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close this bookAction with Youth - HIV/AIDS and STD: A Training Manual for Young People - Second Edition (IFRC - RCS, 2000, 184 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentAbbreviations
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentSection 1: Information about HIV/AIDS
View the documentSection 2: The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the global response
View the documentSection 3: Leader preparation
View the documentSection 4: Programme planning
Open this folder and view contentsSection 5: Activities with youth groups
View the documentSection 6: Action with the community
View the documentAppendix I: Techniques for educational activities
View the documentAppendix II: Guidelines for focus-group discussions
View the documentAppendix III: Guidelines for pre-testing health education materials
View the documentAppendix IV: Condoms and safer sex
View the documentAppendix V: Guidelines for AIDS and first aid
View the documentAppendix VI: Resource list
View the documentGlossary
View the documentReferences
View the documentBack cover

Glossary

Abstinence

In the context of this manual, not having sexual intercourse, whether oral, anal or vaginal.

Acupuncture

The insertion of the tips of needles into the skin at specific points of the body for the purpose of treating various diseases. Originally Chinese, this treatment is practised in many parts of the world.

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A combination of diseases caused by a virus which affects the immune system. The immune system becomes unable to fight off infections.

Anal intercourse (anal sex)

Inserting the penis into the anus of the sexual partner.

Antibiotics

Drugs given to fight certain types of infections.

Antibody(ies)

A substance in the blood formed in response to invading disease agents such as viruses, bacteria and parasites. Antibodies usually defend the body against invading disease agents. This is not the case for AIDS.

Anus

The back passage through which faeces are passed.

Assertive/assertiveness

Being assertive means you insist on a right or an opinion.

Bacterium

Micro-organism that lives in soil, air and water, as well as on people, animals and plants. Some bacteria are harmless, but others cause diseases.

Bisexual

A person who is sexually attracted to both males and females.

Cervix

The neck of a woman’s womb (uterus).

Circumcision

In men: Removal of the foreskin of the penis.

In women: Removal of the clitoris in the vagina, or removal of the clitoris and the labia, after which the vulva area is sewn together, leaving a small opening for urination and menstruation.

Clitoris

Area of tissue in the vagina that is able to become erect when a woman is sexually excited.

Condom

Method of contraception as well as protection against most sexually transmitted diseases (STD) for both sexes. The male condom is a rubber sheath, which fits over the erect penis and is sometimes coated with spermicide cream. The recently developed female condom fits over the cervix and also protects the vagina and vulva. (See Appendix IV.)

Contagious

Capable of spreading a disease by contact.

Counselling

Advice and support given to people. It includes confidential dialogue between a client and a trained care provider aimed at enabling the client to cope with stress and to make personal decisions, in this context, related to HIV and AIDS.

Cumulative total

A number formed by successive additions. In the context of this manual, the cumulative number of HIV cases is the number of people who have been infected and counted since the start of the epidemic.

Ejaculation

Rush of semen from the penis resulting from sexual stimulation.

Endometrium

The mucous membrane lining the uterus, which thickens during the menstrual cycle in preparation for possible implantation of a fertilized egg. It is shed during the menstrual period if the egg is not fertilized.

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution, incidence and possible control of a disease among a certain population.

Evaluation

The process used to confirm whether a project or programme has achieved its objectives.

Fallopian tubes

A pair of tubes along which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus.

Fertility

In the context of the manual: the ability to become pregnant.

Gay

Homosexual man whose sexual desires are directed wholly or largely toward males.

Genital

Relating to the reproductive organs.

Haemophilia

Congenital disease that causes severe bleeding from even a slight injury, through failure of blood to clot quickly.

Health promotion

The process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health. It includes health education, health policy formation, community development, diagnosing the causes of ill health both economically and socially, and the promotion of healthy lifestyles.

Hepatitis-B

An infection caused by a virus and transmitted through sexual intercourse or through blood.

Herpes infection

An infection caused by a virus. Can be sexually transmitted. See pages 74-76.

Heterosexual

A person who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex.

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus. The virus that causes AIDS.

HIV-positive

Infected with HIV.

HIV-negative

Not infected with HIV.

HIV status

The state of being or not being infected with HIV.

Homosexual

Person whose sexual desires are directed wholly or largely toward people of the same sex. Homosexuals include males (gays) and females (lesbians).

Immune system

Protects the body from infection by recognizing diseases, killing them and then remembering what they ‘look like’ so that they will be able to fight them off again.

