G. Erkan and D. R. Radev

Volume 22, 2004

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We introduce a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salience is typically defined in terms of the presence of particular important words or in terms of similarity to a centroid pseudo-sentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, for computing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graph representation of sentences. In this model, a connectivity matrix based on intra-sentence cosine similarity is used as the adjacency matrix of the graph representation of sentences. Our system, based on LexRank ranked in first place in more than one task in the recent DUC 2004 evaluation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of our approach and apply it to a larger data set including data from earlier DUC evaluations. We discuss several methods to compute centrality using the similarity graph. The results show that degree-based methods (including LexRank) outperform both centroid-based methods and other systems participating in DUC in most of the cases. Furthermore, the LexRank with threshold method outperforms the other degree-based techniques including continuous LexRank. We also show that our approach is quite insensitive to the noise in the data that may result from an imperfect topical clustering of documents.

Journal of Artiï¬cial Intelligence Research 22 (2004) 457-479 Submitted 07/04; published 12/04 LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization GÂ¨ uneÂ¸ s Erkan gerkan@umich.edu Department of EECSUniversity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA Dragomir R. Radev radev@umich.edu School of Information & Department of EECSUniversity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA Abstract We introduce a stochastic graph-based method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problemof Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salienceto identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salienceis typically deï¬ned in terms of the presence of particular important words or in termsof similarity to a centroid pseudo-sentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, forcomputing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graphrepresentation of sentences. In this model, a connectivity matrix based on intra-sentencecosine similarity is used as the adjacency matrix of the graph representation of sentences.Our system, based on LexRank ranked in ï¬rst place in more than one task in the recentDUC 2004 evaluation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of our approach andapply it to a larger data set including data from earlier DUC evaluations. We discussseveral methods to compute centrality using the similarity graph. The results show thatdegree-based methods (including LexRank) outperform both centroid-based methods andother systems participating in DUC in most of the cases. Furthermore, the LexRankwith threshold method outperforms the other degree-based techniques including continuousLexRank. We also show that our approach is quite insensitive to the noise in the data thatmay result from an imperfect topical clustering of documents. 1. Introduction In recent years, natural language processing (NLP) has moved to a very ï¬rm mathematicalfoundation. Many problems in NLP, e.g., parsing (Collins, 1997), word sense disambigua-tion (Yarowsky, 1995), and automatic paraphrasing (Barzilay & Lee, 2003) have beneï¬tedsigniï¬cantly by the introduction of robust statistical techniques. Recently, robust graph-based methods for NLP have also been gaining a lot of interest, e.g., in word clustering(Brew & im Walde, 2002) and prepositional phrase attachment (Toutanova, Manning, &Ng, 2004). In this paper, we will take graph-based methods in NLP one step further. We will discuss how random walks on sentence-based graphs can help in text summarization. Wewill also brieï¬y discuss how similar techniques can be applied to other NLP tasks such asnamed entity classiï¬cation, prepositional phrase attachment, and text classiï¬cation (e.g.,spam recognition). c 2004 AI Access Foundation. All rights reserved.

Erkan & Radev Text summarization is the process of automatically creating a compressed version of a given text that provides useful information for the user. The information content ofa summary depends on userâs needs. Topic-oriented summaries focus on a userâs topic ofinterest, and extract the information in the text that is related to the speciï¬ed topic. On theother hand, generic summaries try to cover as much of the information content as possible,preserving the general topical organization of the original text. In this paper, we focuson multi-document extractive generic text summarization, where the goal is to produce asummary of multiple documents about the same, but unspeciï¬ed topic. Extractive summarization produces summaries by choosing a subset of the sentences in the original document(s). This contrasts with abstractive summarization, where theinformation in the text is rephrased. Although summaries produced by humans are typicallynot extractive, most of the summarization research today is on extractive summarization.Purely extractive summaries often give better results compared to automatic abstractivesummaries. This is due to the fact that the problems in abstractive summarization, suchas semantic representation, inference and natural language generation, are relatively hardercompared to a data-driven approach such as sentence extraction. In fact, truly abstractivesummarization has not reached to a mature stage today. Existing abstractive summarizersoften depend on an extractive preprocessing component. The output of the extractor is cutand pasted, or compressed to produce the abstract of the text (Witbrock & Mittal, 1999;Jing, 2002; Knight & Marcu, 2000). SUMMONS (Radev & McKeown, 1998) is an exampleof a multi-document summarizer which extracts and combines information from multiplesources and passes this information to a language generation component to produce theï¬nal summary. Early research on extractive summarization is based on simple heuristic features of the sentences such as their position in the text, the overall frequency of the words theycontain, or some key phrases indicating the importance of the sentences (Baxendale, 1958;Edmundson, 1969; Luhn, 1958). A commonly used measure to assess the importance ofthe words in a sentence is the inverse document frequency, or idf, which is deï¬ned by theformula (Sparck-Jones, 1972): N idfi = log (1) ni where N is the total number of the documents in a collection, and ni is the number ofdocuments in which word i occurs. For example, the words that are likely to occur inalmost every document (e.g. articles âaâ and âtheâ) have idf values close to zero while rarewords (e.g. medical terms, proper nouns) typically have higher idf values. More advanced techniques also consider the relation between sentences or the discourse structure by using synonyms of the words or anaphora resolution (Mani & Bloedorn, 1997;Barzilay & Elhadad, 1999). Researchers have also tried to integrate machine learning intosummarization as more features have been proposed and more training data have becomeavailable (Kupiec, Pedersen, & Chen, 1995; Lin, 1999; Osborne, 2002; DaumÂ´e III & Marcu,2004). Our summarization approach in this paper is to assess the centrality of each sentence in a cluster and extract the most important ones to include in the summary. We investigatediï¬erent ways of deï¬ning the lexical centrality principle in multi-document summarization,which measures centrality in terms of lexical properties of the sentences. 458

