Cover Image
close this bookMedical Assistance to Self-settled Refugees (Institut Tropical - Tropical Institute, Antwerp, Belgium, 1998)
close this folderReferences
View the documentPreface & introduction
View the documentChapter 1
View the documentChapter 2
View the documentChapter 3
View the documentChapter 4
View the documentChapter 5
View the documentChapter 6
View the documentChapter 7
View the documentAbbreviations & Acronyms

Preface & introduction

1

Livi-Bacci M. A concise history of world population. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992;1-220.

2

de Waal A. Famine that kills: Darfur, Sudan 1984-1985. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989; 1-258.

3

UNHCR. Handbook for emergencies. Part I: Field operations. Geneva: UNHCR, 1982; 1-194.

4

CDC. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: recommendations for public health issues. MMWR 1992; 41: 1-76.

5

Tollet D, Autier P, Lechat MF. Organisation d'un camp de réfugiés; guide opérationnel pour la phase d'urgence. Bruxelles: Centre de Recherche sur l'Epidémiologie des Désastres (CRED) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), 1988;

6

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health. JAMA 1993; 270: 600-605.

7

Perrin P. Handbook on war and public health. Geneva: ICRC, 1996; 1-446.

8

WHO. WHO emergency health kit; standard drugs and clinic equipment for 10 000 persons for 3 months. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO), 1984; 1-43.

9

Simmonds S, Vaughan P, Gunn SW. Refugee community health care. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1.983; 1-357.

10

Mears C, Chowdhury S. Health care for refugees and displaced people. Oxford: Oxfam, 1994; 1-112.

11

Médecins sans Frontières. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997; 1-380.

12

Van Damme W. Do refugees belong in camps? Experiences from Goma and Guinea. Lancet 1995; 346: 360-362.

13

Clark L, Stein B. Older refugee settlements in Africa. Refugee Policy Group. Washington: Refugee Policy Group 1985; 1-185.

14

Bascom J. The new nomads. An overview of involuntary migration in Africa. In: Baker J, Aina TA, eds. The migration experience in Africa. Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1995: 197-219.

15

Rufin JC. Le piège humanitaire. Paris: Hachette/Pluriel, 1986; 1-372.

16

Editorial. The health of refugees. Lancet 1985; 1: 673-674.

17

Harrell-Bond BE. Imposing aid; emergency assistance to refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986; 1-440.

18

Boelaert M, Englebert M, Hanquet G, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Refugee relief rations [Letter]. Lancet 1997; 349: 1775.

19

Zetter R, Henry CJK. The nutrition crisis among refugees. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 201-380.

20

Harrell-Bond BE. Pitch the tents. An alternative to refugee camps. New Republic 1994; Sept 19&26: 15-19.

21

Van Damme W, De Brouwere V, Boelaert M, Van Lerberghe W. Effects of a refugee-assistance programme on host population in Guinea as measured by obstetric interventions. Lancet 1998; 351: 1609-1613.

22

Harrell-Bond BE. Breaking the vicious circle: refugees and other displaced persons in Africa. In: The African social situation: crucial factors of development and transformation. London: African Centre for Applied Research and Training in Social Development, 1990: 92-154.

Chapter 1

1

UNDP. Human development report 1992. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1992; 128-129.

2

UNDP. Human development report 1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1995; 156-229.

3

UNICEF. The state of the world's children 1985. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1985; 112-122.

4

UNICEF. The state of the world's children 1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1990; 76-84.

5

UNICEF. The state of the world's children 1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1995; 1-10.

6

Davidson B. The Black Man's Burden. Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State. London: James Currey, 1992; 1-355.

7

Hudgens J, Trillo R. Liberia. In: West Africa. London: Penguin, 1995: 583-604.

8

Hudgens J, Trillo R. Sierra Leone. In: West Africa. London: Penguin, 1995: 531-582.

9

Ki-Zerbo J. Histoire de l'Afrique Noire d'Hier à Demain. Paris: Hatier, 1984; 1-732.

10

Hudgens J, Trillo R. Guinea. In: West Africa. London: Penguin, 1995: 461-529.

11

The Economist Intelligence Unit. Guinea, Sierra Leone & Liberia. Country report. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 1996; 1-50.

12

Carrin G, Camen U. Macro-economic environment and government health policy in Guinea. In: Macro-Economic Environment and Health; With Case Studies for Countries in Greatest Need. Geneva: WHO, 1993: 183-215.

13

Germain J. Guinée: Peuples de la Fôret. Paris: Académie des Sciences d'Outre-Mer, 1984; 1-375.

14

Lamp F. La Guinée et ses Héritages Culturels. Conakry: Ambassade des Etats-Unis, 1991; 1-64.

15

Black R, Sessay M, Milimouno FJ. Refugees and environmental change. The case of the Forest Region of Guinea. Brighton: School of African and Asian Studies 1996; 1-41.

16

Kunz EF. The refugee in flight: kinetic models and forms of displacement. Int Migrat Rev 1973; 7: 125-146.

17

Kunz EF. Exile and resettlement: refugee theory. Int Migrat Rev 1981; 15: 42-51.

18

Immigration and Refugee Services of America. World Refugee Survey 1996: an annual assessment of conditions affecting refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced people. Washington: USCR 1996; 1-203.

19

King M. Health is a sustainable state. Lancet 1990; 336: 664-667.

20

King M. The demographic trap. Lancet 1991; 337: 307-308.

21

King M. Demographic entrapment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993; 87 Suppl 1: S23-S28.

Chapter 2

1

Bellman BL. The meaning of sale or medicines. In: Village of Curers and Assassins. On the Production of Fala Kpelle Cosmological Categories. The Hague - Paris: Mouton, 1975: 112-127.

2

Germain J. Guinée: Peuples de la Fôret. Paris: Académie des Sciences d'Outre-Mer, 1984; 1-375.

3

Kaddar M, Bruneton C. Guinée. In: Le Secteur Pharmaceutique Privé Commercial en Afrique. Paris: Ministère de la Coopération, 1996: 189-204.

4

Carrin G, Camen U. Macro-economic environment and government health policy in Guinea. In: Macro-Economic Environment and Health; With Case Studies for Countries in Greatest Need. Geneva: WHO, 1993: 183-215.

5

Reinke W, Hopwood I, Knippenberg R. Sustainability of primary health care including immunizations in Bamako Initiative programs in West Africa: An assessment of 5 years' field experience in Benin and Guinea. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S1-S3.

6

Knippenberg R, Soucat A, Oyegbite K, et al. Sustainability of primary health care including expanded program of immunizations in Bamako Initiative programs in West Africa: an assessment of 5 years' field experience in Benin and Guinea. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S9-S28.

7

Knippenberg R, Levy-Bruhl D, Osseni R, Drame K, Soucat A, Debeugny C. Initiative de Bamako: soins de santé primaires. Enfant Milieu Trop 1990; 184-185: 1-94.

8

McPake B, Hanson K, Mills A. Community financing of health care in Africa: an evaluation of the Bamako Initiative. Soc Sci Med 1993; 36: 1383-1395.

9

de Béthune X. La formation continue des responsables de districts sanitaires et des centres de santé périphériques: comparaison de quelques formations dans trois pays. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1995; 75 (Suppl I): 54 (Abstract).

10

BEPR. Annuaire des statistiques sanitaires, Guinée, 1994. Conakry: Ministère de la Santé, Guinée 1995; 1-114.

11

Haddad S, Fournier P, Potvin L. Participation communautaire, mobilisation sociale et soins de santé primaires en République de Guinée. Montréal: Université de Montréal 1994; 1-10.

12

Sylla M, Kamano A. Evaluation du système de participation communautaire du programme PEV-SSP-ME en Guinée. Conakry: Ministère de Santé Publique, Guinée 1996; 1-51.

13

Levy-Bruhl D, Soucat A, Osseni R, et al. The Bamako Initiative in Benin and Guinea: improving the effectiveness of primary health care. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S49-S79.

14

Van Damme W. Le monitorage des centres de santé en Guinée: glissement d'une évaluation-feed-back vers une evaluation-jugement; et... de retour? [Term paper]. Institut de Médecine Tropicale, Maîtrise en Santé Publique 1992; 1-8.

15

Soucat A, Levy-Bruhl D, de Béthune X, et al. Affordability, cost-effectiveness and efficiency of primary health care: the Bamako Initiative experience in Benin and Guinea. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S81-S108.

16

Soucat A, Levy-Bruhl D, Gbedonou P, et al. Local cost sharing in Bamako Initiative systems in Benin and Guinea: assuring the financial viability of primary health care. Int J Health Plann Manag 1.997; 12: S109-S135.