Incubation period

The period between infection with a virus or other pathogen and the appearance of the first symptom or sign of infection.

Inflammation

Condition of part of the body with heat, swelling or redness, as a reaction to injury or infection.

Intercourse (sexual)

The sexual act of a penis being placed into a woman’s vagina (vaginal intercourse) or a man’s anus (anal intercourse). Also, copulation.

Intravenous (IV) drug use

Injecting drugs into veins with needles and syringes.

Lesion(s)

Damage of the tissue of an organ in the body, a result of disease or wounding.

Lubricant

A substance (e.g., a cream) containing oil or grease.

Lymph nodes

Swellings along the lymph system in the body that act as a filter to prevent foreign particles from entering the bloodstream.

Masturbation

Sexual stimulation of the male or female sexual organs, usually with the hands.

Menses/menstruation/menstrual period

The blood that leaves a woman’s body during menstruation.

Menopause

Period of a woman’s life when monthly menstruation stops.

Monogamy

Normally, it is the practice of being married to one person at a time. In the context of this manual, it means having only one sexual partner.

Mucous membranes

A thin tissue which secretes mucus and lines many body cavities and tubular organs.

Nausea

The feeling that one is about to vomit.

Negotiate

To discuss a problem in order to find a joint solution or decision.

Nodule

A small swelling.

Opportunistic infection

Infections which take advantage of a person’s weakened immune system.

Oral intercourse (oral sex)

Contact of the mouth or tongue with a partner’s penis, vagina or anus during sexual activity.

Ovary(ies)

Reproductive female organ in which ova (eggs) are produced.

Ovulation

The release of ova (eggs) from the ovaries.

Paralysis

The loss of the ability to move (and sometimes to feel anything) in part or most of the body, generally as a result of an illness (such as syphilis), poison or injury.

Penetration

Used in the context of this manual to describe the act of putting the penis into the vagina or anus whilst having sex.

Pneumonia

An infection of the lungs.

Polygamy

Having more than one sexual partner at the same time.

Protozoa

Unicellular and microscopic animals.

Saliva

The fluid produced in the mouth (spit).

Scarification

Making tiny punctures or superficial incisions in the skin.

Screening (of blood)

Examination in order to discover the presence or absence of a disease.

Semen

The fertilizing fluid that passes through the penis during ejaculation.

Seropositive

Also called HIV-positive or said that a person has seroconverted. About three months after being infected with HIV, the body develops antibodies to the infection. These can be detected in the blood which is tested in a laboratory.

Seronegative

See: HIV-negative.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD)

Diseases which can be passed from one person to another by intimate body contact and by sexual intercourse.

Sex worker

A person, male or female, who offers sex in return for money.

Spermicide cream

Cream containing a substance able to kill spermatozoa.

Sterility

In the context of women’s health, condition of not being able to become pregnant.

Sterilization/sterilized

In the context of the manual, technique to make utensils free from living microorganisms, to make them sterile.

Symptom

A sign of a disease.

Syphilis

Sexually transmitted disease (see Fact sheet pages 74-76).

Tonsils

Two small organs on each side of the throat near the root of the tongue.

Traumatic sexual practices

Sexual practices which involve some damage, major or minor, to the body of either partner involved in having sex. This will include tiny cuts in the mouth or vagina or on the penis caused by prolonged rubbing.

Tuberculosis (TB)

An infectious disease caused by a germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It generally affects the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the bones. It is treatable by antibiotics. It is still very common in some parts of the world, especially in those with a high rate of HIV infections. Because of their weakened immune system, HIV-infected people are more vulnerable to tuberculosis.

Ulcer

Open sore on external or internal surface of the body.

Uterus/womb

Female pear-shaped organ where the fertilized embryo is nourished, protected and grows during pregnancy, until birth.

Uvula

The small fleshy projection hanging from the back of the roof of the mouth above the throat.

Vaccine

A substance, given by injection or orally, which prevents people from becoming sick from certain diseases, even if they come into contact with them.

Vagina

Part of the birth canal of a woman that leads to the womb. It is a 10 to 15 cm muscular tube.

Vaginal intercourse (vaginal sex)

Penetration of the vagina by the penis.

Vaginal secretions

The lubricating fluid of the vagina which increases when a woman becomes sexually excited.

Virus

A very simple organism (smaller than bacteria) capable of causing disease.

Window period

The time between when a person gets infected and the moment his/her body starts to produce antibodies.