Treaty with the Chippewa - September 30, 1854
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DOCUMENT: CHIPTRT4.TXT

                       TREATY WITH THE CHIPPEWA 
                          SEPTEMBER 30, 1854 

          Articles of a treaty made and concluded at La Pointe, 
     in the State of Wisconsin, between Henry C. Gilbert and 
     David B. Herriman, commissioners on the part of the United 
     States, and the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior and the 
     Mississippi, by their chiefs and headmen. 

          ARTICLE 1. The Chippewas of Lake Superior hereby cede 
     to the United States all the lands heretofore owned by them 
     in common with the Chippewas of the Mississippi, lying east 
     of the following boundary line, to wit: Beginning at a 
     point, where the east branch of Snake River crosses the 
     southern boundary line of the Chippewa country, running 
     thence up the said branch to its source, thence nearly 
     north, in a straight line, to the mouth of East Savannah 
     River, thence up the St. Louis River to the mouth of East 
     Swan River, thence up the East swan River to its source, 
     thence in a straight line to the most westerly bend of 
     Vermillion River, and thence down the Vermillion River to 
     its mouth. 

          The Chippewas of the Mississippi hereby assent and 
     agree to the foregoing cession and consent that the whole 
     amount of the consideration money for the country ceded 
     above, shall be paid to the Chippewas of Lake Superior, and 
     in consideration thereof the Chippewas of Lake Superior 
     hereby relinquish to the Chippewas of the Mississippi, all 
     their interest in and claim to the lands heretofore owned by 
     them in common, lying west of the above boundary-line. 

          ARTICLE 2. [Designation of boundary lines] 

          ARTICLE 3. The United States will define the boundaries 
     of the reserved tracts, whenever it may be necessary, by 
     actual survey, and the President may, from time to time, at 
     his discretion, cause the whole to be surveyed, and may 
     assign to each head of a family or single person over 
     twenty-one years of age, eighty acres of land for his or 
     their separate use: and he may, at his discretion, as fast 
     as the occupants become capable of transacting their own 
     affairs, issue patents therefor to such occupants, with such 
     restrictions of the power of alienation as he may see fit to 
     impose. And he may also, at his discretion, make rules and 
     regulations, respecting the disposition of the lands in case 
     of the death of the head of a family, or single person 
     occupying the same, or in case of its abandonment by them. 
     And he may also assign other lands in exchange for mineral 
     lands, if any such are found in the tracts herein set apart. 
     And he may also make such changes in the boundaries of such 
     reserved tracts or otherwise, as shall be necessary to 
     prevent interference with any vested rights. All necessary 
     roads, highways, and railroads, the lines of which may run 
     through any of the reserved tracts, shall have the right of 
     way through the same, compensation being made therefor as in 
     other cases. 

          ARTICLE 4. In consideration of and payment for the 
     country hereby ceded, the United States agree to pay to the 
     Chippewas of Lake Superior, annually, for the term of twenty 
     years, the following sums, to wit: five thousand dollars in 
     coin; eight thousand dollars in goods, household furniture 
     and cooking utensils; three thousand dollars in agricultural 
     implements and cattle, carpenter's and other tools and 
     building materials, and three thousand dollars for moral and 
     educational purposes, of which last sum, three hundred 
     dollars per annum shall be paid to the Grand Portage band, 
     to enable them to maintain a school at their village. The 
     United States will also pay the further sum of ninety 
     thousand dollars, as the chiefs in open council may direct, 
     to enable them to meet their present just engagements. Also 
     the further sum of six thousand dollars, in agricultural 
     implements, household furniture, and cooking utensils, to be 
     distributed at the next annuity payment, among the mixed 
     bloods of said nation. The United States will also furnish 
     two hundred guns, one hundred rifles, five hundred beaver 
     traps, three hundred dollars' worth of ammunition, and one 
     thousand dollars' worth of ready made clothing, to be 
     distributed among the young men of the nation, at the next 
     annuity payment. 