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization In Section 2, we present centroid-based summarization, a well-known method for judging sentence centrality. Then we introduce three new measures for centrality, Degree, LexRankwith threshold, and continuous LexRank, inspired from the âprestigeâ concept in social net-works. We propose a graph representation of a document cluster, where vertices representthe sentences and edges are deï¬ned in terms of the similarity relation between pairs of sen-tences. This representation enables us to make use of several centrality heuristics deï¬ned ongraphs. We compare our new methods with centroid-based summarization using a feature-based generic summarization toolkit, MEAD, and show that our new features outperformCentroid in most of the cases. Test data for our experiments are taken from 2003 and 2004summarization evaluations of Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) to compare oursystem with other state-of-the-art summarization systems and human performance as well. 2. Sentence Centrality and Centroid-based Summarization Extractive summarization works by choosing a subset of the sentences in the original doc-uments. This process can be viewed as identifying the most central sentences in a (multi-document) cluster that give the necessary and suï¬cient amount of information related tothe main theme of the cluster. Centrality of a sentence is often deï¬ned in terms of thecentrality of the words that it contains. A common way of assessing word centrality is tolook at the centroid of the document cluster in a vector space. The centroid of a clusteris a pseudo-document which consists of words that have tfÃidf scores above a predeï¬nedthreshold, where tf is the frequency of a word in the cluster, and idf values are typicallycomputed over a much larger and similar genre data set. In centroid-based summariza-tion (Radev, Jing, & Budzikowska, 2000), the sentences that contain more words from thecentroid of the cluster are considered as central (Algorithm 1). This is a measure of howclose the sentence is to the centroid of the cluster. Centroid-based summarization has givenpromising results in the past, and it has resulted in the ï¬rst web-based multi-documentsummarization system1 (Radev, Blair-Goldensohn, & Zhang, 2001). 3. Centrality-based Sentence Salience In this section, we propose several other criteria to assess sentence salience. All of ourapproaches are based on the concept of prestige 2 in social networks, which has also inspiredmany ideas in computer networks and information retrieval. A social network is a mappingof relationships between interacting entities (e.g. people, organizations, computers). Socialnetworks are represented as graphs, where the nodes represent the entities and the linksrepresent the relations between the nodes. A cluster of documents can be viewed as a network of sentences that are related to each other. Some sentences are more similar to each other while some others may shareonly a little information with the rest of the sentences. We hypothesize that the sentencesthat are similar to many of the other sentences in a cluster are more central (or salient)to the topic. There are two points to clarify in this deï¬nition of centrality. First is how to 1. http://www.newsinessence.com2. âPrestigeâ and âcentralityâ stand for the same concept with the diï¬erence that the former is often deï¬ned for directed graphs whereas the latter is deï¬ned for undirected graphs. 459

Erkan & Radev input : An array S of n sentences, cosine threshold toutput: An array C of Centroid scores 1 Hash W ordHash;2 Array C; 3 /* compute tfÃidf scores for each word */ 4 for i â 1 to n do5 foreach word w of S[i] do 6 W ordHashwâtï¬dfâ = W ordHashwâtï¬dfâ + idf w; 7 end 8 end 9 /* construct the centroid of the cluster */ 10 /* by taking the words that are above the threshold*/ 11 foreach word w of W ordHash do12 if W ordHashwâtï¬dfâ > t then 13 W ordHashwâcentroidâ = W ordHashwâtï¬dfâ; 14 end 15 else 16 W ordHashwâcentroidâ = 0; 17 end 18 end 19 /* compute the score for each sentence */ 20 for i â 1 to n do21 C[i] = 0; 22 foreach word w of S[i] do 23 C[i] = C[i] + W ordHashwâcentroidâ; 24 end 25 end26 return C; Algorithm 1: Computing Centroid scores. deï¬ne similarity between two sentences. Second is how to compute the overall centrality ofa sentence given its similarity to other sentences. To deï¬ne similarity, we use the bag-of-words model to represent each sentence as an N - dimensional vector, where N is the number of all possible words in the target language. Foreach word that occurs in a sentence, the value of the corresponding dimension in the vectorrepresentation of the sentence is the number of occurrences of the word in the sentencetimes the idf of the word. The similarity between two sentences is then deï¬ned by thecosine between two corresponding vectors: idf-modiï¬ed-cosine(x, y) = wâx,y tfw,xtfw,y(idfw)2 (2) x )2 Ã )2 i âx(tfxi,xidfxi yiây(tfyi,yidfyi where tfw,s is the number of occurrences of the word w in the sentence s. A cluster of documents may be represented by a cosine similarity matrix where each entry in the matrix is the similarity between the corresponding sentence pair. Figure 1shows a subset of a cluster used in DUC 2004, and the corresponding cosine similaritymatrix. Sentence ID dXsY indicates the Y th sentence in the Xth document. This matrixcan also be represented as a weighted graph where each edge shows the cosine similaritybetween a pair of sentence (Figure 2). In the following sections, we discuss several waysof computing sentence centrality using the cosine similarity matrix and the correspondinggraph representation. 460

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization 3.1 Degree Centrality In a cluster of related documents, many of the sentences are expected to be somewhat similarto each other since they are all about the same topic. This can be seen in Figure 1 wherethe majority of the values in the similarity matrix are nonzero. Since we are interestedin signiï¬cant similarities, we can eliminate some low values in this matrix by deï¬ning athreshold so that the cluster can be viewed as an (undirected) graph, where each sentenceof the cluster is a node, and signiï¬cantly similar sentences are connected to each other.Figure 3 shows the graphs that correspond to the adjacency matrices derived by assumingthe pair of sentences that have a similarity above 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3, respectively, in Figure 1are similar to each other. Note that there should also be self links for all of the nodes inthe graphs since every sentence is trivially similar to itself. Although we omit the self linksfor readability, the arguments in the following sections assume that they exist. A simple way of assessing sentence centrality by looking at the graphs in Figure 3 is to count the number of similar sentences for each sentence. We deï¬ne degree centrality of asentence as the degree of the corresponding node in the similarity graph. As seen in Table 1,the choice of cosine threshold dramatically inï¬uences the interpretation of centrality. Toolow thresholds may mistakenly take weak similarities into consideration while too highthresholds may lose many of the similarity relations in a cluster. ID Degree (0.1) Degree (0.2) Degree (0.3) d1s1 5 4 2 d2s1 7 4 2 d2s2 2 1 1 d2s3 6 3 1 d3s1 5 2 1 d3s2 7 5 1 d3s3 2 2 1 d4s1 9 6 1 d5s1 5 4 2 d5s2 6 4 1 d5s3 5 2 2 Table 1: Degree centrality scores for the graphs in Figure 3. Sentence d4s1 is the most central sentence for thresholds 0.1 and 0.2. 3.2 Eigenvector Centrality and LexRank When computing degree centrality, we have treated each edge as a vote to determine theoverall centrality value of each node. This is a totally democratic method where each votecounts the same. However, in many types of social networks, not all of the relationshipsare considered equally important. As an example, consider a social network of people thatare connected to each other with the friendship relation. The prestige of a person does notonly depend on how many friends he has, but also depends on who his friends are. The same idea can be applied to extractive summarization as well. Degree centrality may have a negative eï¬ect in the quality of the summaries in some cases where several unwantedsentences vote for each other and raise their centrality. As an extreme example, considera noisy cluster where all the documents are related to each other, but only one of themis about a somewhat diï¬erent topic. Obviously, we would not want any of the sentences 461

