CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam







CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Legend:
Definition
Field Listing
Rank Order
Introduction
Vietnam
Top of Page
Background:
The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became
part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but
France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH.
Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the Communist North and
anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the
1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn
following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran
the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over
two decades the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative
leadership policies. Since 2001, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased
economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy
and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The country continues to
experience protests from various groups such as the Protestant Montagnard ethnic minority
population of the Central Highlands and the Hoa Hao Buddhists in southern Vietnam over
religious persecution. Montagnard grievances also include the loss of land to Vietnamese
settlers.
Geography
Vietnam
Top of Page
Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea,
alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia
Geographic
coordinates: 16 00 N, 106 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
Area:
total: 329,560 sq km
land: 325,360 sq km
water: 4,200 sq km
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Area -
comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
total: 4,639 km
border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
Coastline:
3,444 km (excludes islands)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid-May to mid-September)
and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)
Terrain:
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and
northwest
Elevation
extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
Natural resources:
phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests,
hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 19.97%
permanent crops: 5.95%
other: 74.08% (2001)
Irrigated land:
30,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong
River delta
Environment -
current issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil
degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater
contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population
migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Environment -
international party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
agreements: Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
People
Vietnam
Top of Page
Population:
83,535,576 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.9% (male 12,065,777/female 11,212,299)
15-64 years: 66.4% (male 27,406,456/female 28,024,250)
65 years and over: 5.8% (male 1,889,585/female 2,937,209) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 25.51 years
male: 24.47 years
female: 26.68 years (2005 est.)
Population growth
rate: 1.04% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
17.07 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality
rate: total: 25.95 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at
birth: total population: 70.61 years
male: 67.82 years
female: 73.6 years (2005 est.)
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Total fertility rate:
1.94 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult
prevalence rate: 0.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people
living with HIV/ 220,000 (2003 est.)
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
9,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious
diseases: degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and plague are high
risks in some locations
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: leptospirosis
note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds,
rare cases could occur among US personnel who have close contact with infected birds or
poultry (2005)
Nationality:
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese
Ethnic groups:
Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun
1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1% (1999 census)
Religions:
Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim
0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)
Languages:
Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French,
Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.3%
male: 93.9%
female: 86.9% (2002)
Government
Vietnam
Top of Page
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV
Government type:
Communist state
Capital:
Hanoi
Administrative
divisions: 59 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thu do, singular and plural)
: provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben
Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dac Lak, Dac
Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Hai Duong, Ha Nam, Ha Tay,
Ha Tinh, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau,
Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan,
Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc
Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien
Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai
: municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh
Independence:
2 September 1945 (from France)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
Constitution:
15 April 1992
Legal system:
based on communist legal theory and French civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tran Duc LUONG (since 24 September 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 25 September 1997); First
Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 29 September 1997); Deputy Prime
Ministers Vu KHOAN (8 August 2002) and Pham Gia KHIEM (since 29 September 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and ratification
of National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for a five-
year term; election last held 25 July 2002 (next to be held when National Assembly meets
following legislative elections in 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from
among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the
prime minister
election results: Tran Duc LUONG elected president; percent of National Assembly vote -
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
NA%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Quoc-Hoi (498 seats; members elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 May 2002 (next to be held 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - CPV 90%, other 10% (the 10% are not CPV
members but are approved by the CPV to stand for election); seats by party - CPV 447, CPV-
approved 51
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National
Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Political parties
and leaders: only party - Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH, general secretary]
Political pressure
groups and none
leaders:
International
organization ACCT (observer), APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
participation: ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic
representation in chief of mission: Ambassador Nguyen Tam CHIEN
the US: chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic
representation chief of mission: Ambassador Michael W. MARINE
from the US: embassy: 7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [84] (4) 772-1500
FAX: [84] (4) 772-1510
consulate(s) general: Ho Chi Minh City
Flag description:
red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center
Economy
Vietnam
Top of Page
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Economy -
overview: Vietnam is a densely-populated, developing country that in the last 30 years has had to
recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and
the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986
to 1997 in moving forward from an extremely low level of development and significantly
reducing poverty. Growth averaged around 9% per year from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian
financial crisis highlighted the problems in the Vietnamese economy and temporarily
allowed opponents of reform to slow progress towards a market-oriented economy. GDP
growth of 8.5% in 1997 fell to 6% in 1998 and 5% in 1999. Growth then rose to 7% in 2000-
05 even against the background of global recession. Since 2001, however, Vietnamese
authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic liberalization and international
integration. They have moved to implement the structural reforms needed to modernize the
economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. However, equitization
of state-owned enterprises and reduction in the proportion of non-performing loans has
fallen behind schedule. Vietnam's membership in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and
entry into force of the US-Vietnam Bilateral Trade in December 2001 have led to even more
rapid changes in Vietnam's trade and economic regime. Vietnam's exports to the US doubled
in 2002 and again in 2003. Vietnam became a member of the WTO in 2005. Among other
benefits, accession allows Vietnam to take advantage of the phase out of the Agreement on
Textiles and Clothing, which eliminated quotas on textiles and clothing for WTO partners on
1 January 2005. Vietnam is working to promote job creation to keep up with the country's
high population growth rate. However, high levels of inflation have prompted Vietnamese
authorities to tighten monetary and fiscal policies.
