|Technical notes: Special Considerations for Programming in Unstable Situations (UNICEF, 2000, 490 p.)|
|Chapter 1 - Annex 4: Containing Outbreaks of Cholera, Dysentery and Typhoid|
The expertise and resources of WHO and WHO collaborating centres should normally be swiftly mobilized by the government whenever international assistance is required to control an epidemic. Where the health of children is directly at risk, some complementary inputs from UNICEF may be necessary. Depending on the assessment of actual needs and possibilities, some of the following inputs might be considered:
· specifically focused health education and social mobilization programmes among the most vulnerable communities;
· support for special training for health workers;
· support for in-country transport and distribution of priority supplies and personnel (transport may be temporarily diverted from other programmes);
· laboratory diagnostic supplies;
· specific drugs required for treatment, especially ORS.
For cholera and shigellosis:
· support to sanitary surveys and hygiene and sanitation measures (especially disposal of human excreta, provision of soap, etc.);
· support to water supply improvement measures, including chlorination;
· support to rehydration therapy;
· preparedness measures in areas into which current outbreaks elsewhere may spread.
· support for measures to improve water supply (including chlorination) and sanitation.
Where specific epidemics are common - virtually annual events - in particular localities, provision to respond to the predictable needs for assistance should be included in the regular UNICEF health programme budget and recourse be made to emergency assistance processes only if the epidemic takes on unusually major proportions or generates extraordinary needs.