Erkan & Radev SNo ID Text 1 d1s1 Iraqi Vice President Taha Yassin Ramadan announced today, Sunday,that Iraq refuses to back down from its decision to stop cooperatingwith disarmament inspectors before its demands are met. 2 d2s1 Iraqi Vice president Taha Yassin Ramadan announced today, Thursday,that Iraq rejects cooperating with the United Nations except on theissue of lifting the blockade imposed upon it since the year 1990. 3 d2s2 Ramadan told reporters in Baghdad that âIraq cannot deal positivelywith whoever represents the Security Council unless there was a clearstance on the issue of lifting the blockade oï¬ of it. 4 d2s3 Baghdad had decided late last October to completely cease cooperatingwith the inspectors of the United Nations Special Commission(UNSCOM), in charge of disarming Iraqâs weapons, and whose workbecame very limited since the ï¬fth of August, and announced it will notresume its cooperation with the Commission even if it were subjectedto a military operation. 5 d3s1 The Russian Foreign Minister, Igor Ivanov, warned today, Wednesdayagainst using force against Iraq, which will destroy, according tohim, seven years of diï¬cult diplomatic work and will complicatethe regional situation in the area. 6 d3s2 Ivanov contended that carrying out air strikes against Iraq, who refusesto cooperate with the United Nations inspectors, âwill end thetremendous work achieved by the international group during the pastseven years and will complicate the situation in the region.â 7 d3s3 Nevertheless, Ivanov stressed that Baghdad must resume workingwith the Special Commission in charge of disarming the Iraqiweapons of mass destruction (UNSCOM). 8 d4s1 The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-Generalin Baghdad, Prakash Shah, announced today, Wednesday, aftermeeting with the Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz, that Iraqrefuses to back down from its decision to cut oï¬ cooperation withthe disarmament inspectors. 9 d5s1 British Prime Minister Tony Blair said today, Sunday, that the crisisbetween the international community and Iraq âdid not endâ and thatBritain is still âready, prepared, and able to strike Iraq.â 10 d5s2 In a gathering with the press held at the Prime Ministerâs oï¬ce,Blair contended that the crisis with Iraq âwill not end until Iraq hasabsolutely and unconditionally respected its commitmentsâ towardsthe United Nations. 11 d5s3 A spokesman for Tony Blair had indicated that the British PrimeMinister gave permission to British Air Force Tornado planes stationedin Kuwait to join the aerial bombardment against Iraq. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 1.00 0.45 0.02 0.17 0.03 0.22 0.03 0.28 0.06 0.06 0.00 2 0.45 1.00 0.16 0.27 0.03 0.19 0.03 0.21 0.03 0.15 0.00 3 0.02 0.16 1.00 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.00 4 0.17 0.27 0.03 1.00 0.01 0.16 0.28 0.17 0.00 0.09 0.01 5 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.01 1.00 0.29 0.05 0.15 0.20 0.04 0.18 6 0.22 0.19 0.01 0.16 0.29 1.00 0.05 0.29 0.04 0.20 0.03 7 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.28 0.05 0.05 1.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.01 8 0.28 0.21 0.04 0.17 0.15 0.29 0.06 1.00 0.25 0.20 0.17 9 0.06 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.04 0.00 0.25 1.00 0.26 0.38 10 0.06 0.15 0.01 0.09 0.04 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.26 1.00 0.12 11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.18 0.03 0.01 0.17 0.38 0.12 1.00 Figure 1: Intra-sentence cosine similarities in a subset of cluster d1003t from DUC 2004. Source: Agence France Presse (AFP) Arabic Newswire (1998). Manually trans-lated to English. 462

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization d1s1 d5s3 d2s1 d5s2 d2s2 d5s1 d2s3 d4s1 Edge Weights: d3s1 [0.3,1.0] [0.2,0.3) d3s3 [0.1,0.2) d3s2 [0.0,0.1) Figure 2: Weighted cosine similarity graph for the cluster in Figure 1. 463

Erkan & Radev d3s3 d2s3 d3s2 d3s1 d1s1 d4s1 d5s1 d2s1 d5s2 d2s2 d5s3 d3s1 d2s2 d1s1 d3s2 d2s1 d4s1 d5s2 d2s3 d5s1 d3s3 d5s3 d2s2 d3s2 d5s2 d2s3 d3s3 d2s1 d1s1 d3s1 d4s1 d5s3 d5s1 Figure 3: Similarity graphs that correspond to thresholds 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3, respectively, for the cluster in Figure 1. 464