17

PSI-Guinée. Population Services International: statistiques des activités PF en Guinée Forestière, 1992-93. Conakry 1994; 1-66.

18

Sylla M, Yattara F, Fofana K et al. Rapport de l'évaluation interne des activités du programme national des soins de santé primaires (du 18 au 23 juillet 1993). Conakry: Ministère de Santé Publique, Guinée & UNICEF 1993; 1-48.

19

Lynen L. Recherche opérationnelle menant à une fiche prénatale qui est orientée vers les mesures à prendre. N'Zérékoré: Médecins Sans Frontières & Ministère de Santé Publique, Guinée 1991; 1-18.

20

Van Damme W. La formation continue pour des médecins généralistes en Afrique: sur la pertinence, la pédagogie et la culture; vers une formation des équipes cadres de district en Guinée. Antwerpen: Institut de Médecine Tropicale, Maîtrise en Santé Publique 1993; 1-39.

21

Dramé ML. Les activités de "l'Initiative pour une Maternité sans Risques" comme moteur de développement des soins de santé primaires dans the district sanitaire exemple de N'Zérékoré, République de Guinée. Antwerpen: Institut de Médecine Tropicale, Anvers, Maîtrise en Santé Publique 1993; 1-48.

22

MSP-Guinée. Annuaire des statistiques sanitaires 1990. Conakry: Ministère de Santé Publique - Guinée 1991; 1-87.

23

Van Lerberghe W, Van Balen H, Kegels G. Typologie et performances des hôpitaux de premier recours en Afrique sub-Saharienne. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1992; 72 (Suppl 2): 1-51.

24

Hoekstra U, Diallo BS. Le système national d'informations sanitaires (SNIS) de la Guinée au niveau de la préfecture. Guéckédou: Ministère de Santé Publique, Guinée & Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit 1995; 1-30.

25

World Bank. World Development Report 1993. Investing in Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993; 1-329.

26

Galland B, Werner H, Camara M. Etude socio-economique et budgétaire dans the cadre du project santé rurale, Kissidougou-Guéckédou, Guinée. Guéckédou: Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit 1991; 1-63.

27

Camara M. Analyse des coûts des activités de soins et leur recouvrement au niveau du premier échelon de 1989 à 1991: centre de santé de Sérédou, Préfecture de Macenta, République de Guinée. Antwerpen: Institut de Médecine Tropicale, Anvers, Maîtrise en Santé Publique 1993; 1-46.

28

Carrin G, Evlo K. Les coûts des soins de santé et leur recouvrement en Guinée. OMS. Genève 1991; 1-61.

29

Kamara L, Lambert PY, Decoux A. Rapport annuel 1990 de l'Hôpital Régional de N'Zérékoré. N'Zérékoré: Ministère de Santé Publique, Guinée 1991; 1-77.

30

Dramé ML, Lynen L, Vandemoortele E. Rapport annuel 1991. Direction Préfectorale de la Santé, N'Zérékoré. N'Zérékoré: Ministère de Santé Publique, Guinée 1992; 1-9.

31

Sow O, Diallo AB, Haba F, Diot P, Boissinot E, Lemarie E. Acute respiratory infections in children: a community-based study comparing a primary health center and a pediatric unit, Republic of Guinea. Tuber Lung Dis 1995; 76: 4-10.

32

Keita ML, Bah MC, Diallo MB, Barrère B. Enquête démographique et de santé, Guinée-1992. Conakry: République de Guinée 1994; 1-273.

33

Soucat A, Gandaho T, Levy-Bruhl D, et al. Health seeking behaviour and household health expenditures in Benin and Guinea; the equity implications of the Bamako Initiative. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S137-S163.

Chapter 3

1

Touré ML, Van Damme W. Plan d'assistance médico-sanitaire aux réfugiés libériens en Guinée Forestière et interférences avec the système de santé. N'Zérékoré: Ministère de la Santé 1990; 1-66.

2

Van Damme W. Nutritional surveillance at the curative consultation in Guinea. Med News-[MSF] 1993; 2: 13-17.

3

CDC. Health and nutritional status of Liberian refugee children, 1990. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1991; 66: 112-115.

4

Schuster L. The final days of Dr Doe. In: Buford B, ed. Africa. London: Granta, 1994: 39-95.

5

Richards P- Fighting for the Rain Forest. War, Youth & Resources in Sierra Leone. Oxford: The International African Institute, 1996; 1-182.

6

Leach M. Dealing with displacement: refugee-host relations, food and forest resources in Sierra Leonean Mende communities during the Liberian influx, 1990-91. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies 1992; 1-51.

7

UNHCR. Draft contingency plan for the repatriation operation to Liberia. Conakry: UNHCR 1991; 1-8.

8

Diallo MA. Reflexion et suggestion sur la stratégie de la transistion de "l'assistance d'urgence" aux "programmes de développement" au profit des réfugiés libériens et sierra léonais. N'Zérékoré 1.991; 1-4.

9

Ministère de la Santé, MSF. Manuel poste de santé. Programme d'assistance aux réfugiés en Guinée Forestière. N'Zérékoré 1992; 1-90.

10

Oulare A, Keita F. Enquête socio-économique sur la situation des réfugiés libériens et sierra-léonais en Guinée Forestière. Conakry: UNHCR 1992; 1-22.

11

Omaar R. Liberia: flight from terror. Testimony of abuses in Nimba county. New York, Washington, London: Human Rights Watch 1990; 1-28.

12

Amnesty International. Sierra Leone: towards a future founded on human rights. London: Amnesty International 1996; 1-37.

13

Kunz EF. The refugee in flight: kinetic models and forms of displacement. Int Migrat Rev 1973; 7: 125-146.

14

Kunz EF. Exile and resettlement: refugee theory. Int Migrat Rev 1981; 15: 42-51.

15

Harrell-Bond BE. Imposing Aid; Emergency Assistance to Refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986; 1-440.

16

Mulholland K. Cholera in Sudan: an account of an epidemic in a refugee camp in eastern Sudan, May-June 1985. Disasters 1985; 9: 247-258.

17

Kuhlman T. Burden or Boon? A Study of Eritrean Refugees in the Sudan. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1990; 1-203.

18

Davis A. Review of the programme of food assistance to Liberian and Sierra Leonean refugees in Guinea. Report of a consultancy mission conducted by MSF (December 1995). Brussels: MSF 1996; 1-46.

19

Black R, Sessay M, Milimouno FJ. Refugees and environmental change. The case or the Forest Region of Guinea. Brighton: School of African and Asian Studies 1996; 1-41.

20

UNHCR. Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Geneva: UNHCR, 1992; 1-93.

Chapter 4

1

Sen A. Food, economics, and entitlements. In: Drèze J, Sen A, eds. The Political Economy of Hunger. Volume 1. Entitlement and Well-Being. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990: 34-52.

2

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. An analysis of mortality trends among refugee populations in Somalia, Sudan, and Thailand. Bull World Health Organ 1988; 66: 237-247.

3

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Prevention of excess mortality in refugee and displaced populations in developing countries. JAMA 1990; 263: 3296-3302.

4

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health. JAMA 1993; 270: 600-605.

5

Toole MJ. Mass population displacement: a global public health challenge. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1995; 9: 353-366.

6

CDC. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: recommendations for public health issues. MMWR 1992; 41: 1-76.

7

de Waal A. Famine mortality: a case study of Darfur, Sudan 1984-5. Pop Stud 1989; 43: 5-24.

8

de Waal A. Famine That Kills: Darfur, Sudan 1984-1985. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989; 1-258.

9

Heikens GT. Public health issues in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in refugees and displaced persons. Geneva: UNHCR 1994; 1-27.

10

Nieburg P, Person Karell B, Toole MJ. Malnutrition-mortality relationships among refugees. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 247-256.

11

Toole MJ, Nieburg P, Waldman RJ. The association between inadequate rations, undernutrition prevalence, and mortality in refugee camps: case studies of refugee populations in eastern Thailand, 1979-1980, and eastern Sudan, 1984-1985. J Trop Pediatr 1988; 34: 218-224.

12

Young H, Jaspars S. Nutrition, disease and death in times of famine. Disasters 1995; 19: 94-109.

13

LaMont Gregory E, Henry CJ, Ryan TJ. Evidence-based humanitarian relief interventions. Lancet 1995; 346: 312-313.

14

Jaspars S, Elliot V, Wallace J, Mason J. Report of a workshop on the improvement of the nutrition of refugees and displaced people in Africa (Machakos, Kenya, December 1994). Geneva: UN ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition 1995; 1-38.

15

Mourey A. Approche nutritionnelle des actions d'assistance du CICR en situation conflictuelle. Schweiz Z Milit Med 1989; 23-30.

