"American Indians Today: Answers to your Questions" - Bureau of Indian Affairs booklet (heavy on the propaganda, but with some useful information and resources).
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United States Department of Interior
Bureau of Indian Affairs
AMERICAN INDIANS TODAY
ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS
1991 Third Edition
United States Department of the Interior
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20245
Every day the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) receives many
and varied inquiries about American Indians and Alaska
Natives through cards, letters, telephone calls or visits to
our offices. They come from students, teachers, historians,
researchers, librarians, other government agencies, Members
of Congress, the White House, game show hosts, and the
general public. Like you, they want answers to questions
about the lives of Indian people past and present.
Another large group of inquirers is the general and Indian
news media which maintain a lively interest in the work of
this agency and in the programs the federal government
carries out with and for Indian tribes. The BIA is often the
first and main resource when they are researching stories.
Responding to all of this is an enormous task. Many of your
most frequent questions, however, are similar and this
booklet was developed to respond to them. It also lists
other resources and an extensive bibliography to help with
your research in local libraries and elsewhere.
In seeking answers to your questions about Indians, you
should do so with a clear understanding that no two Indian
tribes are exactly alike. What is good for one tribe may not
be good for another; a policy or program that solves the
problems of one tribe, may not do so for another. This is
true because of differences in early culture, location,
resources or lack thereof, religion, education or tradition.
Consequently, there are no simple solutions to the many
challenges facing Indian tribes today. The BIA's role in
their lives has changed considerably from that of the past.
As it seeks to administer national policies affecting
tribes, the BIA actively seeks advice and participation by
tribal leaders in its decision-making.
The BIA also makes concerted efforts to provide tribes with
opportunities to be more self-governing and has moved, in
many ways, from daily involvement in their lives. As each
tribe's history, culture, and current situation is unique to
itself, finding the best way to help tribes achieve self-
sufficiency without jeopardizing their interests is our
We hope the information in this booklet provides the answers
you seek or enables you to find them through other sources.
Thank you for your interest.
David J. Matheson
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in the U.S. Department of
the Interior, is the federal agency with primary
responsibility for working with federally-recognized Indian
tribal governments and with Alaska Native village
communities. Other federal, state, county and local
governmental agencies may work with Indians or Alaska
Natives as members of ethnic groups or as U.S. citizens. The
BIA relates its work to federal tribal governments in what
is termed a "government-to-government" relationship.
It must be made clear at this point that BIA does not "run
Indian reservations." Elected tribal governments run Indian
reservations, working with the BIA whenever trust resources
or Bureau programs are involved.
Under a U.S. policy of Indian self-determination, the
Bureau's main goal is to support tribal efforts to govern
their own reservation communities by providing them with
technical assistance, as well as programs and services,
through 12 area offices and 109 agencies and special
A principal BIA responsibility is administering and managing
some 56.2 million acres of land held in trust by the United
States for Indians. Developing forest lands, leasing mineral
rights, directing agricultural programs and protecting water
and land rights are a part of this responsibility in
cooperation with the tribes, who have a greater decision-
making role in these matters now than in the past.
Most Indian students (about 89 percent) attend public,
private or parochial schools. BIA augments these through
funding of 180 Bureau education facilities, many of which
are operated by tribes under contract with the Bureau. The
BIA also provides assistance for Indian college students;
vocational training; adult education; a solo parent program;
and a gifted and talented students program.
A part of the Bureau's work is also to assist tribes with
local governmental services such as road construction and
maintenance, social services, police protection, economic
development, and enhancement of governance and
The BIA was established in 1824 in the War Department. It
became an agency of the Department of the Interior when the
Department was created in 1849. Until 1980, BIA was headed
by a Commissioner who by law was a presidential appointee
requiring confirmation by the U.S. Senate. The post remained
vacant until 1991 when the post of Deputy Commissioner was
filled by David J. Matheson, an enrolled member of the Coeur
d'Alene Tribe of Idaho, who is responsible for the day-to-
day operations of the Bureau. His post as Deputy Commissioner
does not require Senate confirmation. From 1980 to 1991, the
BIA was administered by an Assistant Secretary - Indian
Affairs (or his deputy), a post that was created in 1977 by
the Interior Secretary. Five successive Indians have been
appointed by the President to the office. Since 1989, Eddie
F. Brown, an enrolled member of the Pasqua Yaqui Tribe of
Arizona, has held the post. He sets policy for the BIA.
About 87 percent of BIA employees are Indian through Indian
preference in hiring. Under federal law, a non-Indian cannot
be hired for a vacancy if a qualified Indian has applied for
the position. To qualify for preference status, a person
must be a member of a federally-recognized Indian tribe or
be of at least one-half Indian blood of tribes indigenous to
BIA EDUCATION PROGRAMS
LEGISLATION -- Since the 1970's, two major laws have
restructured the BIA education program. In 1975, the Indian
Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (P.L. 93-
638) authorized contracting with tribes to operate education
programs. The Educational Amendments Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-
561) and technical amendments (P.L. 98-511, 99-89 and 100-
297) mandated major changes in both Bureau-operated and
tribally contracted schools, including decision-making
powers for Indian school boards, local hiring of teachers
and staff, direct funding to schools, and increased
authority to the director of Indian Education Programs
within the Bureau.
FEDERAL SCHOOLS -- In 1990-91, the BIA is funding 180
education facilities including 48 day schools, 39 on-
reservation boarding schools, five off-reservation boarding
schools and eight dormitories operated by the Bureau.
Additionally, under "638" contracting, tribes operate 62 day
schools, 11 on-reservation boarding schools, one off-
reservation boarding school and six dormitories. The
dormitories enable Indian students to attend public schools.
INDIAN CHILDREN IN FEDERAL SCHOOLS -- Enrollment in schools
and dormitories funded by the BIA for 1991 is about 40,841
including 39,092 instructional and 1,749 dormitory students.
PUBLIC SCHOOL ASSISTANCE (JOHNSON-O'MALLEY PROGRAM) -- The
BIA provides funds to public school districts under the
Johnson-O'Malley Act of 1934 to meet the special educational
needs of about 225,871 eligible Indian students in public
INDIANS IN COLLEGE -- Approximately 15,000 Indian students
received scholarship grants from the BIA in the 1990-91
school year to enable them to attend colleges and
universities. About 432 students receiving BIA assistance
are in law school and other graduate programs. The total
number of Indian college students is not known, but is
estimated to be more than 70,000. Total appropriations
provided through the BIA for Indian higher education was
about $30.2 million in fiscal year 1991.
TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COLLEGES -- Currently, the BIA provides
grants for the operation of 22 tribally controlled community
colleges. The number of Indian students enrolled in these
colleges in school year 1990-91 was approximately 7,050 with
a total funding of $23.3 million.
BIA POST-SECONDARY SCHOOLS -- The BIA operates two post-
secondary schools: Haskell Indian Junior College in
Lawrence, Kansas, with an enrollment of about 816 students,
and Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute at
Albuquerque, New Mexico, with about 427 students.
HANDICAPPED CHILDREN'S PROGRAM -- Under the Handicapped
Children's Act (P.L. 94-142), the Bureau provides financial
support for the educational costs of an average of 226 such
children annually in some 28 different facilities
SUBSTANCE/ALCOHOL ABUSE EDUCATION PROGRAM -- BIA education
programs in substance and alcohol abuse provide Bureau
schools with curriculum materials and technical assistance
in developing and implementing identification, assessment,
prevention, and crisis intervention programs through
referrals and added counselors at the schools.
The BIA Housing Program administers the Housing Improvement
Program (HIP), a grant program to which Indians may apply
who are unable to obtain housing assistance from other
sources, to repair and renovate existing housing. In some
special cases, HIP provides for the construction of new
homes. It also provides financial help to qualified Indians
for down payments in the purchase of new homes. The grants
are made only to those Indians who do not have the income to
qualify for loans from tribal, federal or other sources of
The 1989 BIA inventory of housing needs on reservations and
in Indian communities shows that of a total of 155,539
existing dwellings, 100,037 met standards and 55,502 needed
replacement (39,516 of which can be renovated). With the
numbers of dwellings needing total replacement (15,986) and
families needing housing (35,886), the BIA Housing Program
estimates that a total of 51,872 new homes are required. The
program budget for fiscal year 1991 is $20.1 million.
The program works cooperatively with the Indian Health
Service which provides water and sewage facilities for the
homes, and the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) program
which builds new homes.
THE PRESIDENT'S AMERICAN INDIAN POLICY
On June 14, 1991, President George Bush issued an American
Indian policy statement which reaffirmed the government-to-
government relationship between Indian tribes and the
The President's policy builds upon the policy of self-
determination first announced by President Nixon in 1970,
reaffirmed and expanded upon by the Reagan-Bush
Administration in 1983. President Bush's policy moves toward
a permanent relationship of understanding and trust, and
designates a senior staff member as his personal liaison
with all Indian tribes. President Bush's policy statement
Reaffirming The Government-to-Government Relationship
Between The Federal Government and Tribal Governments
On January 24, 1983, the Reagan-Bush Administration issued a
statement on Indian policy recognizing and reaffirming a
government-to-government relationship between Indian tribes
and the Federal Government. This relationship is the
cornerstone of the Bush-Quayle Administration's policy of
fostering tribal self-government and self-determination.
This government-to-government relationship is the result of
sovereign and independent tribal governments being
incorporated into the fabric of our Nation, of Indian tribes
becoming what our courts have come to refer to as quasi-
sovereign domestic dependent nations. Over the years the
relationship has flourished, grown, and evolved into a
vibrant partnership in which over 500 tribal governments
stand shoulder to shoulder with the other governmental units
that form our Republic.
This is now a relationship in which tribal governments may
choose to assume the administration of numerous Federal
programs pursuant to the 1975 Indian Self-Determination
and Education Assistance Act.
This is a partnership in which an Office of Self-Governance
has been established in the Department of the Interior and
given the responsibility of working with tribes to craft
creative ways of transferring decision-making powers over
tribal government functions from the Department to tribal
An Office of American Indian Trust will be established in
the Department of the Interior and given the responsibility
of overseeing the trust responsibility of the Department and
of insuring that no Departmental action will be taken that
will adversely affect or destroy those physical assets that
the Federal Government holds in trust for the tribes.
I take pride in acknowledging and reaffirming the existence
and durability of our unique government-to-government
Within the White House I have designated a senior staff
member, my Director of Intergovernmental Affairs, as my
personal liaison with all Indian tribes. While it is not
possible for a President or his small staff to deal directly
with the multiplicity of issues and problems presented by
each of the 510 tribal entities in the Nation now recognized
by and dealing with the Department of the Interior, the
White House will continue to interact with Indian tribes on
an intergovernmental basis.
The concepts of forced termination and excessive dependency
on the Federal Government must now be relegated, once and
for all, to the history books. Today we move forward toward
a permanent relationship of understanding and trust, a
relationship in which the tribes of the nation sit in
positions of dependent sovereignty along with the other
governments that compose the family that is America.
FEDERAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR INDIAN AFFAIRS
Over the past decade, the annual budget for the BIA has
averaged approximately $1 billion. The fiscal year 1991
appropriation for the BIA is $1.5 billion for the principal
program categories of: Education, $554.5 million; Tribal
Services (including social services and law enforcement),
$338.9 million; Economic Development, $ 14.6 million;
Navajo-Hopi Settlement, $1.4 million; Natural Resources,
$139.7 million; Trust Responsibilities, $74.7 million;
Facilities Management, $94.2 million; General
Administration, $112.0 million; Construction, $167.6
million; Indian Loan Guaranty, $ 11.7 million; Miscellaneous
Payments to Indians, $56.1 million; and Navajo
Rehabilitation Trust Fund, $3.0 million.
Under the Indian self-determination policy, tribes may
operate their own reservation programs by contracting with
the BIA. In fiscal year 1990, tribal governments contracted
programs totalling $415 million, over 30 percent of the
total BIA budget.
Appropriations for other federal agencies with Indian
programs, for FY 1991, are: Indian Health Service, $1.4
billion; end administration for Native Americans, $33.3
million (both agencies of the Department of Health and Human
Services); and the Office of Indian Education in the U.S.
Department of Education, $75.3 million.
Other federal departments, such as Agriculture, Commerce,
and HUD, also receive funds specifically designated for
AMERICAN INDIANS AND ALASKA NATIVES
According to U.S. Census Bureau figures, there were
1,959,234 American Indians and Alaska Natives living in the
United States in 1990 (1,878,285 American Indians, 57,152
Eskimos, and 23,797 Aleuts). This is a 37.9 percent increase
over the 1980 recorded total of 1,420,400. The increase is
attributed to improved census taking and more self-
identification during the 1990 count. The BIA's 1990
estimate is that almost 950,000 individuals of this total
population live on or adjacent to federal Indian
reservations. This is the segment of the total U.S. Indian
and Alaska Native population served by the BIA through
formal, on-going relations.