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization in the unrelated document to be included in a generic summary of the cluster. However,suppose that the unrelated document contains some sentences that are very prestigiousconsidering only the votes in that document. These sentences will get artiï¬cially highcentrality scores by the local votes from a speciï¬c set of sentences. This situation can beavoided by considering where the votes come from and taking the centrality of the votingnodes into account in weighting each vote. A straightforward way of formulating this ideais to consider every node having a centrality value and distributing this centrality to itsneighbors. This formulation can be expressed by the equation p(v) p(u) = (3) deg(v) vâadj[u] where p(u) is the centrality of node u, adj[u] is the set of nodes that are adjacent to u, anddeg(v) is the degree of the node v. Equivalently, we can write Equation 3 in the matrixnotation as p = BTp (4) or pTB = pT (5) where the matrix B is obtained from the adjacency matrix of the similarity graph by dividingeach element by the corresponding row sum: A(i, j) B(i, j) = (6) k A(i, k) Note that a row sum is equal to the degree of the corresponding node. Since every sentenceis similar at least to itself, all row sums are nonzero. Equation 5 states that pT is theleft eigenvector of the matrix B with the corresponding eigenvalue of 1. To guarantee thatsuch an eigenvector exists and can be uniquely identiï¬ed and computed, we need somemathematical foundations. A stochastic matrix, X, is the transition matrix of a Markov chain. An element X(i, j) of a stochastic matrix speciï¬es the transition probability from state i to state j in thecorresponding Markov chain. By the probability axioms, all rows of a stochastic matrixshould add up to 1. Xn(i, j) gives the probability of reaching from state i to state j inn transitions. A Markov chain with the stochastic matrix X converges to a stationarydistribution if lim Xn = 1Tr (7) nââ where 1 = (1, 1, ..., 1), and the vector r is called the stationary distribution of the Markovchain. An intuitive interpretation of the stationary distribution can be understood by theconcept of a random walk. Each element of the vector r gives the asymptotic probabilityof ending up in the corresponding state in the long run regardless of the starting state.A Markov chain is irreducible if any state is reachable from any other state, i.e. for alli, j there exists an n such that Xn(i, j) = 0. A Markov chain is aperiodic if for all i,gcdn : Xn(i, i) > 0 = 1. By the Perron-Frobenius theorem (Seneta, 1981), an irreducibleand aperiodic Markov chain is guaranteed to converge to a unique stationary distribution. 465

Erkan & Radev If a Markov chain has reducible or periodic components, a random walker may get stuck inthese components and never visit the other parts of the graph. Since the similarity matrix B in Equation 4 satisï¬es the properties of a stochastic matrix, we can treat it as a Markov chain. The centrality vector p corresponds to the stationarydistribution of B. However, we need to make sure that the similarity matrix is alwaysirreducible and aperiodic. To solve this problem, Page et al. (1998) suggest reserving somelow probability for jumping to any node in the graph. This way the random walker canâescapeâ from periodic or disconnected components, which makes the graph irreducible andaperiodic. If we assign a uniform probability for jumping to any node in the graph, we areleft with the following modiï¬ed version of Equation 3, which is known as PageRank, d p(v) p(u) = + (1 â d) (8) N deg(v) vâadj[u] where N is the total number of nodes in the graph, and d is a âdamping factorâ, which istypically chosen in the interval [0.1, 0.2] (Brin & Page, 1998). Equation 8 can be written inthe matrix form as p = [dU + (1 â d)B]Tp (9) where U is a square matrix with all elements being equal to 1/N . The transition kernel[dU + (1 â d)B] of the resulting Markov chain is a mixture of two kernels U and B. Arandom walker on this Markov chain chooses one of the adjacent states of the current statewith probability 1 â d, or jumps to any state in the graph, including the current state, withprobability d. The PageRank formula was ï¬rst proposed for computing web page prestige,and still serves as the underlying mechanism behind the Google search engine. The convergence property of Markov chains also provides us with a simple iterative algorithm, called power method, to compute the stationary distribution (Algorithm 2).The algorithm starts with a uniform distribution. At each iteration, the eigenvector isupdated by multiplying with the transpose of the stochastic matrix. Since the Markovchain is irreducible and aperiodic, the algorithm is guaranteed to terminate. input : A stochastic, irreducible and aperiodic matrix Minput : matrix size N , error toleranceoutput: eigenvector p 1 p0= 1 1; N 2 t=0;3 repeat4 t=t+1; 5 pt = MTpt 1; â 6 Î´ = ||pt â pt 1||; â 7 until Î´ < ;8 return pt; Algorithm 2: Power Method for computing the stationary distribution of a Markovchain. Unlike the original PageRank method, the similarity graph for sentences is undirected since cosine similarity is a symmetric relation. However, this does not make any diï¬erencein the computation of the stationary distribution. We call this new measure of sentencesimilarity lexical PageRank, or LexRank. Algorithm 3 summarizes how to compute LexRank 466

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization scores for a given set of sentences. Note that Degree centrality scores are also computed (inthe Degree array) as a side product of the algorithm. Table 2 shows the LexRank scoresfor the graphs in Figure 3 setting the damping factor to 0.85. For comparison, Centroidscore for each sentence is also shown in the table. All the numbers are normalized so thatthe highest ranked sentence gets the score 1. It is obvious from the ï¬gures that thresholdchoice aï¬ects the LexRank rankings of some sentences. 1 MInputAn array S of n sentences, cosine threshold t output: An array L of LexRank scores 2 Array CosineM atrix[n][n];3 Array Degree[n];4 Array L[n];5 for i â 1 to n do6 for j â 1 to n do 7 CosineM atrix[i][j] = idf-modified-cosine(S[i],S[j]); 8 if CosineM atrix[i][j] > t then 9 CosineM atrix[i][j] = 1; 10 Degree[i] + +; 11 end 12 else 13 CosineM atrix[i][j] = 0; 14 end 15 end 16 end17 for i â 1 to n do18 for j â 1 to n do 19 CosineM atrix[i][j] = CosineM atrix[i][j]/Degree[i]; 20 end 21 end22 L = PowerMethod(CosineM atrix,n, );23 return L; Algorithm 3: Computing LexRank scores. ID LR (0.1) LR (0.2) LR (0.3) Centroid d1s1 0.6007 0.6944 1.0000 0.7209 d2s1 0.8466 0.7317 1.0000 0.7249 d2s2 0.3491 0.6773 1.0000 0.1356 d2s3 0.7520 0.6550 1.0000 0.5694 d3s1 0.5907 0.4344 1.0000 0.6331 d3s2 0.7993 0.8718 1.0000 0.7972 d3s3 0.3548 0.4993 1.0000 0.3328 d4s1 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9414 d5s1 0.5921 0.7399 1.0000 0.9580 d5s2 0.6910 0.6967 1.0000 1.0000 d5s3 0.5921 0.4501 1.0000 0.7902 Table 2: LexRank scores for the graphs in Figure 3. All the values are normalized so that the largest value of each column is 1. Sentence d4s1 is the most central page forthresholds 0.1 and 0.2. 3.3 Continuous LexRank The similarity graphs we have constructed to compute Degree centrality and LexRank areunweighted. This is due to the binary discretization we perform on the cosine matrix using 467