16

Green RH. Food security in refuge and return: some aspects of entitlements, markets and modalities. Oxford: University of Oxford 1996; 1-59.

17

Jaspars S, Young H. General food distribution in emergencies: from nutritional needs to political priorities. London. Overseas Development Institute. Good Practice Review 1995; 3: 1-136.

18

Macrae J, Zwi AB. Food as an instrument of war in contemporary African famines: a review of the evidence. Disasters 1992; 16: 299-321.

19

Perrin P. Handbook on War and Public Health. Geneva: ICRC, 1996; 1-446.

20

Wilson KB. Enhancing refugees' own food acquisition strategies. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 226-246.

21

Harrell-Bond BE, Voutira E, Leopold M. Counting the refugees: gifts, givers, patrons and clients. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 205-225.

22

Voutira E, Mahmud N, Oestergaard-Nielsen E, Urquiola A, Whishaw-Brown S, Hong-Won Yu. Improving social and gender planning in emergency operation. A report commissioned by the World Food Programme. Oxford: Refugee Studies Programme 1995; 1-103.

23

Pottier J. Why aid agencies need better understanding of the communities they assist: the experience of food aid in Rwandan refugee camps. Disasters 1996; 20: 324-337.

24

Jaspars S. The Rwandan refugee crisis in Tanzania: initial successes and failures in food assistance. London, Overseas Development Institute. Network Paper 1994; 6: 1-37.

25

Hilderbrand K, Van Erps J, Hody B, Arbyn M. Angolan refugees in Shaba, Zaire 1984-1990: a case study of management imbroglio. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 336-342.

26

Boelaert M, Davis A, Le Lin B, et al. Nutrition Guidelines. Paris: MSF, 1995; 1-191.

27

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Food and nutrition. Nutrient deficiencies. In: MSF, ed. Refugee Health. An Approach to Emergency Situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 81-113.

28

Chambers R. Hidden losers? The impact of rural refugees and refugee programs on poorer hosts. Int Migrat Rev 1986; 20: 245-263.

29

Boelaert M, Englebert M, Hanquet G, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Refugee relief rations [Letter]. Lancet 1997; 349: 1775.

30

Malfait P, Moren A, Dillon JC, et al. An outbreak of pellagra related to changes in dietary niacin among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 504-511.

31

WHO. Scurvy and food aid among refugees in the Horn of Africa. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1989; 64: 85-87.

32

Skran CM. The international refugee regime: the historical and contemporary context of international responses to asylum problems. Journal of Policy History 1992; 4: 8-35.

33

UNHCR. Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Geneva: UNHCR, 1992; 1-93.

34

Telford J. Counting and identification of beneficiary populations in emergency operations: registration and its alternatives. London, Overseas Development Institute. Good Practice Review 1997; 5: 1-110.

35

UNHCR. Rapport sur the recensement des réfugiés libériens (et léonais) en Guinée Forestière. Conakry 1991; 1-26.

36

UNHCR. Audit memorandum. Special audit of food chain. UNHCR/Guinea. Conakry: UNHCR 1994; 1-12.

37

Immigration and Refugee Services of America. World Refugee Survey 1996: an annual assessment of conditions affecting refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced people. Washington: USCR 1996; 1-203.

38

Boss LP, Toole MJ, Yip R. Assessments of mortality, morbidity, and nutritional status in Somalia during the 1991-1992 famine. Recommendations for standardization of methods. JAMA 1994; 272: 371-376.

39

Moren A, Rigal J. Populations réfugiées: priorités sanitaires et conduites à tenir. Cah. Santé 1992; 2: 13-21.

40

Autier P. Nutrition assessment through the use of a nutritional scoring system. Disasters 1988; 12: 70-80.

41

King FS, Burgess A. Growth and development. In: King FS, Burgess A, eds. Nutrition for Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993: 165-196.

42

Soeters R. Pitfalls with weight for height measurements. Trop Doct 1986; 16: 173-176.

43

Van Damme W. Nutritional surveillance at the curative consultation in Guinea. Med News-[MSF] 1993; 2: 13-17.

44

Morley DC. Pediatric Priorities in the Developing World. London: Butterworths, 1973; 1-470.

45

King M. Medical Care in Developing Countries. A Primer on the Medicine of Poverty and a Symposium From Makerere. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1966; 1-30:9-

46

Van Balen H. An integrated basis for child health care in the developing countries. J Trop Pediatr Environm Child Health 1976; 22: 53-58.

47

Henderson RH, Sundaresan T. Cluster sampling to assess immunization coverage: a review of experience with a simplified. Bull World Health Organ 1982; 60: 253-260.

48

Hirnschall GO. Review of health and nutrition situation of Liberian refugees in the Forest Region in Guinea (May 5-23, 1990). Atlanta: CDC 1991; 1-23.

49

CDC. Health and nutritional status of Liberian refugee children- Guinea, 1990. MMWR 1991; 40: 13-15.

50

CDC. Health and nutritional status of Liberian refugee children, 1990. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1991; 66: 112-115.

51

WFP, UNHCR, MSF. Enquêtes anthropométriques rapides au sein de populations en situation précaire. Rome, Geneva & Brussels 1991; 1-35.

52

Fournier AS, Beauquesne I, Bernabeu A. Guideline Epinut. Paris: AICF 1996; 1-14.

53

Davis A. Review of the programme of food assistance to Liberian and Sierra Leonean refugees in Guinea. Report of a consultancy mission conducted by MSF (December 1995). Brussels: MSF 1996; 1-46.

54

Zinsou EM, Koby BA. Enquête auprès des ménages de réfugiés libériens et sierra-léonais de la zone d'accueil en Guinée. Conakry: UNHCR 1995; 1-76.

55

Oulare A, Keita F. Enquête socio-économique sur la situation des réfugiés libériens et sierra-léonais en Guinée Forestière. Conakry: UNHCR 1992; 1-22.

56

Dubourg D, Masumbuko BMB. Programme d'assistance aux réfugiés libériens et sierra-léonais. Enquêtes nutritionnelles - enquêtes démographiques - enquêtes de mortalité. zone est - zone ouest. MSF 1995; 1-64.

57

Equipe PARLS. Programme d'assistance aux réfugiés libériens et sierra léonais en Guinée (zone est); rapport 1995. N'Zérékoré: MSP 1996; 1-52.

58

WHO Working Group. Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. Bull World Health Organ 1986; 64: 929-941.

59

Gorstein J, Sullivan K, Yip R, et al. Issues in the assessment of nutritional status using anthropometry. Bull World Health Organ 1994; 72: 273-283.

60

Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, de Onis M, Yip R. The development of a MUAC-for-height reference, including a comparison to other nutritional status screening indicators. Bull World Health Organ 1997; 75: 333-341.

61

Bern C, Nathanail L. Is mid-upper-arm circumference a useful tool for screening in emergency settings? Lancet 1995; 345: 631-633.

62

Van Lerberghe W. Child mortality and growth in a small African town; a longitudinal study of 6228 children from Kasongo (Zaïre). Antwerpen: Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, 1987; 1-323.

63

Drèze J. Famine prevention. Disasters 1991; 15: 265-270.

64

Nicholds N. The resourcing of food aid for refugees. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 257-268.

65

Keen D. Refugees: Rationing the Right to Live. The Crisis in Emergency Relief. London: Zed Books Ltd, 1992; 1-86.

Chapter 5

1

Osler W. The study of the fevers of the South. JAMA 1896; 26: 999-1004.

2

Livi-Bacci M. A concise history of world population. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992; 1-220.

3

Koshland DE. The epidemiology issue. Science 1986; 234: 921.

4

McNeill W. Plagues and peoples. London: Penguin, 1976; 1-330.

5

CDC. Public health consequences of acute displacement of Iraqi citizens-March-May 1991. JAMA 1991; 266: 633-634.

6

Ascherio A, Chase R, Cote T, et al. Effect of the Gulf War on infant and child mortality in Iraq. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 931-936.

7

Editorial. Health effects of sanctions on Iraq. Lancet 1995; 346: 1439.

8

Seaman J, Mercer A, Sondorp E. The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in Western Upper Nile, Southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994. Int J Epidemiol 1998; 25: 862-871.

9

Veeken H. Sudan: eating dust and returning to dust. Br Med J 1997; 315: 1458-1460.

10

Krug E, Paquet C, Fouveau C, Moren A. Excessive mortality in the Yambio region, Southern Sudan. Med News-[MSF] 1994; 3: 20-23.

11

Herwaldt BL, Bassett DC, Yip R, Alonso CR, Toole MJ. Crisis in southern Sudan: where is the world? Lancet 1993; 342: 119-120.

12

Ziegler P. The black death. Gloucestershire: Harper Collins, 1969; 1-249.