The number of Indian land areas in the U.S. administered as
Federal Indian reservations (reservations, pueblos,
rancherias, communities, etc.) total 278. The largest is the
Navajo Reservation of some 16 million acres of land in
Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. Many of the smaller
reservations are less than 1,000 acres with the smallest
less than 100 acres. On each reservation, the local
governing authority is the tribal government. The states in
which the reservations are located have limited powers over
them, and only as provided by federal law. On some
reservations, however, a high percentage of the land is
owned and occupied by non-Indians. Some 140 reservations
have entirely tribally-owned land.
A total of 56.2 million acres of land are held in trust by
the United States for various Indian tribes and individuals.
Much of this is reservation land; however, not all
reservations land is trust land. On behalf of the United
States, the Secretary of the Interior serves as trustee for
such lands with many routine trustee responsibilities
delegated to BIA officials.
There are 510 federally recognized tribes in the United
States, including about 200 village groups in Alaska.
"Federally-recognized" means these tribes and groups have a
special, legal relationship to the U.S. government and its
agent, the BIA, depending upon the particular situation of
URBAN AND OFF-RESERVATION INDIAN POPULATIONS:
Members of federal tribes who do not reside on their
reservations have limited relations with the BIA, since BIA
programs are primarily administered for members of
federally-recognized tribes who live on or near
NON-FEDERAL TRIBES AND GROUPS:
A number of Indian tribes and groups in the U.S. do not have
a federally-recognized status, although some are state-
recognized. This means they have no relations with the BIA
or the programs it operates. A special program of the BIA,
however, works with those seeking federal recognition
status. Of 126 petitions for federal recognition received by
the BIA since 1978, eight have received acknowledgment of
tribal status and 12 have been denied. Twelve other groups
gained federal recognition outside the BIA process through
action by the U.S. Congress.
INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE
The primary Federal health resource for American Indians and
Alaska Natives is the Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency
of the Public Health Service of the U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services. The IHS operates hospitals and
clinics on reservations and provides related health services
for Indian communities. Like the BIA, the IHS contracts with
tribes to operate some of its programs. Some of the
significant statistics related to the state of Indian health
in 1991 are as follows:
BIRTH RATE -- Birth rates were 28.0 births per 1,000 in
1986-88. The U.S. all races rate was 15.7 births per 1,000
INFANT DEATH RATE -- The infant death rate was 9.7 per 1,000
live births in 1986-88, while the U.S. all races was 10.1
per 1,000 births in 1987.
LIFE EXPECTANCY -- In 1979-81, life expectancy was 71.1
years (males, 67.1 years and females 75.1 years). These
figures are based on 1980 census information.
CAUSES OF DEATH -- Diseases of the heart and accidents
continue to be the two major causes of death among American
Indians and Alaska Natives. The 1988 age-adjusted death rate
for diseases of the heart was 138.1 per 100,000 of the
population and 166.3 per 100,000 for all U.S. races. In the
same period, the age-adjusted death rate from accidents was
80.8 percent per 100,000, including 44.7 related to motor
vehicle accidents and 36.1 from other accidents. The U.S.
all races 1988 age-adjusted rate was 35.0 per 100,000,
including 19.7 related to motor vehicle accidents and 15.3
related to other accidents.
SUICIDE RATE -- The age-adjusted suicide death rate for the
population has decreased 29 percent since its peak in 1975
(21.1 deaths per 100,000 population). The Indian rate for
1988 was 14.5 compared to the U.S. all races rate of 11.4.
HIV/AIDS -- The numbers of AIDS cases among American Indians
end Alaska Natives is, as yet, relatively low (236 in the
period 1982-1990). There are, however, no firm statistics on
the numbers of those who may be HIV-positive. The IHS is,
therefore, directing its attention to education/prevention,
surveillance, and treatment programs in cooperation with the
BIA in its school systems, with tribal leaders, and local
and state health departments. The Centers for Disease
Control (CDS) provides some funding support toward the total
fiscal year 1991 budget for this work of $3.1 million.
ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
WHO IS AN INDIAN?
No single federal or tribal criteria establishes a person's
identity as an Indian. Government agencies use differing
criteria to determine who is an Indian eligible to
participate in their programs. Tribes also have varying
eligibility criteria for membership. To determine what the
criteria might be for agencies or tribes, you must contact
For its purposes, the Bureau of the Census counts anyone an
Indian who declares himself or herself to be such.
To be eligible for Bureau of Indian Affairs services, an
Indian must (1) be a member of a tribe recognized by the
federal government and (2) must, for some purposes, be of
one-fourth or more Indian ancestry. By legislative and
administrative decision, the Aleuts, Eskimos and Indians of
Alaska are eligible for BIA services. Most of the BIA's
services and programs, however, are limited to Indians
living on or near federal reservations.
WHAT IS AN INDIAN TRIBE?
Originally, an Indian tribe was a body of people bound
together by blood ties who were socially, politically, and
religiously organized, who lived together in a defined
territory and who spoke a common language or dialect.
The establishment of the reservation system created some new
tribal groupings when two or three tribes were placed on one
reservation, or when members of one tribe were spread over
two or three reservations.
HOW DOES AN INDIAN BECOME A MEMBER OF A TRIBE?
A tribe sets up its own membership criteria, although the
U.S. Congress can also establish tribal membership criteria.
Becoming a member of a particular tribe requires meeting its
membership rules, including adoption. Except for adoption,
the amount of blood quantum needed varies, with some tribes
requiring only a trace of Indian blood (of the tribe) while
others require as much as one-half.
WHAT IS A RESERVATION?
In the U.S., there are only two kinds of reserved lands that
are well known -- military and Indian. An Indian reservation
is land a tribe reserved for itself when it relinquished its
other land areas to the U.S. through treaties. More
recently, Congressional acts, executive orders and
administrative acts have created reservations. Some
reservations, today, have non-Indian residents and land
ARE INDIANS REQUIRED TO STAY ON RESERVATIONS?
No. Indians are free to move above like all other Americans.
DID ALL INDIANS SPEAK ONE INDIAN LANGUAGE?
No. At the end of the 15th century, more than 300 languages
were spoken by the native population of what is now the
United States. Some were linked by "linguistic stocks" which
meant that widely scattered tribal groups had some
similarities in their languages. Today, some 250 tribal
languages are still spoken, some by only a few individuals
and others by many. Most Indians now use English as their
main language for communicating with non-tribal members. For
many, it is a second language.
DO INDIANS SERVE IN THE ARMED FORCES?