Erkan & Radev an appropriate threshold. As in all discretization operations, this means an informationloss. One improvement over LexRank can be obtained by making use of the strength of thesimilarity links. If we use the cosine values directly to construct the similarity graph, weusually have a much denser but weighted graph (Figure 2). We can normalize the row sumsof the corresponding transition matrix so that we have a stochastic matrix. The resultantequation is a modiï¬ed version of LexRank for weighted graphs: d idf-modiï¬ed-cosine(u, v) p(u) = + (1 â d) p(v) (10) N vâadj[u] zâadj[v] idf-modiï¬ed-cosine(z, v) This way, while computing LexRank for a sentence, we multiply the LexRank values of thelinking sentences by the weights of the links. Weights are normalized by the row sums, andthe damping factor d is added for the convergence of the method. 3.4 Centrality vs. Centroid Graph-based centrality has several advantages over Centroid. First of all, it accounts for in-formation subsumption among sentences. If the information content of a sentence subsumesanother sentence in a cluster, it is naturally preferred to include the one that contains moreinformation in the summary. The degree of a node in the cosine similarity graph is an indi-cation of how much common information the sentence has with other sentences. Sentenced4s1 in Figure 1 gets the highest score since it almost subsumes the information in theï¬rst two sentences of the cluster and has some common information with others. Anotheradvantage of our proposed approach is that it prevents unnaturally high idf scores fromboosting up the score of a sentence that is unrelated to the topic. Although the frequencyof the words are taken into account while computing the Centroid score, a sentence thatcontains many rare words with high idf values may get a high Centroid score even if thewords do not occur elsewhere in the cluster. 4. Experimental Setup In this section, we describe the data set, the evaluation metric and the summarizationsystem we used in our experiments. 4.1 Data Set and Evaluation Method We used DUC 2003 and 2004 data sets in our experiments. Task 2 of both DUC 2003 and2004 involve generic summarization of news documents clusters. There are a total of 30clusters in DUC 2003 and 50 clusters in DUC 2004. In addition to these two tasks, weused two more data sets from Task 4 of DUC 2004, which involves cross-lingual genericsummarization. First set (Task 4a) is composed of Arabic-to-English machine translationsof 24 news clusters. Second set (Task 4b) is the human translations of the same clusters.All data sets are in English. For evaluation, we used the new automatic summary evaluation metric, ROUGE3, which was used for the ï¬rst time in DUC 2004. ROUGE is a recall-based metric for ï¬xed-length 3. http://www.isi.edu/ cyl/ROUGE 468

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization summaries which is based on n-gram co-occurrence. It reports separate scores for 1, 2,3, and 4-gram matching between the model summaries and the summary to be evaluated.Among these diï¬erent scores, unigram-based ROUGE score (ROUGE-1) has been shownto agree with human judgements most (Lin & Hovy, 2003). There are 10 diï¬erent human judges for DUC 2003 Task 2; 8 for DUC 2004 Task 2; and 4 for DUC 2004 Task 4. However, a subset of exactly 4 diï¬erent human judges producedmodel summaries for any given cluster. ROUGE requires a limit on the length of thesummaries to be able to make a fair evaluation. To stick with the DUC 2004 speciï¬cationsand to be able to compare our system with human summaries and as well as with otherDUC participants, we produced 665-byte summaries for each cluster and computed ROUGEscores against human summaries. 4.2 MEAD Summarization Toolkit We implemented our methods inside the MEAD4 summarization system (Radev et al.,2001). MEAD is a publicly available toolkit for extractive multi-document summarization.Although it comes as a centroid-based summarization system by default, its feature set canbe extended to implement any other method. The MEAD summarizer consists of three components. During the ï¬rst step, the feature extraction, each sentence in the input document (or cluster of documents) is converted intoa feature vector using the user-deï¬ned features. Second, the feature vector is converted toa scalar value using the combiner. Combiner outputs a linear combination of the featuresby using the predeï¬ned feature weights. At the last stage known as the reranker, the scoresfor sentences included in related pairs are adjusted upwards or downwards based on thetype of relation between the sentences in the pair. Reranker penalizes the sentences thatare similar to the sentences already included in the summary so that a better informationcoverage is achieved. Three default features that come with the MEAD distribution are Centroid, Position and Length. Position is the normalized value of the position of a sentence in the documentsuch that the ï¬rst sentence of a document gets the maximum Position value of 1, and the lastsentence gets the value 0. Length is not a real feature score, but a cutoï¬ value that ignoressentences shorter than the given threshold. Several rerankers are implemented in MEAD,including one based on Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR) (Carbonell & Goldstein, 1998)and the default reranker of the system based on Cross-Sentence Informational Subsumption(CSIS) (Radev, 2000). All of our experiments shown in Section 5 use the CSIS reranker. A MEAD policy is a combination of three components: (a) the command lines for all features, (b) the formula for converting the feature vector to a scalar, and (c) the commandline for the reranker. A sample policy might be the one shown in Figure 4. This exampleindicates the three default MEAD features (Centroid, Position, LengthCutoï¬), and ournew LexRank feature used in our experiments. Our LexRank implementation requires thecosine similarity threshold, 0.2 in the example, as an argument. Each number next toa feature name shows the relative weight of that feature (except for LengthCutoï¬ wherethe number 9 indicates the threshold for selecting a sentence based on the number of thewords in the sentence). The reranker in the example is a word-based MMR reranker with 4. http://www.summarization.com 469