13

Curtin PD. Killing diseases of the tropical world. In: Death by migration. Europe's encounter with the tropical world in the nineteenth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989: 62-79.

14

Nelkin D, Gilman SL. Placing blame for devastating disease. In: Mack A, ed. In time of plague; the history and social consequences of lethal epidemic disease. New York: New York University Press, 1991: 39-56.

15

Lacey SW. Cholera: calamitous past, ominous future. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 20: 1.409-1419.

16

Muyembe T, Kipasa M. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Kikwit, Zaire. International Scientific and Technical Committee and WHO Collaborating Centre for Haemorrhagic Fevers. Lancet 1995; 345: 1448.

17

Editorial. Plague in India; time to forget the symptoms and tackle the disease. Lancet 1994; 344: 1033-1035.

18

John TJ. Learning from plague in India. Lancet 1994; 344: 972.

19

Zinsser H. On the influence of epidemic disease on political and military history and on the relative unimportance of generals. In: Rats, lice and history. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 1935: 150-165.

20

Braudel F. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II. Glasgow: William Collins Sons & Co, 1973; 1-1375.

21

Suret-Canale J. L'oeuvre medicale et sanitaire. In: Afrique noire: l'ére coloniale (1900-1945). Paris: Editions sociales, 1964: 490-516.

22

Van Lerberghe W, Pangu KA. Les politiques de santé. In: Tabutin D, ed. Population et sociétés en Afrique au sud du Sahara. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1988: 335-367.

23

Anon. Cambridge international dictionary of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; 1-1771.

24

Anon. Collins Cobuild essential dictionary. London: Harper Collins, 1988; 1-948.

25

Brès P. Public health action in emergencies caused by epidemics. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1986; 1-287.

26

Last JM. A dictionary of epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983; 1-114.

27

Anon. Borland's illustrated medical dictionary. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1994; 1-1940.

28

Manuila A, Manuila L, Nicole M, Lambert H. Dictionaire français de médecine et de biologie. Paris: Masson & Cie, 1971; 1-923.

29

Jammal A, Allard R, Loslier G. Dictionnaire d'épidemiologie. Paris: Maloine, 1988; 1-171.

30

Anon. Stedman's medical dictionary. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1982; 1-1678.

31

Walsh JA. Estimating the burden of illness in the tropics. In: Warren KS, Mahmoud AAF, eds. Tropical and Geographical Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990: 185-196.

32

Rosenberg CE. The definition and control of disease. An introduction. In: Mack A, ed. In time of plague; the history and social consequences of lethal epidemic disease. New York: New York University Press, 1991: 5-8.

33

Foege WH. Plagues: perceptions of risk and social responses. In: Mack A, ed. In time of plague; the history and social consequences of lethal epidemic disease. New York: New York University Press, 1991: 9-20.

34

British Medical Association. Living with risk. Chichester: John Wiley & sons, 1987; 1-179.

35

Giesecke J. Modern infectious disease epidemiology. London: Edward Arnold, 1994; 1-256.

36

Jenicek M, Cléroux R. Epidémiologie: principes, techniques et applications. St Hyacinthe, Québec: Edisem & Maloine, 1987; 1-454.

37

Benenson AS. Control of communicable diseases manual. Washington: American Public Health Association, 1995; 1-577.

38

Barendregt JJ, Bonneux L, Van der Maas PJ. DALYs: the age-weights on balance. Bull World Health Organ 1996; 74: 439-443.

39

Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997; 349: 1436-1442.

40

Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997; 349: 1498-1504.

41

Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997; 349: 1269-1276.

42

Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997; 349: 1347-1352.

43

Cooper RS, Osotimehin B, Kaufman JS, Forrester T. Disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa: what should we conclude in the absence of data? Lancet 1998; 351: 208-210.

44

WHO. The potential role of new cholera vaccines in the prevention and control of cholera outbreaks during acute emergencies. Geneva: World Health Organization 1995; 1-16.

45

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health, JAMA 1993; 270: 600-605.

46

Toole MJ. Mass population displacement: a global public health challenge. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1995; 9: 353-366.

47

Toole MJ, Steketee RW, Waldman RJ, Nieburg P. Measles prevention and control in emergency settings. Bull World Health Organ 1989; 67: 381-388.

48

Goma Epidemiology Group. Public health impact of Rwandan refugee crisis: what happened in Goma, Zaire, in July, 1994? Lancet 1995; 345: 339-344.

49

Shears P, Berry AM, Murphy R, Nabil MA. Epidemiological assessment of the health and nutrition of Ethiopian refugees in emergency camps in Sudan, 1985. Br Med J 1987; 295: 314-318.

50

Boss LP, Toole MJ, Yip R. Assessments of mortality, morbidity, and nutritional status in Somalia during the 1991-1992 famine. Recommendations for standardization of methods. JAMA 1994; 272: 371-376.

51

Moore PS, Marfin AA, Quenemoen LE, et al. Mortality rates in displaced and resident populations of central Somalia during 1992 famine. Lancet 1993; 341: 935-938.

52

Glass R, Cates W, Nieburg P, et al. Rapid assessment of health status and preventive-medicine needs of newly arrived Kampuchean refugees, Sa Kaeo, Thailand. Lancet 1980; 1: 868-872.

53

Mercer A. Mortality and morbidity in refugee camps in Eastern Sudan: 1985-90. Disasters 1992; 16: 28-42.

54

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Prevention of excess mortality in refugee and displaced populations in developing countries. JAMA 1990; 263: 3296-3302.

55

Nieburg P, Person Karell B, Toole MJ. Malnutrition-mortality relationships among refugees. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 247-256.

56

Dick B. The impact of refugees on the health status and health services of host communities: Compounding bad with worse? Disasters 1985; 9: 259-269.

57

de Waal A. Famine that kills: Darfur, Sudan 1984-1985. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989; 1-258.

58

Young H, Jaspars S. Nutrition, disease and death in times of famine. Disasters 1995; 19: 94-109.

59

Homer-Dixon TF, Boutwell JH, Rathjens GW. Environmental change and violent conflict. Sci Am 1993; 268: 16-23.

60

Aaby P. Assumptions and contradictions in measles and measles immunization research: is measles good for something? Soc Sci Med 1995; 41: 673-686.

61

Ritmeijer K. Refugees' food acquisition strategies in times of inadequate rations; the case of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal. Amsterdam: Médecins Sans Frontières 1991; 1-9.

62

Yip R, Sharp TW. Acute malnutrition and high childhood mortality related to diarrhea. Lessons from the 1991 Kurdish refugee crisis. JAMA 1993; 270: 587-590.

63

Perrin P. Handbook on war and public health. Geneva: ICRC, 1996; 1-446.

64

CDC. Epidemic typhus risk in Rwandan refugee camps. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1994; 69: 259.

65

Sundnes KO, Haimanot AT. Epidemic of louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Lancet 1993; 342: 1213-1215.

66

Desenclos JC, Zergabachew A, Desmoulins B, Chouteau L, Desve G, Admassu M. Clinical, microbiological and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoea in Korem, Ethiopia. J Trop Med Hyg 1988; 91: 296-301.

67

Scares JL, Arendt V, Coue JC, et al. Traitement court par la ciprofloxacine de la dysenterie bacillaire à Shigella dysenteriae type 1 chez des réfugiés Ruandais. Méd Trop 1994; 54: 319-323.

68

Moore PS, Toole MJ, Nieburg P, Waldman RJ, Broome CV. Surveillance and control of meningococcal meningitis epidemics in refugee populations. Bull World Health Organ 1990; 68: 587-596.

69

Wijnroks M, Hausman B. Guidelines for epidemics: meningococcal meningitis. Amsterdam: MSF-H 1992; 1-22.

70

Haelterman E, Boelaert M, Suetens C, Blok L, Henkens M, Toole MJ. Impact of a mass vaccination campaign against a meningitis epidemic in a refugee camp. Trop Med Int Health 1996; 1: 385-392.

71

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Part II: the emergency phase: the ten top priorities. Introduction. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 37-42.

72

Howard J, Spice R. Plastic sheeting. Its use for emergency shelter and other purposes. Oxford: Oxfam, 1989; 1-34.

73

LaMont Gregory E, Henry CJ, Ryan TJ. Evidence-based humanitarian relief interventions. Lancet 1995; 346: 312-313.

74

Toole MJ. Vulnerability in emergency situations. Lancet 1996; 348: 840.

75

Siddique AK, Salam A, Islam MS, et al. Why treatment centres failed to prevent cholera deaths among Rwandan refugees in Goma, Zaire. Lancet 1995; 345: 359-361.