Indians have the same obligations for military service as
other U.S. citizens. They have fought in all American wars
since the Revolution. In the Civil War, they served on both
sides. Eli S. Parker, Seneca from New York, was at
Appamattox as aide to Gen. Ulyssess S. Grant when Lee
surrendered, and the unit of Confederate Brigadier General
Stand Watie, Cherokee, was the last to surrender. It was not
until World War I that Indians' demonstrated patriotism
(6,000 of the more than 8,000 who served were volunteers)
moved Congress to pass the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924.
In World War II, 25,000 Indian men and women, mainly
enlisted Army personnel, fought on all fronts in Europe and
Asia, winning (according to an incomplete count) 71 Air
Medals, 51 Silver Stars, 47 Bronze Stars, 34 Distinguished
Flying Crosses, and two Congressional Medals of Honor. The
most famous Indian exploit of World War II was the use by
Navajo Marines of their language as a battlefield code, the
only such code which the enemy could not break. In the
Korean conflict, there was one Indian Congressional Medal of
Honor winner. In the Vietnam War, 41,500 Indians served in
the military forces. In 1990, prior to Operation Desert
Storm, some 24,000 Indian men and women were in the
military. Approximately 3,000 served in the Persian Gulf
with three among those killed in action. One out of every
four Indian males is a military veteran and 45 to 47 percent
of tribal leaders today are military veterans.
ARE INDIANS WARDS OF THE GOVERNMENT?
No. The federal government is a trustee of Indian property,
it is not a guardian of individual Indians. The Secretary of
the Interior is authorized by law, in many instances, to
protect the interests of minors and incompetents, but this
protection does not confer a guardian-ward relationship.
DO INDIANS GET PAYMENTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT?
No individual is automatically paid for being an Indian. The
federal government may pay a tribe or an individual in
compensation for damages for losses resulting from treaty
violations, for encroachments on Indian lands, or for other
past or present wrongs. A tribe or an individual may also
receive a government check for payment of income from their
lands and resources, but this is only because their resources
are held in trust by the Secretary of the Interior and
payment for their use has been collected from users by the
federal government in their behalf. Fees from oil or grazing
leases are an example.
ARE INDIANS U.S. CITIZENS?
Yes. Before the U.S. Congress extended American citizenship
in 1924 to all Indians born in the territorial limits of the
United States, citizenship had been conferred upon
approximately two-thirds of the Indian population through
treaty agreements, statutes, naturalization proceedings, and
by "service in the Armed Forces with an honorable discharge"
in World War I. Indians are also members of their respective
CAN INDIANS VOTE?
Indians have the same right to vote as other U.S. citizens.
In 1948, the Arizona supreme court declared unconstitutional
disenfranchising interpretations of the state constitution
and Indians were permitted to vote as in most other states.
A 1953 Utah state law stated that persons living on Indian
reservations were not residents of the state and could not
vote. That law was subsequently repealed. In 1954, Indians
in Maine who were not then federally recognized were given
the right to vote, and in 1962, New Mexico extended the
right to vote to Indians.
Indians also vote in state and local elections and in the
elections of the tribes of which they are members. Each
tribe, however, determines which of its members is eligible
to vote in its elections and qualifications to do so are not
related to the individual Indian's right to vote in
national, state or local (non-Indian) elections.
DO INDIANS HAVE THE RIGHT TO HOLD FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL
Indians have the same rights as other citizens to hold
public office, and Indian men and women have held elective
and appointive offices at all levels of government. Charles
Curtis, a Kaw Indian from Kansas, served as Vice President
of the United States under President Herbert Hoover.
Indians have been elected to the U.S. Congress from time to
time for more than 80 years. Ben Reifel, a Sioux Indian from
South Dakota, served five terms in the U.S. House of
Representatives. Ben Nighthorse Campbell, a member of the
Northern Cheyenne Tribe of Montana, was elected to the U.S.
Howe of Representatives in 1986 from the Third District of
Colorado, and is currently serving in his third term. He is
the only American Indian currently serving in Congress.
Indians also served and now hold office in a number of state
legislatures. Others currently hold or have held elected or
appointive positions in state judiciary systems and in
county and city governments including local school boards.
DO INDIANS HAVE THE RIGHT TO OWN LAND?
Yes. As U.S. citizens, Indians can buy and hold title to
land purchased with their own funds. Nearly all lands of
Indian tribes, however, are held in trust for them by the
United States and there is no general law that permits a
tribe to sell its land. Individual Indians also own trust
land which they can sell, but only upon the approval of the
Secretary of the Interior or his representative. If an
Indian wants to extinguish the trust title to his land and
hold title like any other citizen (with all the attendant
responsibilities such as paying taxes), he can do so if the
Secretary of the Interior or his authorized representative,
determines that he is able to manage his own affairs. This
is a protection for the individual.
DO INDIANS PAY TAXES?
Yes. They pay the same taxes as other citizens with the
following exceptions applying to those Indians living on
federal reservations: (1) federal income taxes are not
levied on income from trust lands held for them by the
United States; (2) state income taxes are not paid on income
earned on a federal reservation; (3) state sales taxes are
not paid on transactions made on a federal reservation, and
(4) local property taxes are not paid on reservation or
DO LAWS THAT APPLY TO NON INDIANS ALSO APPLY TO INDIANS?
Yes. As U.S. citizens, Indians are generally subject to
federal, state, and local laws. On federal reservations,
however, only federal and tribal laws apply to members of
the tribe unless the Congress provides otherwise. In federal
law, the Assimilative Crimes Act makes any violation of
state criminal law a federal offense on reservations.
Most tribes now maintain tribal court systems and facilities
to detain tribal members convicted of certain offenses
within the boundaries of the reservation. A recent U.S.
Supreme Court decision restricted the legal jurisdiction of
federal tribes on their reservations to members only,
meaning that an Indian tribe could not try in its tribal
court a member of another tribe even though that person
might be a resident on the reservation and have violated its
law. There currently are bills in the Congress that would
restore tribes' right to prosecute any Indian violating laws
on an Indian reservation.
DOES THE UNITED STATES STILL MAKE TREATIES WITH INDIANS?
Congress ended treaty-making with Indian tribes in 1871.
Since then, relations with Indian groups are by
congressional acts, executive orders, and executive
The treaties that were made often contain obsolete
commitments which have either been fulfilled or superseded
by congressional legislation. The provision of educational,
health, welfare, and other services by the government to
tribes often has extended beyond treaty requirements. A
number of large Indian groups have no treaties, yet share in
the many services for Indians provided by the federal
The specifics of particular treaties signed by government
negotiators with Indians are contained in one volume (Vol.