Erkan & Radev feature LexRank LexRank.pl 0.2Centroid 1 Position 1 LengthCutoff 9 LexRank 1mmr-reranker-word.pl 0.5 MEAD-cosine enidf Figure 4: A sample MEAD policy. a cosine similarity threshold, 0.5. Finally âenidfâ speciï¬es the idf database ï¬le, which is aprecomputed list of idfâs for English words. 5. Results and Discussion The following sections show the results of the experiments we have performed on the oï¬cialDUC data sets with diï¬erent implementations of similarity graph based centrality. Wehave implemented Degree centrality, LexRank with threshold and continuous LexRank asseparate features in MEAD. All the feature values are normalized so that the sentencethat has the highest value gets the score 1, and the sentence with the lowest value getsthe score 0. In all of the runs, we have used Length and Position features of MEAD assupporting heuristics in addition to our centrality features. Length cutoï¬ value is set to 9,i.e. all the sentences that have less than 9 words are discarded. The weight of the Positionfeature is ï¬xed to 1 in all runs. Other than these two heuristic features, we used eachcentrality feature alone without combining with other centrality methods to make a bettercomparison with each other. For each centrality feature we are experimenting with, wehave run 8 diï¬erent MEAD features by setting the weight of the corresponding feature to0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, respectively. 5.1 Eï¬ect of Threshold on Degree and LexRank Centrality We have demonstrated that very high thresholds may lose almost all of the information ina similarity matrix (Figure 3). To support our claim, we have run Degree and LexRankcentrality with diï¬erent thresholds for our data sets. Figure 5 shows the eï¬ect of thresholdfor Degree and LexRank centrality on DUC 2004 Task 2 data. We have experimented withfour diï¬erent thresholds: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Eight diï¬erent data points shown for eachthreshold correspond to the runs of the same feature with eight diï¬erent weights as wehave discussed above. The mean value of the eight diï¬erent experiments is shown as ahorizontal line. It is apparent in the ï¬gures that the lowest threshold, 0.1, produces thebest summaries. This means that the information loss in higher thresholds is high enoughto result in worse ROUGE scores. The loss in ROUGE scores as we move from threshold0.1 to 0.2 is more signiï¬cant in Degree centrality. This eï¬ect of threshold is an indication that our new centrality methods actually work for extractive summarization. The higher the threshold, the less informative, or even mis-leading, similarity graphs we must have. On the extreme point where we have a very highthreshold, we would have no edges in the graph so that Degree or LexRank centrality wouldbe of no use. 470

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 ROUGEâ1 Score ROUGEâ1 Score 0.1 0.1 0 0 threshold = 0.1 threshold = 0.2 threshold = 0.3 threshold = 0.4 threshold = 0.1 threshold = 0.2 threshold = 0.3 threshold = 0.4 (a) (b) Figure 5: ROUGE-1 scores for (a) Degree centrality and (b) LexRank centrality with dif- ferent thresholds on DUC 2004 Task 2 data. 5.2 Comparison of Centrality Methods Table 3 shows the ROUGE scores for our experiments on DUC 2003 Task 2, DUC 2004Task 2, DUC 2004 Task 4a, and DUC 2004 Task 4b, respectively. We show the minimum,the maximum, and the average ROUGE-1 scores for eight experiments we have run for eachcentrality method corresponding to eight diï¬erent feature weights we have mentioned inSection 5. We include Degree and LexRank experiments only with threshold 0.1, the bestone we have observed. We also include two baselines for each data set. The ï¬rst baseline wehave used is extracting random sentences from the cluster. We have performed ï¬ve randomruns for each data set. The results in the tables are for the median runs. The secondbaseline, shown as âlead-basedâ in the tables, is using only the Position feature withoutany centrality method. This is tantamount to producing lead-based summaries, which is awidely used and very challenging baseline in the text summarization community (Brandow,Mitze, & Rau, 1995). The top scores we have got in all data sets come from our new methods. All of our three new methods (Degree, LexRank with threshold, and continuous LexRank) performsigniï¬cantly better than the baselines in all data sets. They also perform better thancentroid-based summaries except for the DUC 2003 data set where the diï¬erence betweenCentroid and the others is not obvious. 0.1 seems to be an appropriate threshold suchthat the results seem as successful as using continuous LexRank. It is also hard to saythat Degree and LexRank are signiï¬cantly diï¬erent from each other. This is an indicationthat Degree may already be a good enough measure to assess the centrality of a node inthe similarity graph. Considering the relatively low complexity of degree centrality, it stillserves as a plausible alternative when one needs a simple implementation. Computation ofDegree can be done on the ï¬y as a side product of LexRank just before the power methodis applied on the similarity graph. To have an idea of the relative success of our methods among other summarization sys- tems, we have compared our ROUGE scores with other participantsâ scores in the same 471