GDP (purchasing
power parity): $251.8 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official
exchange rate): $45.61 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth
rate: 7.6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2005 est.)
GDP -
composition by agriculture: 21%
sector: industry: 40.9%
services: 38.1% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
44.03 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by
occupation: agriculture 63%, industry and services 37% (2000 est.)
Unemployment
rate: 2.4% (2005 est.)
Population below
poverty line: 28.9% (2002 est.)
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Household income
or consumption lowest 10%: 3.6%
by percentage highest 10%: 29.9% (1998)
share:
Distribution of
family income - 36.1 (1998)
Gini index:
Inflation rate
(consumer prices): 8% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross
fixed): 35.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $11.64 billion
expenditures: $12.95 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (2005 est.)
Public debt:
75.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture -
products: paddy rice, coffee, fish and seafood, rubber, cotton, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar
cane, peanuts, bananas, poultry
Industries:
food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer,
glass, tires, oil, coal, steel, paper
Industrial
production growth 15.2% (2005 est.)
rate:
Electricity -
production: 39.7 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity -
consumption: 36.92 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity -
exports: 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity -
imports: 0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
400,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
216,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved
reserves: 2.5 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas -
production: 1.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas -
consumption: 1.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas -
exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas -
imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas -
proved reserves: 192.6 billion cu m (2005)
Current account
balance: $-1.695 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
$31.34 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - partners:
US 20.2%, Japan 13.6%, China 9%, Australia 7%, Germany 5.9%, Singapore 4.8%, UK
4.6% (2004)
Imports:
$34.44 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - partners:
China 13.7%, Taiwan 11.3%, South Korea 10.8%, Japan 10.5%, Singapore 10.5%, Thailand
6.2%, Hong Kong 4% (2004)
Reserves of
foreign exchange $7.503 billion (2005 est.)
and gold:
Debt - external:
$19.17 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid -
recipient: $2.8 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for 2000 (2004)
Currency (code):
dong (VND)
Exchange rates:
dong per US dollar - 15,855 (2005), 15,746 (2004), 15,510 (2003), 15,280 (2002), 14,725
(2001)
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications
Vietnam
Top of Page
Telephones - main
lines in use: 4.402 million (2003)
Telephones -
mobile cellular: 2.742 million (2003)
Telephone system:
general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and
expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that
of its more modern neighbors
domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho
Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been
substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly
international: country code - 84; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
region)
Radio broadcast
stations: AM 65, FM 7, shortwave 29 (1999)
Television
broadcast stations: at least 7 (plus 13 repeaters) (1998)
Internet country
code: .vn
Internet hosts:
340 (2003)
Internet users:
3.5 million (2003)
Transportation
Vietnam
Top of Page
Airports:
24 (2004 est.)
Airports - with
paved runways: total: 23
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2005 est.)
Airports - with
unpaved runways: total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2005 est.)
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Pipelines:
condensate/gas 432 km; gas 210 km; oil 3 km; refined products 206 km (2004)
Railways:
total: 2,600 km
standard gauge: 178 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 2,169 km 1.000-m gauge
dual gauge: 253 km three-rail track combining 1.435-m and 1.000-m gauges (2004)
Roadways:
total: 93,300 km
paved: 23,418 km
unpaved: 69,882 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
17,702 km (5,000 km navigable by vessels up to 1.8 m draft) (2004)
Merchant marine:
total: 194 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,170,621 GRT/1,798,376 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 142, chemical tanker 3, container 2, liquefied gas 4,
petroleum tanker 22, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 11 (2005)
Ports and
terminals: Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City
Military
Vietnam
Top of Page
Military branches:
People's Army of Vietnam: Ground Forces, People's Navy Command (includes Naval
Infantry), Air and Air Defense Force, Coast Guard
Military service
age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Manpower
available for males age 18-49: 21,341,813 (2005 est.)
military service:
Manpower fit for
military service: males age 18-49: 16,032,358 (2005 est.)
Manpower
reaching military males: 915,572 (2005 est.)
service age
annually:
Military
expenditures - $650 million (FY98)
dollar figure:
Military
expenditures - 2.5% (FY98)
percent of GDP:
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CIA - The World Factbook -- Vietnam
Transnational
Vietnam
Top of Page
Issues
Disputes -
international: southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu;
Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; in
2004 Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commission agrees to erect missing markers in two
adjoining provinces; demarcation of the China-Vietnam boundary proceeds slowly and
although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in June
2004, implementation has been delayed; China occupies Paracel Islands also claimed by
Vietnam and Taiwan; involved in complex dispute with China, Malaysia, Philippines,
Taiwan, and possibly Brunei over the Spratly Islands; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct
of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding
"code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand
construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of
China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic
activities in the Spratly Islands
Illicit drugs:
minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin;
domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems
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