          ARTICLE 5. The United States will also furnish a 
     blacksmith and assistant, with the usual amount of stock, 
     during the continuance of the annuity payments, and as much 
     longer as the President may think proper, at each of the 
     points herein set apart for the residence of the Indians, 
     the same to be in lieu of all the employees to which the 
     Chippewas of Lake Superior may be entitled under previous 
     existing treaties. 

          ARTICLE 6. The annuities of the Indians shall not be 
     taken to pay the debts of individuals, but satisfaction for 
     depredations committed by them shall be made by them in such 
     manner as the President may direct. 

          ARTICLE 7. No spirituous liquors shall be made, sold, 
     or used on any of the lands herein set apart for the 
     residence of the Indians, and the sale of the same shall be 
     prohibited in the Territory hereby ceded, until otherwise 
     ordered by the President. 

          ARTICLE 8. It is agreed, between the Chippewas of Lake 
     Superior and the Chippewas of the Mississippi, that the 
     former shall be entitled to two-thirds, and the latter to 
     one-third, of all benefits to be derived from former 
     treaties existing prior to the year 1847. 

          ARTICLE 9. The United States agrees that an examination 
     shall be made, and all sums that may be found equitably due 
     to the Indians, for arrearages of annuity or other thing, 
     under the provisions of former treaties, shall be paid as 
     the chiefs may direct. 

          ARTICLE 10. All missionaries, and teachers, and other 
     persons of full age, residing in the territory hereby ceded, 
     or upon any of the reservations hereby made by authority of 
     law, shall be allowed to enter the land occupied by them at 
     the minimum price whenever the surveys shall be completed to 
     the amount of one quarter section each. 

          ARTICLE 11. All annuity payments to the Chippewas of 
     Lake Superior, shall hereafter be made at L'Anse, La Pointe, 
     Grand Portage, and on the St. Louis River, and the Indians 
     shall not be required to remove from the homes hereby set 
     apart for them. And such of them as reside in the territory 
     hereby ceded, shall have the right to hunt and fish therein, 
     until otherwise ordered by the President. 

          ARTICLE 12. In consideration of the poverty of the Bois 
     Forte Indians who are parties to this treaty, they having 
     never received any annuity payments, and of the great extent 
     of that part of the ceded country owned exclusively by them, 
     the following additional stipulations are made for their 
     benefit. The United States will pay the sum of ten thousand 
     dollars, as their chiefs in open council may direct, to 
     enable them to meet their present just engagements. Also the 
     further sum of ten thousand dollars, in five equal annual 
     payments, in blankets, cloth, nets, guns, ammunition, and 
     such other articles of necessity as they may require. 

          They shall have the right to select their reservation 
     at any time hereafter, under the direction of the President; 
     and the same may be equal in extent, in proportion to their 
     numbers, to those allowed the other bands, and be subject to 
     the same provisions. 

          They shall be allowed a blacksmith, and the usual smith 
     shop supplies and also two persons to instruct them in 
     farming, whenever in the opinion of the President it shall 
     be proper, and for such length of time as he shall direct. 

          It is understood that all Indians who are parties to 
     this treaty, except the Chippewas of the Mississippi, shall 
     hereafter be known as the Chippewas of Lake Superior. 
     Provided, That the stipulation by which the Chippewas of 
     Lake Superior relinquishing their right to land west of the 
     boundary line shall not apply to the Bois Forte band who are 
     parties to this treaty. 

          ARTICLE 13. This treaty shall be obligatory on the 
     contracting parties, as soon as the same shall be ratified 
     by the President and Senate of the United States. 

          In testimony whereof, the said Henry C. Gilbert, and 
     the said David B. Herriman, commissioners as aforesaid, and 
     the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the Chippewas of Lake 
     Superior and the Mississippi, have hereunto set their hands 
     and seals, at the place aforesaid, this thirtieth day of 
     September, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four. 

     Henry C. Gilbert, 
     David B. Herriman, 
     Commissioners 

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