76

Leaning J. When the system doesn't work: Somalia 1992. In: Cahill KM, ed. A framework for survival. Health, human rights, and humanitarian assistance in conflicts and disasters. New York: Harper Collins, 1993: 103-120.

77

Nabeth P, Michelet MJ, Le GG, Claus W. Demographic and nutritional consequences of civil war in Liberia. Lancet 1997; 349: 59-60.

78

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. An analysis of mortality trends among refugee populations in Somalia, Sudan, and Thailand. Bull World Health Organ 1988; 66: 237-247.

79

Desenclos JC, Michel D, Tholly F, Magdi I, Pecoul B, Desve G. Mortality trends among refugees in Honduras, 1984-1987. Int J Epidemiol 1990; 19: 367-373.

80

Pitterman S. A comparative survey of two decades of international assistance to refugees in Africa. Africa Today 1984; 31: 25-54.

81

Van Damme W. Do refugees belong in camps? Experiences from Goma and Guinea. Lancet 1995; 346: 360-362.

82

Malfait P, Moren A, Dillon JC, et al. An outbreak of pellagra related to changes in dietary niacin among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 504-511.

83

Hilderbrand K, Boelaert M, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Food rations for refugees [Letter]. Lancet 1998; 351: 1213-1214.

84

Desenclos JC, Berry AM, Padt R, Farah B, Segala C, Nabil AM. Epidemiological patterns of scurvy among Ethiopian refugees. Bull World Health Organ 1989; 67: 309-316.

85

Magan AM, Warsame M, Ali-Salad AK, et al. An outbreak of scurvy in Somali refugee camps. Disasters 1983; 7: 94-97.

86

Moren A, Lemoult D, Brodel A. Pellagra in Mozambican refugees. Lancet 1990; 335: 1403-1404.

87

Boelaert M, Englebert M, Hanquet G, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Refugee relief rations [Letter], Lancet 1997; 349: 1775.

88

Hilderbrand K, Van Erps J, Hody B, Arbyn M. Angolan refugees in Shaba, Zaire 1984-1990: a case study of management imbroglio. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 336-342.

89

Zetter R, Henry CJK. The nutrition crisis among refugees. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 201-380.

90

Hart CA. Bacterial meningitis. In: Cook GC, ed. Manson's Tropical Diseases. London: Saunders Company Ltd, 1996: 873-885.

91

Lapeyssonnie L. La méningite cérébrospinale en Afrique. Bull World Health Organ 1963; 28 (supplement): 1-100.

92

Foster SO, McFarland DA, John AM. Measles. In: Jamison DT, Mosley WH, Measham A, Bobadilla JL, eds. Disease control priorities in developing countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993: 161-187.

93

Black FL. The role of herd immunity in control of measles. Yale J Biol Med 1982; 55: 351-360.

94

Anderson RM, May RM. A framework for discussing the population biology of infectious diseases. In: Anderson RM, May RM, eds. Infectious diseases of humans. Dynamics and control. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992: 13-23.

95

Assaad F. Measles: summary of worldwide impact. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5: 452-459.

96

Morley DC, Martin WJ, Allen I. Measles in West Africa. West Afr Med J 1967; 16: 24-31.

97

Morley DC. Severe measles in the tropics. II. Br Med J 1969; 1: 363-365.

98

Morley DC. Severe measles in the tropics. I. Br Med J 1969; 1: 297-300.

99

Van Lerberghe W. Kasongo: child mortality and growth in a small African town; a longitudinal study of 6228 children from Kasongo (Zaire). London & Niigata-Shi: Smith-Gordon/Nishimura, 1989; 1-159.

100

Keita ML, Bah MC, Diallo MB, Barrère B. Enquête démographique et de santé, Guinée-1992. Conakry: République de Guinée 1994; 1-273.

101

Cochrane AL. Effectiveness and efficiency. Random reflections on health services. Abingdon, Berks: Burgess & Son, 1971; 1-92.

102

Bennett K, Tugwell P, Sackett DL, Haynes RB. Relative risks, benefits and costs of intervention. In: Warren KS, Mahmoud AAF, eds. Tropical and Geographical Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990: 205-228.

103

Dujardin B, Kegels G, Buvé A, Mercenier P. Tuberculosis control: did the programme fail or did we fail the programme? Trop Med Int Health 1997; 2: 715-718.

104

Mills A. Survey and examples of economic evaluations of health programmes in developing countries. World Health Stat Q 1985; 38: 402-431.

105

World Bank. World development report 1993. Investing in health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993; 1-329.

106

Halsey NA, Boulos R, Mode F, et al. Response to measles vaccine in Haitian infants 6 to 12 months old. Influence of maternal antibodies, malnutrition, and concurrent illnesses. N Eng J Med 1985; 313: 544-549.

107

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Control of diarrhoeal diseases. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 154-171.

108

Bachy C. Prise en charge d'une épidémie de choléra en milieu ouvert. Rapport d'activité. Prefecture de Macenta, Guinée Forestière. Juin-août 1995. Macenta: MSF 1995; 1-120.

109

Varaine F, Caugant DA, Riou JY, et al. Meningitis outbreaks and vaccination strategy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1997; 91: 3-7.

110

Soucat A, Levy-Bruhl D, de Béthune X, et al. Affordability, cost-effectiveness and efficiency of primary health care: the Bamako Initiative experience in Benin and Guinea. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S81-S108.

111

Begg N. Outbreak management. In: Cartwright K, ed. Meningococcal disease. Chichester: John Wiley &. sons, 1995: 285-305.

112

Greenwood BM. Selective primary health care: strategies for control of disease in the developing world. XIII. Acute bacterial meningitis. Rev Infect Dis 1984; 6: 374-389.

113

WHO Working Group. Control of epidemic meningococcal disease. Paris: WHO, 1995; 1-72.

114

Bosmans E, Vimont-Vicary P, André FE, Croopy PJ, Roelants P, Vandepitte J. Protective efficacy of a bivalent (A+C) meningococcal vaccine during a cerebrospinal meningitis epidemic in Rwanda. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1980; 60: 297-306.

115

Blakebrough IS, Greenwood BM, Whittle HC, Bradley AK. Failure of meningococcal vaccination to stop the transmission of meningococci in Nigerian schoolboys. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1983; 77: 175-178.

116

Veeken H, Ritmeijer K, Hausman B. Priority during a meningitis epidemic: vaccination or treatment? Bull World Health Organ 1998; 76: 135-141.

117

Shepard DS. Economic analysis of investment priorities for measles control. J Infect Dis 1994; 170 Suppl 1: S56-S62.

118

Murray CJ, Lopez AD. The global burden of disease. A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996; 1-990.

119

Curtin PD. Death by migration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989; 1-251.

120

Hartwig GW. Social consequences of epidemic diseases: the nineteenth century in eastern Africa. In: Hartwig GW, Patterson KD, eds. Disease in African history. Durham: Duke University Press, 1978: 25-45.

121

Ofosu Amaah S. The African experience. In: Stanley NF, Joske RA, eds. Changing disease patterns and human behaviour. London: Academic Press, 1980: 299-322.

122

Fenner F. Sociocultural change and environmental diseases. In: Stanley NF, Joske RA, eds. Changing disease patterns and human behaviour. London: Academic Press, 1980: 7-26.

123

Cliff A, Haggett P, Smallman-Raynor M. Measles. An historical geography of a major human viral disease. From global expansion to local retreat, 1840-1990. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993; 1-462.

124

Brown V, Larouze B, Desve G, et al. Clinical presentation of louse-borne relapsing fever among Ethiopian refugees in northern Somalia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1988; 82: 499-502.

125

Quinn TC. Global burden of the HIV pandemic. Lancet 1996; 348: 99-106.

126

Decosas J, Kane F, Anarfi JK, Sodji KD, Wagner HU. Migration and AIDS. Lancet 1.995; 346: 826-828.

127

Delmas G, Courvallet M. Public health engineering in emergency situation. Paris: Médecins Sans Frontières, 1994; I.1-IV.6

128

Reed BA, Habicht J-P. Sales of food aid as sign of distress, not excess. Lancet 1998; 351: 128-130.

129

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Public health surveillance. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 191-205.

130

Monson MH. Liberian medicine at a glance. Zorzor, Liberia: Curran Lutheran Hospital 1989; 1-20.

131

BEPR. Annuaire des statistiques sanitaires, Guinée, 1994. Conakry: Ministère de la Santé, Guinée 1995; 1-114.

132

Scheper-Hughes N. Social indifference to child death. Lancet 1991; 337: 1144-1147.

133

Evans RG, Stoddart GL. Producing health, consuming health care. Soc Sci Med 1990; 31: 1347-1363.

134

Campbell M, Torgerson D. Confidence intervals for cost-effectiveness ratios: the use of 'bootstrapping'. J Health Serv Res Policy 1997; 2: 253-255.