II) of the publication, "Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties,"
compiled, annotated and edited by Charles Kappler. Published
by the Government Printing Office in 1904, it is now out of
print, but can be found in most large law libraries. More
recently, the treaty volume has been published privately
under the title, "Indian Treaties, 1778-1883."
Originals of all the treaties are maintained by the National
Archives and Records Service of the General Services
Administration. A duplicate of a treaty is available upon
request for a fee. The agency will also answer questions
about specific Indian treaties. Write to: Diplomatic Branch,
National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C.
HOW DO INDIAN TRIBES GOVERN THEMSELVES?
Most tribal governments are organized democratically, that
is, with an elected leadership. The governing body is
generally referred to as a "council" and is comprised of
persons elected by vote of the eligible adult tribal
members. The presiding official is the "chairman," although
some tribes use other titles such as "principal chief,"
"president" or "governor." An elected tribal council,
recognized as such by the Secretary of the Interior, has
authority to speak and act for the tribe and to represent it
in negotiations with federal, state, and local governments.
Tribal governments generally define conditions of
membership, regulate domestic relations of members,
prescribe rules of inheritance for reservation property not
in trust status, levy taxes, regulate property under tribal
jurisdiction, control conduct of members by tribal
ordinances, and administer justice.
Many tribes are organized under the Indian Reorganization
Act (IRA) of 1934, including a number of Alaska Native
villages, which adopted formal governing documents
(Constitutions) under the provisions of a 1936 amendment to
the IRA. The passage in 1971 of the Alaska Native Claims
Settlement Act, however, provided for the creation of
village and regional corporations under state law to manage
the money and lands granted by the Act. The Oklahoma Indian
Welfare Act of 1936 provided for the organization of Indian
tribes within the State of Oklahoma. Some tribes do not
operate under any of these acts, but are nevertheless
organized under documents approved by the Secretary of the
Interior. Some tribes continue their traditional forms of
Prior to reorganization, the tribes maintained their own,
often highly developed, systems of self-government.
DO INDIAN' HAVE SPECIAL RIGHTS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER
Any special rights that Indian tribes or members of those
tribes have are generally based on treaties or other
agreements between the United States and tribes. The heavy
price Indians paid to retain certain "sovereign" rights was
to relinquish much of their land to the United States. The
inherent rights they did not relinquish are protected by
U.S. law. Among those may be hunting and fishing rights and
access to religious sites.
HOW DO I TRACE MY INDIAN ANCESTRY AND BECOME A MEMBER OF A
The first step in tracing Indian ancestry is basic
genealogical research if you do not already have specific
family information and documents that identify tribal ties.
Some information to obtain is: names of ancestors; dates of
birth, marriages and death; places where they lived; their
brothers and sisters, if any, and, most importantly, tribal
affiliations. Among family documents to check are bibles,
wills, and other such papers. The next step is to determine
whether any of your ancestors are on an official tribal roll
or census. For this there are several sources. Contact the
National Archives and Records Administration, Natural
Resources Branch, Civil Archives Division, 8th and
Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. 20408. Or you may
contact the tribal enrollment officer of the tribe of which
you think your ancestors may be members. Another source is
the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Branch of Tribal Enrollment,
1849 C St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20240. The key in
determining your Indian ancestry is identification of a
specific tribal affiliation.
Becoming a member of a tribe is determined by the enrollment
criteria of the tribe from which your Indian blood may be
derived, and this varies with each tribe. Generally, if your
linkage to an identified tribal member is far removed, you
would not qualify for membership, but it is the tribe, not
the BIA, which makes that determination.
WHAT DOES TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY MEAN TO INDIANS?
When Indian tribes first encountered Europeans, they were
dealt with from strength of numbers and were treated as
sovereigns with whom treaties were made. When tribes gave up
lands to the U.S., they retained certain sovereignty over
the lands they kept. While such sovereignty is limited
today, it is nevertheless jealously guarded by the tribes
against encroachments by other sovereign entities such as
states. Tribes enjoy a direct government-to-government
relationship with the U.S. government wherein no decisions
about their lands and people are made without their consent.
WHAT DOES THE TERM "FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED" MEAN?
Indian tribes that have a legal relationship to the U.S.
government through treaties, Acts of Congress, executive
orders, or other administrative actions are "recognized" by
the federal government as official entities and receive
services from federal agencies. Some tribes are state-
recognized, but do not necessarily receive services from
the state. Others have neither federal or state recognition
and may not seek such recognition. Any tribe or group is
eligible to seek federal recognition by a process
administered by a program of the Bureau of Indian Affairs or
through direct petition to the U.S. Congress. Only the
Congress has the power to terminate a tribe from federal
recognition. In that case, a tribe no longer has its lands
held in trust by the U.S. nor does it receive services from
DO ALL INDIANS LIVE ON RESERVATIONS?
No. Indians can and do live anywhere in the United States
that they wish. Many leave their home reservations for
educational and employment purposes. Over half of the total
U.S. Indian and Alaska Native population now lives away from
reservations. Most return home often to participate in
family and tribal life and sometimes to retire.
WHY ARE INDIANS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS NATIVE AMERICANS?
The term, "Native American," came into usage in the 1960s to
denote the groups served by the Bureau of Indian Affairs:
American Indians and Alaska Natives (Indians, Eskimos and
Aleuts of Alaska). Later the term also included Native
Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in some federal programs.
It, therefore, came into disfavor among some Indian groups.
The Eskimos and Aleuts in Alaska are two culturally distinct
groups and are sensitive about being included under the
"Indian" designation. They prefer, "Alaska Native."
DOES THE BIA PROVIDE SCHOLARSHIPS FOR ALL INDIANS?
The Bureau provides some higher education scholarship
assistance for eligible members of federally-recognized
tribes. For information, contact the Indian Education
Program, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1849 C St. NW,
Washington, D.C. 20240.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION ABOUT INDIANS
The first and best local resource for finding information
about Indians is your library. Libraries have (1) reference
books that include Indian information, (2) books on Indian
tribes, people, or on various aspects of Indian life or
history, and (3) periodicals with articles about Indians. If
your library is a Federal Depository Library (there were
some 1,400 in 1988), materials published by federal
agencies, including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, may also
be available in the reference collections. Librarians are
professionals trained to help you find materials or obtain
them from other libraries on an inter-library loan basis.
You may also consider contacting one of the Indian
organizations listed on pages 35-36 of this booklet if you
have questions about areas of their expertise. The following
are other major resources:
Library, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1849 C St., NW,
Rm. 1041, Washington, DC 20240 (202) 208-5&15. The Interior
Library has a large collection of books on Indians available
to the public or through inter-library loan, as well as
research periodicals for current information about Indians.