Erkan & Radev DUC data sets. Table 4 and Table 5 show the oï¬cial ROUGE-1 scores for top ï¬ve par-ticipants and human summarizers on DUC 2003 and 2004 data, respectively. Most of theLexRank scores we got are better than the second best system in DUC 2003 and worse thanthe best system. Best few scores for each method are always statistically indistinguishablefrom the best system in the oï¬cial evaluations considering the 95% conï¬dence interval. Onall three DUC 2004 data sets, we achieved a better score than the best participant in atleast one of the policies we tried. On the DUC 2003 data, we achieved several scores thatare between the best and the second best system. 2003 Task2 2004 Task2 min max average min max average Centroid 0.3523 0.3713 0.3624 Centroid 0.3580 0.3767 0.3670 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3566 0.3640 0.3595 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3590 0.3830 0.3707 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3610 0.3726 0.3666 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3646 0.3808 0.3736 Cont. LexRank 0.3594 0.3700 0.3646 Cont. LexRank 0.3617 0.3826 0.3758 baselines: random: 0.3261 baselines: random: 0.3238 lead-based: 0.3575 lead-based: 0.3686 (a) (b) 2004 Task4a 2004 Task4b min max average min max average Centroid 0.3768 0.3901 0.3826 Centroid 0.3760 0.3962 0.4034 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3863 0.4027 0.3928 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3801 0.4147 0.4026 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3931 0.4038 0.3974 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3837 0.4167 0.4052 Cont. LexRank 0.3924 0.4002 0.3963 Cont. LexRank 0.3772 0.4082 0.3966 baselines: random: 0.3593 baselines: random: 0.3734 lead-based: 0.3788 lead-based: 0.3587 (c) (d) Table 3: ROUGE-1 scores for diï¬erent MEAD policies on DUC 2003 and 2004 data. 5.3 Experiments on Noisy Data The graph-based methods we have proposed consider a document cluster as a whole. Thecentrality of a sentence is measured by looking at the overall interaction of the sentencewithin the cluster rather than the local value of the sentence in its document. This is espe-cially critical in generic summarization where the information unrelated to the main themeof the cluster should be excluded from the summary. DUC data sets are perfectly clusteredinto related documents by human assessors. To observe the behavior of our methods onnoisy data, we have added 2 random documents in each cluster taken from a diï¬erent clus-ter. Since originally each cluster contains 10 documents, this means a 2/12 (17%) noise onthe data sets. The results on the noisy data are given in Table 6. The picture looks similar to Table 3 except for lead-based and random baselines are more signiï¬cantly aï¬ected by the noise. Theperformance loss is quite small on our graph-based centrality methods. A surprising pointis that centroid-based summarization also gives good results although still worse than theothers most of the time. This suggests that 17% noise on the data is not enough to makesigniï¬cant changes on the centroid of a cluster. 472

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization TASK 2 Peer ROUGE-1 95% Conï¬dence Code Score Interval C 0.4443 [0.3924,0.4963] B 0.4425 [0.4138,0.4711] D 0.4344 [0.3821,0.4868] E 0.4218 [0.3871,0.4565] A 0.4168 [0.3864,0.4472] I 0.4055 [0.3740,0.4371] G 0.3978 [0.3765,0.4192] F 0.3904 [0.3596,0.4211] J 0.3895 [0.3591,0.4199] H 0.3869 [0.3659,0.4078] 12 0.3798 [0.3598,0.3998] 13 0.3676 [0.3507,0.3844] 16 0.3660 [0.3474,0.3846] 6 0.3607 [0.3415,0.3799] 26 0.3582 [0.3337,0.3828] Table 4: Summary of oï¬cial ROUGE scores for DUC 2003 Task 2. Peer codes: manual summaries [A-J] and top ï¬ve system submissions. TASK 2 TASK 4 Peer ROUGE-1 95% Conï¬dence Peer ROUGE-1 95% Conï¬dence Code Score Interval Code Score Interval H 0.4183 [0.4019,0.4346] Y 0.4445 [0.4230,0.4660] F 0.4125 [0.3916,0.4333] Z 0.4326 [0.4088,0.4565] E 0.4104 [0.3882,0.4326] X 0.4293 [0.4068,0.4517] D 0.4059 [0.3870,0.4249] W 0.4119 [0.3870,0.4368] B 0.4043 [0.3795,0.4291] Task 4a A 0.3933 [0.3722,0.4143] 144 0.3883 [0.3626,0.4139] C 0.3904 [0.3715,0.4093] 22 0.3865 [0.3635,0.4096] G 0.3890 [0.3679,0.4101] 107 0.3862 [0.3555,0.4168] 65 0.3822 [0.3694,0.3951] 68 0.3816 [0.3642,0.3989] 104 0.3744 [0.3635,0.3853] 40 0.3796 [0.3581,0.4011] 35 0.3743 [0.3612,0.3874] Task 4b 19 0.3739 [0.3608,0.3869] 23 0.4158 [0.3933,0.4382] 124 0.3706 [0.3578,0.3835] 84 0.4101 [0.3854,0.4348] 145 0.4060 [0.3678,0.4442] 108 0.4006 [0.3700,0.4312] 69 0.3984 [0.3744,0.4225] Table 5: Summary of oï¬cial ROUGE scores for DUC 2004 Tasks 2 and 4. Peer codes: manual summaries [A-Z] and top ï¬ve system submissions. Systems numbered 144and 145 are University of Michiganâs submission. 144 uses LexRank in combinationwith Centroid whereas 145 uses Centroid alone. 473

Erkan & Radev 2003 Task2 2004 Task2 min max average min max average Centroid 0.3502 0.3689 0.3617 Centroid 0.3563 0.3732 0.3630 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3501 0.3650 0.3573 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3495 0.3762 0.3622 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3493 0.3677 0.3603 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3512 0.3760 0.3663 Cont. LexRank 0.3564 0.3653 0.3621 Cont. LexRank 0.3465 0.3808 0.3686 baselines: random: 0.2952 baselines: random: 0.3078 lead-based: 0.3246 lead-based: 0.3418 (a) (b) 2004 Task4a 2004 Task4b min max average min max average Centroid 0.3706 0.3898 0.3761 Centroid 0.3754 0.3942 0.3906 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3874 0.3943 0.3906 Degree (t=0.1) 0.3801 0.4090 0.3963 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3883 0.3992 0.3928 LexRank (t=0.1) 0.3710 0.4022 0.3911 Cont. LexRank 0.3889 0.3931 0.3908 Cont. LexRank 0.3700 0.4012 0.3905 baselines: random: 0.3315 baselines: random: 0.3391 lead-based: 0.3615 lead-based: 0.3430 (c) (d) Table 6: ROUGE-1 scores for diï¬erent MEAD policies on 17% noisy DUC 2003 and 2004 data. 6. Related Work There have been attempts for using graph-based ranking methods in natural language appli-cations before. Salton et al. (1997) made one of the ï¬rst attempts of using degree centralityin single document text summarization. In the summarization approach of Salton et al.,degree scores are used to extract the important paragraphs of a text. Moens, Uyttendaele, and Dumortier (1999) use cosine similarity between the sentences to cluster a text into diï¬erent topical regions. A predeï¬ned cosine threshold is used to clusterparagraphs around seed paragraphs (called medoids). Seed paragraphs are determined bymaximizing the total similarity between the seed and the other paragraphs in a cluster. Theseed paragraphs are then considered as the representative descriptions of the correspondingsubtopics, and included in the summary. Zha (2002) deï¬nes a bipartite graph from the set of terms to the set of sentences. There is an edge from a term t to a sentence s if t occurs in s. Zha argues that the terms thatappear in many sentences with high salience scores should have high salience scores, and thesentences that contain many terms with high salience scores should also have high saliencescores. This mutual reinforcement principal reduces to a solution for the singular vectorsof the transition matrix of the bipartite graph. The work presented in this paper started with the implementation of LexRank with threshold on unweighted graphs. This implementation was ï¬rst used in the DUC 2004evaluations which was run in February 2004 and presented in May 2004 (Erkan & Radev,2004b). After the DUC evaluations, a more detailed analysis and more careful implementa-tion of the method was presented together with a comparison against degree centrality andcentroid-based summarization (Erkan & Radev, 2004a). Continuous LexRank on weighted 474