135

Kenya PR. Measles and mathematics: "control or eradication?". East Afr Med J 1990; 67: 856-863.

136

Luthi J-C, Kessler W, Boelaert M. Une enquête d'efficacité vaccinale dans la ville de Bongor (Tchad) et ses conséquences opérationnelles pour le programme de vaccination. Bull Organ Mond Santé 1997; 75: 427-433.

Chapter 6

1

WHO. Declaration of Alma-Ata. Lancet 1978; 2: 1040-1041.

2

World Bank. Better health in Africa. Washington 1993; 1-217.

3

Passmore R. The declaration of Alma-Ata and the future of primary care. Lancet 1979; 2: 1005-1008.

4

Editorial. World Bank's cure for donor fatigue. Lancet 1993; 342: 63-64.

5

World Bank. World development report 1993. Investing in health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993; 1-329.

6

Editorial. The World Bank, listening and learning. Lancet 1996; 347: 411.

7

Walsh JA, Warren KS. Selective primary health care: an interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. N Engl J Med 1979; 301: 967-974.

8

Dietrick RB. Selective primary health care. N Engl J Med 1980; 302: 758.

9

Walsh JA, Warren KS. Selective primary health care: an interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. Soc Sci Med 1980; 14C: 145-163.

10

Walsh JA, Warren KS. Selective primary health care. N Engl J Med 1980; 302: 758.

11

Gish O. Selective primary health care: old wine in new bottles. Soc Sci Med 1982; 16: 1049-1063.

12

Unger JP, Killingsworth JR. Selective primary health care: a critical review of methods and results. Soc Sci Med 1986; 22: 1001-1013.

13

Green A, Barker C. Priority setting and economic appraisal: whose priorities-the community or the economist? Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 919-929.

14

Grodos D, de Béthune X. Les interventions sanitaires sélectives: un piège pour les politiques de santé du Tiers Monde. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 879-889.

15

Newell KW. Selective primary health care: the counter revolution. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 903-906.

16

Walsh JA. Selectivity within primary health care. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 899-902.

17

Warren KS. The evolution of selective primary health care. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 891-898.

18

Bender DE, Pitkin K. Bridging the gap: the village health worker as the cornerstone of the primary health care model. Soc Sci Med 1987; 24: 515-528.

19

Cochrane AL. Effectiveness and efficiency. Random reflections on health services. Abingdon, Berks: Burgess & Son, 1971; 1-92.

20

GERM. Pour une politique de la santé. Brussels: La Revue Nouvelle & Editions Vie Ouvrière, 1971; 1-142.

21

Donabedian A. Models for organizing the delivery of personal health services and criteria for evaluating them. Milbank Mem Fund Q 1972; 50: 103-154.

22

King M. Medical care in developing countries. A primer on the medicine of poverty and a symposium from Makerere. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1966; 1-30:9.

23

Criel B, Macq J, Bossyns P, Hongoro C. A coverage plan for health centres in Murewa district in Zimbabwe: an example of action research. Trop Med Int Health 1996; 1: 699-709.

24

Gorgen H. The district health system. Experiences and prospects for Africa. gtz. Eschborn: GTZ 1994; 1-113.

25

Costello AM, Foster MC. Organizational design and the district health team. Trop Doct 1993; 23: 9-12.

26

Courtois X, Dumoulin J. Sale of drugs and health care utilization in a health care district in Zaire. Health Pol Plann 1995; 10: 181-185.

27

Criel B. A consistent district health system as a key answer to structural constraints. In: Chabot J, Harnmeijer JW, Streefland PH, eds. African primary health care in times of economic turbulence. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), 1995: 51-63.

28

Flahault D, Piot M, Franklin A. The supervision of health personnel at district level. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO), 1988; 1-100.

29

OMS. L'hôpital de district dans les zones rurales et urbaines. OMS Sér Rapp Tech 1992; 819: 1-84.

30

Unger JP. The training of district medical officers: a methodology tested in Senegal. Ann Comm Oriented Educ 1992; 5: 111-122.

31

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Prevention of excess mortality in refugee and displaced populations in developing countries. JAMA 1990; 263: 3296-3302.

32

CDC. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: recommendations for public health issues. MMWR 1992; 41: 1-76.

33

Grodos D. De l'aide d'urgence aux soins de santé primaires. Difficultes, pièges, enjeux. Méd Trop 1988; 48: 53-63.

34

Dick B, Simmonds S. Primary health care with refugees: between the idea and the reality. Trop Doct 1985; 15: 2-7.

35

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Health care in the emergency phase. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 124-144.

36

Perrin P. Handbook on war and public health. Geneva: ICRC, 1996; 1-446.

37

Goma Epidemiology Group. Public health impact of Rwandan refugee crisis: what happened in Goma, Zaire, in July, 1994? Lancet 1995; 345: 339-344.

38

Slim H. The continuing metamorphosis of the humanitarian practitioner: some new colours for an endangered chameleon. Disasters 1995; 19: 110-126.

39

Chan Kwok Bun. Refugee camps as human artefacts: an essay on Vietnamese refugees in Southeast Asian camps by Linda Hitchcox. J Ref Stud 1991; 4: 284-290.

40

Voutira E, Harrell-Bond BE. In search of the locus of trust: the social world of the refugee camp. Oxford 1992; 1-13.

41

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Reproductive health care in the post-emergency phase. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 252-259.

42

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Child health care in the post-emergency phase. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 260-264.

43

Kibreab G. The myth of dependency among camp refugees in Somalia, 1979-1989. J Ref Stud 1993; 6: 323-349.

44

Waldron SR. Blaming the refugees. Refugee Issues 1987; 3: 1-19.

45

Dick B. The impact of refugees on the health status and health services of host communities: Compounding bad with worse? Disasters 1985; 9: 259-269.

46

Goyens P, Porignon D, Soron'gane EM, Tonglet R, Hennart P, Vis HL. Humanitarian aid and health services in Eastern Kivu, Zaire: collaboration or competition? J Ref Stud 1996; 9: 268-280.

47

MOH-Tanzania, Red Cross. Health care in disasters. The Ngara refugee experience. Report of a workshop held in Ngara, Kagera Region, United Republic of Tanzania, 24-29 March 1996. Dar Es Salaam: MOH 1997; 1-74.

48

Collins S. Ignoring the host: the impact of recent refugee crises on health infrastructure in Ngara district, Tanzania. Amsterdam: Médecins Sans Frontières 1996; 1-89.

49

Hansen A. Managing refugees: Zambia's response to Angolan refugees 1966-1977. Disasters 1979; 3: 375-380.

50

Lowenstein FW. An epidemic of kwashiorkor in the south Kasai, Congo. Bull World Health Organ 1962; 27: 751-758.

51

Cuny FC. Disasters and development- Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983; 1-278.

52

Middleton N, O'Keefe P. Disaster and development. The politics of humanitarian aid. London: Pluto Press, 1998; 1-185.

53

Sirleaf EJ. From disaster to development. In: Cahill KM, ed. A framework for survival. Health, human rights, and humanitarian assistance in conflicts and disasters. New York: Harper Collins, 1993: 299-307.

54

Hadjor KB. Dictionary of Third World terms. London: Penguin, 1993; 1-305.

55

Sen A. Development as capability expansion. In: Griffin K, Knight J, eds. Human development and the international development strategy for the 1990s. London: Macmillan, 1989: 41-58.

56

Anon. Cambridge international dictionary of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; 1-1771.

57

Lechat MF. Disaster epidemiology. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1976; 56: 193-197.

58

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. World disasters report 1996. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997; 1-178.

59

WHO. Emergency and humanitarian action. Geneva: WHO, 1996; 1-64.

60

Sapir DG, Misson C. The development of a database on disasters. Disasters 1992; 16: 74-80.

61

Beinin L. A brief historical review of natural disasters. In: Medical consequences of natural disasters. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1985: 1-11.

62

UNHCR. Handbook for emergencies. Part I: Field operations. Geneva: UNHCR, 1982; 1-194.

63

Brès P. Public health action in emergencies caused by epidemics. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1986; 1-287.

64

Harrell-Bond BE. Imposing aid; emergency assistance to refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986; 1-440.

65

Farah AA. Responding to emergencies: a view from within. In: Cahill KM, ed. A framework for survival. Health, human rights, and humanitarian assistance in conflicts and disasters. New York: Harper Collins, 1993: 259-274.

66

Davis AP. Targeting the vulnerable in emergency situations: who is vulnerable? Lancet 1996; 348: 868-871.

67

Médecins sans Frontières. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997; 1-380.