Indian Arts and Crafts Board, U.S. Department of the
Interior, 1849 C St. NW, Rm. 4004-MIB, Washington, DC 20240
(202) 208-3773. The Board publishes information related to
contemporary Native American arts and crafts, including
directories of Native American sources for these products,
available upon request.
Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Parklawn Building, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville,
MD 20857 (301) 443-1397. The IHS has information on Indian
health matters, including programs supported by the federal
government, and statistics.
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Racial
Statistics Branch, Population Division, Washington, DC 20233
(301) 763-2607. The Liaison with American Indians office
provides 1990 Census information including statistical
profiles of the American Indian, Eskimo and Aleut population
for the United States.
National Archives and Records Service, U.S. General Services
Administration, Civil Reference Branch, 7th St. and
Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC. 20480 (202) 523-3238.
The Archives assists scholarly research into the history of
the federal-Indian relationship and those concerned with the
legal aspects of Indian administration. Pertinent materials
are among the old records of the Department of War, the
Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the General Land Office. They
include papers related to Indian treaty negotiations;
annuity, per capita and other payment records; tribal census
rolls; records of Indian agents; and maps of Indian lands
and reservations. You may inquire to use these records or
obtain copies of specific segments for a small fee.
Smithsonian Institution, Public Affairs Office, Department
of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, 10th
Street and Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20560 (202)
357-1592. The Handbook Office is preparing a 20-volume
series on the history, culture and contemporary
circumstances of North American Indians. The series is
entitled, Handbook of North American Indians, of which nine
volumes have thus far been published. Library of Congress,
General Reading Room Division, 10 First St., SE, Washington,
DC 20540 (202) 707-5522. Reference librarians will help you
use the general or special collections of the Library of
Congress. Its resources are collections of over 84 million
items -- books, maps, music, photographs, motion pictures,
prints, manuscripts -- some of which contain much material
for research on American Indians.
Newberry Library Center for the History of the American
Indian, 60 West Walton St., Chicago, IL 60610 (312) 943-
9090. One of America's foremost research libraries, the
Newberry makes its resources available to academic and lay
scholars. The library has more than 100,000 volumes on
American Indian history.
National Indian Law Library, Native American Rights Fund,
1522 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80302 (303) 447-8760. A
clearinghouse for Indian law-related materials, the Library
contains 14,000 court proceedings in every major Indian case
since the 1950s and 4,000 non-court materials. It has a
government documents and tribal codes and constitutions
collection. A catalogue of holdings is available ($75) as
well as two supplements (1985, $ 10; 1989, $30). Copies of
materials under six pages are free. More than six cost 15
cents per page.
The National Native American Cooperative, PO Box 1000, San
Carlos, Arizona, 85550-0301 (602) 230-3399, periodically
publishes a directory that includes a calendar of American
Indian events and celebrations and information on arts and
crafts. Separate card sets are also available listing this
and other information. There is a fee for these
The BIA does not have photographs of Indians available to
the public. The following sources provide copies for a fee.
National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution,
Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560 (202) 357 -
1986, has a large collection of photographs dating back to
the early 1800s. Inquiries should specify names of
individuals, tribe name, historical events, etc. Researchers
with broad or numerous interests should visit the NAA which
has, in addition to photographs, manuscripts, field notes,
sound tapes, linguistic data, and other documents including
vocabularies of Indian and Inuit languages and drawings.
Photo Lab, Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian
Institution, 14th and Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC
20560 (202) 357-1933, prints photographs upon request after
research has been completed at the Smithsonian. You need to
provide a negative number from source files
Still Pictures Branch, National Archives and Records
Service, Washington, DC 20408 (202) 501-5455, receives
photographs from government agencies, principally the BIA,
grouped by subject. Make inquiry as specific as possible,
including names, dates, places, etc.
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division,
Washington, DC 20540 (202) 707-6394, has available an
historic collection of prints and photographs of American
Indians. Go to the library to do your research (open Monday-
Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.). The Library responds to a
limited amount of mail.
National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian
Institution, Photograph Department, 3735 Broadway, New York,
NY 10032, (212) 283-2420, has a large collection of objects
and photographs of Native Americans. Much of the Museum's
collection will be moved to Washington, D.C., when the
National Museum of the American Indian is built on the Mall
to house the the collections currently located in New York
Audio-visual materials are available from the following
Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium, PO Box 8311,
Lincoln, NB 68501 (402) 472-3522, maintains the Nation's
largest quality library of Native American video programs
for public television, instructional and information use.
Topics range from history, culture and education to economic
development and the arts. Programs are available for rent or
purchase. A free catalogue is available.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS
(This bibliography was prepared with the assistance of
Cesare Marino, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC)
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS:
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1849-1967, Annual Reports to
the Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D.C. U.S.
Government Printing Office (Reprinted by AMS Press, New
Kvasnicka, Robert M., and Herman J. Viola, eds. 1979, The
Commissioners of Indian Affairs, 1824-1977. Lincoln,
Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Meriam, Lewis, et. al., 1928, The Problem of Indian
Administration. Report of a survey made at the request of
the Honorable Hubert Work, Secretary of the Interior, and
submitted to him, February 21, 1927. (Originally published
by the U.S. Government Printing Office). Baltimore,
Maryland: John Hopkins University Press.
Taylor, Theodore W., 1984, The Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Lovett, Vincent, et al., 1984, American Indians (U.S. Indian
Policy, Tribes and Reservations, BIA: Past and Present,
Economic Development) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Presidential Commission on Indian Reservation Economies,
1984, Report and Recommendations to the President of the
United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
White, Robert H., 1991, Tribal Assets, The Rebirth of Native
America, 1990. New York: Henry Holt & Co.
Fuchs, Estelle, and Robert J. Havinghurst, 1972, To Live on
This Earth: American Indian Education. Garden City, New
Indian Nations at Risk Task Force, 1991, Final Report to the
Secretary of Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
National Advisory Council on Indian Education, U.S.
Department of Education, Annual Reports, 1973- . Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Prucha, Francis Paul, 1979, The Churches and the Indian
Schools, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Szasz, Margaret, 1975, Education and the American Indian:
the Road to Self-Determination, 1928-1973. Albuquerque, New
Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.
United States Congress, Senate Committee on Interior and
Insular Affairs, 1970, Comprehensive Indian Education Act.
Hearings, 92nd Congress, 2nd session, on S. 2724.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
United States Congress, Senate Special Subcommittee on
Indian Education, 1969, Indian Education: A National
Tragedy, A National Challenge. 91st Congress, 1st Session.