LexRank: Graph-based Lexical Centrality as Salience in Text Summarization graphs ï¬rst appeared in the initial version of this paper submitted in July 2004. An eigen-vector centrality algorithm on weighted graphs was independently proposed by Mihalceaand Tarau (2004) for single-document summarization. Mihalcea, Tarau, and Figa (2004)later applied PageRank to another problem of natural language processing, word sensedisambiguation. Unlike our system, the studies mentioned above do not make use of any heuristic features of the sentences other than the centrality score. They do not also deal with the multi-document case. One of the main problems with multi-document summarization is thepotential duplicate information coming from diï¬erent documents, which is less likely tooccur in single-document summaries. We try to avoid the repeated information in thesummaries by using the reranker of the MEAD system. This problem is also addressed inSalton et al.âs work. Instead of using a reranker, they ï¬rst segment the text into regionsof diï¬erent subtopics and then take at least one representative paragraph with the highestdegree value from each region. To determine the similarity between two sentences, we have used the cosine similarity metric that is based on word overlap and idf weighting. However, there are more advancedtechniques of assessing similarity which are often used in the topical clustering of docu-ments or sentences (Hatzivassiloglou et al., 2001; McKeown et al., 2001). The similaritycomputation might be improved by incorporating more features (e.g. synonym overlap,verb/argument structure overlap, stem overlap) or mechanisms (e.g. coreference resolution,paraphrasing) into the system. These improvements are orthogonal to our model in thispaper and can be easily integrated into the similarity relation. 7. Conclusion We have presented a new approach to deï¬ne sentence salience based on graph-based cen-trality scoring of sentences. Constructing the similarity graph of sentences provides us witha better view of important sentences compared to the centroid approach, which is prone toover-generalization of the information in a document cluster. We have introduced three dif-ferent methods for computing centrality in similarity graphs. The results of applying thesemethods on extractive summarization are quite promising. Even the simplest approach wehave taken, degree centrality, is a good enough heuristic to perform better than lead-basedand centroid-based summaries. In LexRank, we have tried to make use of more of theinformation in the graph, and got even better results in most of the cases. Lastly, we haveshown that our methods are quite insensitive to noisy data that often occurs as a result ofimperfect topical document clustering algorithms. The graph-based representation of the relations between natural language constructs provides us with many new ways of information processing with applications to severalproblems such as document clustering, word sense disambiguation, prepositional phraseattachment. The similarity relation we used to construct the graphs can be replaced by anymutual information relation between natural language entities. We are currently working onusing random walks on bipartite graphs (binary features on the left, objects to be classiï¬edon the right) for semi-supervised classiï¬cation. For example, objects can be email messagesand a binary feature may be âdoes the subject line of this message contain the word moneyâ.All objects are linked to the features that apply to them. A path through the graph can 475

Erkan & Radev then go from an unlabeled object to a set of labeled ones going through a sequence ofother objects and features. In traditional supervised or semi-supervised learning, one couldnot make eï¬ective use of the features solely associated with unlabeled examples. In thisframework, these features serve as intermediate nodes on a path from unlabeled to labelednodes. An eigenvector centrality method can then associate a probability with each object(labeled or unlabeled). That probability can then in turn be interpreted as belief in theclassiï¬cation of the object (e.g., there is an 87% per cent chance that this particular emailmessage is spam). In an active learning setting, one can also choose what label to requestnext from an Oracle given the eigenvector centrality values of all objects. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Mark Newman for providing some useful references for this paper.Thanks also go to Lillian Lee for her very helpful comments on an earlier version of this pa-per. Finally, we would like to thank the members of the CLAIR (Computational LinguisticsAnd Information Retrieval) group at the University of Michigan, in particular Siwei Shen,for their assistance with this project. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under grant 0329043 âProbabilistic and link-based Methods for Exploiting Very Large Textual Repos-itoriesâ administered through the IDM program. All opinions, ï¬ndings, conclusions, andrecommendations in this paper are made by the authors and do not necessarily reï¬ect theviews of the National Science Foundation. References Barzilay, R., & Elhadad, M. (1999). Using Lexical Chains for Text Summarization. In Mani, I., & Maybury, M. T. (Eds.), Advances in Automatic Text Summarization, pp.111â121. The MIT Press. Barzilay, R., & Lee, L. (2003). Learning to paraphrase: An unsupervised approach using multiple-sequence alignment. In Proceedings of HLT-NAACL. Baxendale, P. (1958). Man-made index for technical litterature - an experiment. IBM J. Res. Dev., 2 (4), 354â361. Brandow, R., Mitze, K., & Rau, L. F. (1995). Automatic condensation of electronic publica- tions by sentence selection. Information Processing and Management, 31 (5), 675â685. Brew, C., & im Walde, S. S. (2002). Spectral clustering for german verbs. In Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Brin, S., & Page, L. (1998). The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 30 (1â7), 107â117. Carbonell, J. G., & Goldstein, J. (1998). The use of MMR, diversity-based reranking for reordering documents and producing summaries. In Research and Development inInformation Retrieval, pp. 335â336. 476

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