 2.19, 2.33-2.34, 2.36, 2.46, 3.02, 3.05-3.10, 3.13, 3.16-3.21, 3.24, 3.29, 3.31-3.35, 3.39-3.46, 3.65, 3.69-3.72, 3.74-3.76, 3.79-3.82, 3.86, 3.88, 3.95-3.96, 4.02, 4.06-4.08, 4.10-4.14, 4.25, 4.42, 4.47, 4.66, 4.73-4.74, 5.02-5.03, 5.32

Teaching methods

All the means applied in a rational manner to produce a specified educational result 13, 1.20, 1.47, 1.50-1.53, 1.66, 1.73, 2.28, 3.02, 3.39-3.46, 3.65-3.66, 3.69-3.70, 3.88, 3.95, 4.23, 5.32

Teaching techniques See Teaching methods

Test

Exercise, examination or work on the basis of which a judgement can be made as to a student's intellectual, practical or communication skills 9, 10, 12-13, 2.02, 2.13, 2.19, 2.22, 2.25-2.31, 2.40, 2.47, 3.09, 3.24, 3.31, 3.70, 3.75-3.76, 3.88, 4.02, 4.29-4.30, 4.35-4.36, 4.39, 4.41-4.42, 4.46-4.48, 4.65-4.68, 4.70, 4.73-4.77, 4.80, 4.87-4.90, 5.10-5.11, 5.28

Test(s), advantages and limitations of See Defects

Time factor 1.47, 2.34, 2.37, 5.28

Transparency

Sheet of transparent cellulose or acetate film (thermosensitive or otherwise) which can be written or drawn upon. The image can then be projected onto a screen by an overhead projector without darkening the room 7, 3.44, 3.46, 5.16

Tree of actions and concepts 3.59-3.60

Tutorials 3.39

V

Validity 8, 12, 2.02, 2.33, 2.35-2.39, 2.46-2.47, 4.87-4.89

W

Working methods (in educational workshop) 7, 3.31, 3.73, 3.75-3.76, 4.09, 5.09-5.12, 5.22-5.24, 5.26, 5.30

Workshop (definition, aims) 4, 6-7, 1.19, 1.21-1.23, 1.36-1.37, 1.64, 3.31-3.35, 3.39, 4.07-4.09, 4.24, 5.02-5.32

Personal notes