Senate Report No. 91-501. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
GUIDES AND DIRECTORIES:
Fleming, Paula R., and Judith Luskey, 1986, The North
American Indian in Photographs from 1850 to 1920. New York:
Harper & Row.
Hill, Edward E., 1974, The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-
1880: Historical Sketches, New York, Clearwater Publishing
Hill, Edward E., comp., 1981, Guide to Records in the
National Archives of the United States Relating to American
Indians. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund
Board, U.S. General Services Administration.
Hirschfelder, Arlene B., et al., 1983, Guide to Research on
North American Indians. Chicago: American Library
National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1984, American Indians:
A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm
Publications. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund
Board, U.S. General Services Administration.
Prucha, Francis Paul, 1990, Atlas of American Indian
Affairs, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1974, Federal and State Indian
Reservations and Indian Trust Areas. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
Waldman, Carl, 1985, Atlas of the North American Indians.
Facts on File Publications.
Dorris, Michael, 1989, The Broken Cord. New York: Harper &
Nabokov, Peter, 1981, Indian Running. Santa Barbara,
California: Capra Press.
Trends in Indian Health, 1991. Rockville, Maryland: U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health
Vogel, Virgil J., 1970, American Indian Medicine. Norman,
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. (Reprint, in
paperback, 1973, New York: Ballantine Books).
Abernethy, Thomas Perkins, 1959, Western Lands and the
American Revolution. New York: Russell and Russell.
American Indian Policy Review Commission, 1977, Final
Report, Submitted to Congress May 17, 1977. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Deloria, Vine Jr., and Clifford M. Lytle, 1984, The Nations
Within: The Past and Future of American Indian Sovereignty.
New York: Pantheon Books.
Johanson, Bruce, E., 1982, Forgotten Founders: Benjamin
Franklin, The Iroquois and the Rationale for the American
Revolution. Ipswich, Massachusetts: Gambit.
Kelly, Lawrence C., 1983, The Assault on Assimilation: John
Collier and the origins of Indian Policy Reform.
Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press.
Philip, Kenneth R., 1977, John Collier's Crusade for Indian
Reform: 1920-1954. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Prucha, Francis P., 1984, The Great Father: The United
States and the American Indians. 2 vols. Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska Press.
Prucha, Francis P., 1990, Documents of Unites States Indian
Policy. (2nd edition, expanded). Lincoln/London: University
of Nebraska Press.
Schaaf, Gregory, 1990, Wampum Belts and Peace Trees, George
Morgan, Native Americans and Revolutionary Diplomacy.
Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing.
Taylor, Theodore W., 1972, The States and Their Indian
Citizens, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Taylor, Theodore, 1983, American Indian Policy. Mt. Airy,
Maryland: Lomond Publications, Inc.
Tyler, S. Lyman, 1973, A History of Indian Policy.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of
Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1973, The American Indian and the
U.S., A Documentary History. 4 vols. New York: Random House.
1982, Indian-White Relations in the United States: A
Bibliography of Works Published, 1975-1980. Lincoln,
Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Berkhofer, Robert F., Jr., 1978, The White Man's Indian:
Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present.
New York: Alfred A Knopf.
Deloria, Vine, Jr., 1974, Behind the Trail of Broken
Treaties, New York: Dell Publishing Company.
Hagan, William T., 1979, American Indians (Revised edition).
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Haynie, Nancy A., comp., 1984, Native Americans and the
Military, Today and Yesterday. Fort McPherson, Georgia: U.S.
Army Forces Command Information Branch.
Josephy, Alvin M., Jr., 1973, The Indian Heritage of
America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Matthiessen, Peter, 1983, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse. New
York: Viking Press.
Prucha, Francis P., 1971, Indian Peace Medals in American
History (State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison).
Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Prucha, Francis P., 1977, A Bibliographical Guide to the
History of Indian-White Relations in the United States.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rosenstiel, Annette, 1983, Red and White: Indian Views of
the White Man, 1492-1982. New York: Universe Books.
Stedman, Raymond W., 1982, Shadows of the Indian:
Stereotypes in American Culture. Norman, Oklahoma:
University of Oklahoma Press.
Utley, Robert M., and Wilcomb E. Washburn, 1977, The
American Heritage History of the Indian Wars. New York:
American Heritage Publishing Company.
Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1974, The Indian in America (The New
American Nation Series). New York: Harper & Row.
Viola, Herman J., 1990, After Columbus, The Smithsonian
Chronicle of the North American Indians. Washington, D.C.:
Washburn, Wilcomb E., 1987, History of Indian-White
Relations. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 4,
William C. Sturtevant, gen. ed. Washington, D.C.:
Kickingbird, Kirke, and Karen Ducheneaux, 1973, One Hundred
Million Acres (The social, historical and legal significance
of Indian land problems). New York: Macmillan Company.
O'Donnell, Janet, 1991, The Dispossession of the American
Indian, 1887-1934. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
Ross, Norman A., comp., 1973, Index to Expert Testimony
Before the Indian Claims Commission: The Written Reports
(The Library of American Indian Affairs). New York:
Clearwater Publishing Company.
Sutton, Imre, 1975, Indian Land Tenure, Bibliographical
Essays and a Guide to the Literature. New York: Clearwater
Sutton, Imre, 1985, Irredeemable America: The Indians'
Estate and Land Claims. Albuquerque: University of New
United States Indian Claims Commission, 1980, Final Report,
1( 79. 96th Congress, 2nd Session, House Document No. 96-
383. (Serial No. 13354). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Campbell, Lyle, and Marianne Mithun, eds., 1979, The
Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative
Assessment. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.
Brakel, Samuel J., 1978, American Indian Tribal Courts: The
Costs of Separate Justice. Chicago: American Bar Foundation.
Cohen, Felix S., 1942, Handbook of Federal Indian Law.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. (Reprinted: The
Michie Company, Law Publishers, Charlottsville, Virginia,
Deloria, Vine, Jr., and Clifford M. Lytle, 1983, American
Indians, American Justice. Austin, Texas: University of
Peavar, Stephen, 1983, The Rights of Indians and Tribes
(ACLU Handbook). New York: Bantam Books.
Native American Rights Fund, 1985, Indian Cases: The 1984-
1985 Supreme Court Term. The NARF Legal Review, Spring.
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1980, American Indian Civil
Rights Handbook, 2nd ea., Clearinghouse Publications, No.
35. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
1981, Indian Tribes: A Continuing Quest for Survival.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
PROFILES AND BIOGRAPHY:
Dockstader, Frederick J., 1977, Great North American
Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Eastman, Charles A. (Ohiyesa), 1918, Indian Heroes and Great
Chieftains (Reprint, 1991. Lincoln, Nebraska: Bison Books,
University of Nebraska Press).