68

Autier P, d'Altilia J-P, Delamalle JP, Vercruysse V. The food and nutrition surveillance systems of Chad and Mali: the "SAP" after two years. Disasters 1989; 13: 9-32.

69

Eldridge E, Salter C, Rydjeski D. Towards an early warning system in Sudan. Disasters 1986; 10: 189-196.

70

Lechat M. The epidemiology of disasters. Proc R Soc Med 1976; 69: 421-426.

71

Duffield M. The political economy of internal war: asset transfer, complex emergencies and international aid. In: Macrae J, Zwi A, Duffield M, Slim H, eds. War and Hunger. Rethinking International responses to complex emergencies. London, New Jersey: Zed Books Ltd, 1994: 50-69.

72

Macrae J, Zwi A. Famine, complex emergencies and international policy in Africa: an overview. In: Macrae J, Zwi A, Duffield M, Slim H, eds. War and Hunger. Rethinking International responses to complex emergencies. London, New Jersey: Zed Books Ltd, 1994: 6-36.

73

Slim H, Penrose A. UN reform in a changing world: responding to complex emergencies. In: Macrae J, Zwi A, Duffield M, Slim H, eds. War and Hunger. Rethinking International responses to complex emergencies. London, New Jersey: Zed Books Ltd, 1994: 194-208.

74

Benthall J. International NGOs and complex political emergencies. Anthropology Today 1995; 11: 18-19.

75

Duffield M. The symphony of the damned: racial discourse, complex political emergencies and humanitarian aid. Disaster 1996; 20: 173-193.

76

Toole MJ. Complex emergencies: refugee and other populations. In: Noji EK, ed. The public health consequences of disasters. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997: 419-442.

77

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. The public health aspects of complex emergencies and refugee situations. Annu Rev Public Health 1997; 18: 283-312.

78

Voutira E. The language of complex humanitarian emergencies and the idioms of intervention. Refugee studies programme 1997; 1-31.

79

Eliasson J. The world response to humanitarian emergencies. In: Cahill KM, ed. A framework for survival. Health, human rights, and humanitarian assistance in conflicts and disasters. New York: Harper Collins, 1993: 308-318.

80

Mercenier P. Pour une politique de santé publique. Intermédiaire 1971; 1-9.

81

Mercenier P. Les objectifs de l'organisation médico-sanitaire. Revue Nouvelle 1971; 27: 67-72.

82

Kanji N, Manji F. From development to sustained crisis: structural adjustment, equity and health. Soc Sci Med 1991; 33: 985-993.

83

Van Lerberghe W. Les politiques de santé africaines: continuites et ruptures. Bull Séances Acad R Sci Outre Mer 1993; 39: 205-230.

84

Van Moorter G. De dodelijke kloof: gezondheid en ontwikkeling. Brussel: 1995; 1-80.

85

Evans RG, Stoddart GL. Producing health, consuming health care. Soc Sci Med 1990; 31: 1347-1363.

86

Mercenier P. Soins de santé et développement. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1979; 59 (Suppl): 5-11.

87

Van Balen H. The Kasongo project: a case study in community participation. Trop Doct 1993; 24: 13-16.

88

Delgado E, Sorensen SC, Van der Stuyft P. Health seeking behaviour and self-treatment for common childhood symptoms in rural Guatemala. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1994; 74: 161-168.

89

van der Geest S. Self-care and the informal sale of drugs in south Cameroon. Soc Sci Med 1987; 25: 293-305.

90

Kessler W, Ergo A. La participation des populations aux soins de santé primaires: 1. Les comités de santé dans the Mayo-Kebbi (Tchad). Dév Santé 1995; 116: 24-30.

91

Kessler W, Ergo A. La participation des populations aux soins de santé primaires: 2. Le financement et la qualité des soins dans the Mayo-Kebbi (Tchad). Dév Santé 1995; 117:23-29.

92

Rifkin S, Muller F, Bichmann W. Primary health care: on measuring participation. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 931-940.

93

Rifkin SB. Paradigms lost: toward a new understanding of community participation in health programmes. Acta Trop 1996; 61: 79-92.

94

Macrae J, Bradbury M, Jaspars S, Johnson D, Duffield M. Conflict, the continuum and chronic emergencies: a critical analysis of the scope for linking relief, rehabilitation and development planning in Sudan. Disasters 1997; 21: 223-243.

95

Sandler RH, Jones TC. Medical care of refugees. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987; 1-413.

96

Galand P, Mercenier P, Vandenbussche F. Du médecin de famille au centre de santé intégré. Revue Nouvelle 1971; 27: 73-80.

97

Mercenier P. L'évaluation des actions médico-sanitaires. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1972; 52: 165-176.

98

Grodos D. L'aide médicale d'urgence et l'enjeu des soins de santé primaires. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1988; 68: 5-9.

99

Mercenier P, Van Balen H, Nsambuka B, et al. Comment organiser un service de santé quand les ressources sont limitées? L'experience du projet Kasongo au Zaïre. Méd Afr Noire 1986; 33: 373-389.

100

Daveloose P. L'organisation de la zone rurale de santé de Kasongo, Zaïre. Ann Soc Belg Med. Trop 1979; 59 (Suppl): 127-136.

101

Equipe du Projet Kasongo U. Le Projet Kasongo; une expérience d'organisation d'un système de soins de santé primaires. Ann Soc Belg Méd Trop 1981; 60 Suppl: 1-54.

102

Criel B. Le financement communautaire: c'est plus qu'une affaire de sous! Dév Santé 1995; 119:20-24.

103

Criel B, De Vos P, Van Lerberghe W, Van der Stuyft P. Community financing or cost recovery: empowerment or social dumping? Trop Méd Int Health 1996; 1: 281-282.

104

Editorial. Charging for health services in the third world. Lancet 1992; 340: 458-459.

105

Gilson L. The lessons of user fee experience in Africa. Health Pol Plann 1997; 12: 273-285.

106

Griffin CC. Welfare gains from user charges for government health services. Health Pol Plann 1992; 7: 177-180.

107

Korte R, Richter H, Merkle F, Gorgen H. Financing health services in Sub-Saharan Africa: options for decision makers during adjustment. Soc Sci Med 1992; 34: 1-9.

108

McPake B, Hanson K, Mills A. Community financing of health care in Africa: an evaluation of the Bamako Initiative. Soc Sci Med 1993; 36: 1383-1395.

109

Moren A, Rigal J. Réfugiés et populations déplacées. EPICENTRE 1995; 1-17.

110

Paquet C, Hanquet G. Control of infectious diseases in refugee and displaced populations in developing countries. Bull Inst Pasteur 1998; 96: 3-14.

111

Mulholland K. Cholera in Sudan: an account of an epidemic in a refugee camp in eastern Sudan, May-June 1985. Disasters 1985; 9: 247-258.

112

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Control of diarrhoeal diseases. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 154-171.

113

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Measles immunization. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 55-65.

114

Toole MJ, Steketee RW, Waldman RJ, Nieburg P. Measles prevention and control in emergency settings. Bull World Health Organ 1989; 67: 381-388.

115

Bigot A, Jacquier G, Raimbault A, Sohier N. Prise en charge d'une épidémie de choléra. Paris: Médecins Sans Frontières, 1995; 1-107.

116

Berche T. The district hospital; its function in the district health system. Report of a workshop at Yaounde/Cameroon (November 93). Eschborn: GTZ. Eschborn: GTZ 1993; 1-18.

117

Nordberg E. Rapid assessment of an African district health system. Test of a planning tool. Int J Health Plann Manag 1993; 8: 219-233.

118

Equipe du Projet Kasongo U. Utilisation du personnel auxiliaire dans les services de santé ruraux: une expérience au Zaire. Bull Organ Mond Santé 1976; 54: 625-632.

119

Kasongo Project Team and the Unit for Research and Training in Public Health. The Kasongo project; lessons from an experiment in the organisation of a system of primary health care. Brussels: J. Goemaere, 1982; 1-54.

120

Van Lerberghe W, Van Balen H, Kegels G. District and first referral hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa; an empirical typology based on a mail survey. Brussels: Medicus Mundi International, 1989; 1-29.

121

Van Lerberghe W, Lafort Y. The role of the hospital in the district; delivering or supporting primary health care? Geneva: World Health Organization, Division of Strengthening of Health Services (WHO/SHS) 1990; 1-36.

122

Van Lerberghe W, Van Damme W, Kegels G, Ancona C, Criel B. District hospital reports: the MMI-WHO guidelines revisited. A report to WHO. Antwerp 1994; 1-52.

123

WHO. The hospital in rural and urban districts. Report of a WHO Study Group on the Functions of Hospitals at the First Referral Level. WHO Tech Rep Ser 1992; 819: 1-74.