Neithammer, Carolyn, 1977, Daughters of the Earth: The Lives
and Legends of American Indian Women. New York: Macmillan.
Deloria, Vine, Jr., 1973, God is Red. New York: Grosset &
Huyltkranz, Ake, 1987, Native Religions of North America.
New York: Harper & Row.
Hurdy, John M., 1970, American Indian Religions. Los
Angeles: Sherbourne Press.
Native American Rights Fund, 1979, We Also Have a Religion:
The American Indian Religious Freedom Act and the Religious
Freedom Project of the Native American Rights Fund.
Announcements (Winter) 5(1). Boulder, Colorado.
United States Federal Agencies Task Force, 1979, American
Indian Religious Freedom Act Report (P.L. 95-341). Chairman,
Cecil D. Andrus, Secretary of the Interior, Washington. D.C.
Peterson, Scott, 1990, Native American Prophecies; Examining
the History, Wisdom and Startling Predictions of Visionary
Native Americans. New York: Paragon House.
Kappler, Charles J., comp., 1904-1941, Indian Affairs: Laws
and Treaties. 5 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office (Reprinted: AMS Press, New York, 1971).
Lopach, James J., Brown, Margery Hunter, and Clow, Richmond
L., 1990, Tribal Government Today, Politics on Montana
Indian Reservations. San Francisco, Boulder, London:
O'Brien, Sharon, 1989, American Indian Tribal Governments.
Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
Taylor, Graham D., 1980, The New Deal and American Indian
Tribalism. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Hodge, Frederick W., ea., 1907-1910, Handbook of American
Indians North of Mexico. 2 vols. Bureau of American
Ethnology Bulletin 30 (Reprinted 1971. New York: Rowman and
Sturtevant, William C., gen. ea., 1978, Handbook of North
American Indians. 20 vols. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian
Institution. 1978 vol. 8, California; 1978 Vol. 15,
Northeast; 1979 Vol. 9, Southwest (Pueblos); 1981 Vol 6,
Subarctic; 1983 Vol. 10, Southwest (Navajo, Apache, etc.);
1984 Vol. 5, Arctic; 1986 Vol. 11, Great Basin; 1989 Vol. 4,
History of Indian-White Relations; 1990 Vol. 7, Northwest
Coast; (1992 Vol. 13, Plains).
Swanton, John R., 1952, The Indian Tribes of North America.
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145, Washington, D.C.
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AREA OFFICES
Correspondence for area offices should be addressed to: Area
Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs (followed by the address
(Nebraska, North Dakota and (Eastern Oklahoma)
South Dakota) Old Federal Building
115 4th Avenue, S.E., 5th and West Okmulgee Streets
Aberdeen, SD 57401-4382 Muskogee, OK 74401-4898
(605) 226-7343 (918) 687-2296
(Colorado and New Mexico) (Navajo Reservation only, Arizona,
615 First Street, N.W. Utah, and New Mexico)
Albuquerque, NM 87125-6567 PO Box M, Box 1060
(505) 766-3171 Gallup, Nm 87305-1060
(Kansas and Western
Oklahoma) (Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and Idaho)
WCD Office Complex #1 North First Street
PO Box 368 PO Box 10
Anadarko, OK 73005-0368 Phoenix, AZ 85001-0010
(405) 247-6673 (602) 379-6600
(Montana and Wyoming) (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho)
316 North 26th Street 911 NE 11th Avenue
Billings, MT 59101-1397 Portland, OR 97232-4169
(406) 657-6315 (503) 231-6702
(New York, Maine, Louisiana, (California)
Florida, North Carolina Federal Office Building
Mississippi, Connecticut and 2800 Cottage Way
Rhode Island) Sacramento, CA 95825-1884
3701 North Fairfax Drive, (916) 978-4691
Arlington, VA 22203 (BIA Headquarters)
(703) 235-2571 Bureau of Indian Affairs
1849 C Street, N.W.
(Alaska) Washington, DC 20240
Federal Building (202) 208-3711
PO Box 3-8000
Juneau, AK 99802-1219
(Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan
331 Second Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55401-2241
AMERICAN INDIAN ORGANIZATIONS
(This is a partial list of national Indian organizations)
American Indian Graduate Center National Congress of American
4520 Montgomery Blvd., N.E., Indians
Suite 1-B 900 Pennsylvania Ave., SE
Albuquerque, NM 87109 Washington, DC 20003
(505) 881-4548 (202) 546-9404
American Indian Health Care National Indian Council on Aging
Association City Center, Suite 510W
245 East 6th Street, Suite 815 6400 Uptown Blvd., NE
St. Paul, MN 55101 Albuquerque, NM 87110
(612) 293-0233 (505) 888-3276
American Indian Science/ National Indian Education
Engineering Society Association
1085 14th Street, Suite 1506 1819 H St., NW, Suite j800
Boulder, CO 80302 Washington, DC 20006
(303) 492-8658 (202) 835-3001
Association of American Indian National Indian Gaming
& Alaska Native Social Association
Workers, Inc. 1901 North Ft. Myers Dr.,
410 NW 18th Street, No. 101 Suite 1200
Portland, OR 97209 Rossyln, VA 22209
(503) 221-4123 (703) 841-0626
Association of American Indian Native American Finance Officers
10015 S. Pennsylvania, Bldg. D c/o Navajo Tribal Utility
Oklahoma City, OK 73159 Authority
(405) 692-1202 PO Box 170
Fort Defiance, AZ 86504
Council of Energy Resource Tribes (602) 729-6218
1999 Broadway, Suite 2600
Denver, CO 80202 Native American Journalists
(303) 832-6600 Association
University of Colorado Campus
Intertribal Agricultural Council Box 287
Transwestern Plaza #2 Boulder, CO 80309
490 North 31st Street, Suite 306 (303) 492-7379
Billings, MT 59101
(406) 259.3525 Native American Rights Fund
Intertribal Timber Council Boulder, CO 80302
PO Box C (303) 447-8760
Warm Springs, OR 97761
(503) 553-1161 United National Indian Tribal
National American Indian Housing PO Box 25042
Council Oklahoma City, OK 73125
122 C Street, N.W., Suite 280 (404) 424-3010
Washington, DC 20001
National Center for American
Indian Enterprise Development
953 East Juanita
Mesa, AZ 85204
To have a current Center For World Indigenous Studies Publication
Catalogue sent to you via e-mail, send a request to
Center For World Indigenous Studies
P.O. Box 2574
Olympia, WA U.S.A.
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