124

Williams EH, Hayes RJ, Smith PG. Admissions to a rural hospital in the West Nile District of Uganda over a 27 year period. J Trop Med Hyg 1986; 89: 193-211.

125

Van Lerberghe W, Pangu KA. Comprehensive can be effective: the influence of coverage with a health centre network on the hospitalisation patterns in the rural area of Kasongo, Zaïre. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 949-955.

126

Berman PA, Gwatkin DR, Burger SE. Community-based health workers: head start or false start towards health for all? Soc Sci Med 1987; 25: 443-459.

127

Chowdhury AM, Chowdhury S, Islam MN, Islam A, Vaughan JP. Control of tuberculosis by community health workers in Bangladesh. Lancet 1997; 350: 169-172.

128

De Francisco A, Schellenberg JA, Hall AJ, Greenwood AM, Cham K, Greenwood BM. Comparison of mortality between villages with and without Primary Health Care workers in Upper River Division, The Gambia. J Trop Med Hyg 1994; 97: 69-74.

129

Matomora MK. Mass produced village health workers and the promise of primary health care. Soc Sci Med 1989; 28: 1081-1084.

130

Matomora MK. A people-centered approach to primary health care implementation in Mvumi, Tanzania. Soc Sci Med 1989; 28: 1031-1037.

131

Velema JP, Alihonou EM, Gandaho T, Hounye FH. Childhood mortality among users and non-users of primary health care in a rural west African community. Int J Epidemiol 1991; 20: 474-479.

132

De Brouwere V, Pangu KA. Reflexions sur la flexibilité d'un service de santé intégré dans la lutte contre la trypanosomiase à Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1989; 69 (Suppl I): 221-229.

133

Laveissiere C, Meda H. Equipes mobiles ou agents de santé: quelle stratégie contre la maladie du sommeil? Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1993; 73: 1-6.

134

Mercenier P. Potentiel des services de santé polyvalents pour la détection des malades trypanosés. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1977; 57: 323-329.

135

Unger JP. Rôle des districts sanitaires et méthodologie de leur développement en Afrique. Bruxelles: Université Libre de Bruxelles, Aggrégation pour l'Enseignement Supérieur 1991; 1-187.

136

Unger JP. Guide pratique de la coopération médicale; de l'analyse des systèmes de santé à 1'action. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1992; 1-221.

137

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Curative health care. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997:251.

138

Bennett S. The mystique of markets: public and private health care in developing countries. PHP Dep Publ 1991; 4: 1-70.

139

Bennett S. Promoting the private sector: a review of developing country trends. Health Pol Plann 1992; 7: 97-110.

140

Brugha R, Zwi A. Improving the quality of private sector delivery of public health services: challenges and strategies. Health Pol Plann 1998; 13: 107-120.

141

Frenk J. The public/private mix and human resources for health. Health Pol Plann 1993; 8: 315-326.

142

Gilson L, Sen PD, Mohammed S, Mujinja P. The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options. Health Pol Plann 1994; 9: 14-24.

143

Giusti D, Criel B, de Béthune X. Viewpoint: public versus private health care delivery: beyond the slogans. Health Pol Plann 1997; 12: 193-198.

144

McPake B, Ngalande Banda EE. Contracting out of health services in developing countries. Health Pol Plann 1994; 9: 25-30.

145

Van Lerberghe W, Ammar W, El Rashidi R, Sales A, Mechbal A. Reform follows failure: I. Unregulated private care in Lebanon. Health Pol Plann 1997; 12: 296-311.

146

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Socio-cultural aspects. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 23-34.

147

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Political aspects. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 13-22.

148

Editorial. Emergency medical aid is not for amateurs. Lancet 1996; 348: 1393.

149

Boelaert M, Henkens M. Emergency medical aid for refugees. Lancet 1997; 349: 213.

150

African Rights. Humanitarianism unbound? Current dilemmas facing multi-mandate relief operations in political emergencies. London: African Rights 1994; 1-39.

151

Cross PN, Huff MA, Quick JD, Bates JA. Revolving drug funds: conducting business in the public sector. Soc Sci Med 1986; 22: 335-343.

152

Sauerborn R, Bodart C, Essomba RO. Recovery of recurrent health service costs through provincial health funds in Cameroon. Soc Sci Med 1995; 40: 1731-1739.

153

Unger JP, Mbaye A, Diao M. From Bamako to Kolda: a case study of medicines and the financing of district health services. Health Pol Plann 1990; 5: 367-377.

154

Unger JP, Yada A. Should medicines be distributed by health services or pharmacies? A preliminary evaluation of the Boulgou project in Burkina Faso. Health Pol Plann 1993; 8: 240-246.

155

WHO. WHO emergency health kit; standard drugs and clinic equipment for 10 000 persons for 3 months. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO), 1984; 1-43.

156

OMS. Nouveau kit sanitaire d'urgence. Listes de médicaments et de matériel médical pour une population de 10.000 personnes pendant environ 3 mois. Genève: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), 1992; 1-44.

157

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Public health surveillance. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 191-205.

158

Hausman B, Ritmeijer K. Surveillance in emergency situations. Amsterdam: MSF-H 1993; 1-46.

159

Martin AA, Moore J, Collins C, et al. Infectious disease surveillance during emergency relief to Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. JAMA 1994; 272: 377-381.

160

Woodruff BA, Toole MJ, Rodrigue DC, et al. Disease surveillance and control after a flood: Khartoum, Sudan 1988. Disasters 1990; 14: 151-163.

161

WFP, UNHCR, MSF. Enquêtes anthropométriques rapides au sein de populations en situation précaire. Rome, Geneva & Brussels 1991; 1-35.

162

Foltz AM. Donor funding for health reform in Africa: is non-project assistance the right prescription? Health Pol Plann 1994; 9: 371-384.

163

Kegels G. Sustainability. Med Mundi Int Newsl 1995; 55: 5-10.

164

Knippenberg R, Soucat A, Oyegbite K, et al. Sustainability of primary health care including expanded program of immunizations in Bamako Initiative programs in West Africa: an assessment of 5 years' field experience in Benin and Guinea. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S9-S28.

165

Lafond AK. Improving the quality of investment in health: lessons on sustainability. Health Pol Plann 1995; 10: 63-76.

166

Soucat A, Levy-Bruhl D, de Béthune X, et al. Affordability, cost-effectiveness and efficiency of primary health care: the Bamako Initiative experience in Benin and Guinea. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S81-S108.

167

Mburu FM. Non-government organizations in the health field: collaboration, integration and contrasting aims in Africa. Soc Sci Med 1989; 29: 591-597.

168

Wang'ombe JK. The 'permanent project syndrome': a counter productive consequence of philanthropy. Soc Sci Med 1995; 41: 603-604.

169

Foster GM. Bureaucratic aspects of international health agencies. Soc Sci Med 1987; 25: 1039-1048.

170

Ebrahim GJ. The Bamako initiative. J Trop Pediatr 1993; 39: 66-67.

171

Knippenberg R, Alihonou EM, Soucat A, et al. Implementation of the Bamako Initiative: strategies in Benin and Guinea. Int J Health Plann Manag 1997; 12: S29-S47.

172

Chabot HT, Bremmers J. Government health services versus community: conflict or harmony. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 957-962.

173

Gray CS. State-sponsored primary health care in Africa: the recurrent cost of performing miracles. Soc Sci Med 1986; 22: 361-368.

174

Nafo TF, El Abassi A. Health care reform: the experience in Mali. In: Nitayarumphong S, ed. Health care reform. At the frontier of research and policy decisions. Nontaburi: Ministry of Public Health, 1997: 101-117.

175

Nitayarumphong S, Pannarunothai S. Thailand at the crossroads: challenges for health care reform. In: Nitayarumphong S, ed. Health care reform. At the frontier of research and policy decisions. Nontaburi: Ministry of Public Health, 1997: 141-163.

176

Anon. Conference consensus statement. Korat statement: toward evidence-based health care reform. In: Nitayarumphong S, ed. Health care reform. At the frontier of research and policy decisions. Nontaburi: Ministry of Public Health, 1997: 12-14.

177

Van Lerberghe W, Ammar W, El Rashidi R, Awar M, Sales A, Mechbal A. Reform follows failure: II. Pressure for change in the Lebanese health sector. Health Pol Plann 1997; 12: 312-319.

178

Santing CA. Management structures for cooperation between NGOs and district health authorities. Memisa Med 1995; 61: 69-77.

179

Abdel Rahim IM, Nalder S, el Faki BA, Ghorashi GS, Bower B. Improved training in primary health care: field follow-up essential. World Health Forum 1988; 9: 393-398.

180

de Béthune X. La formation continue des responsables de districts sanitaires et des centres de santé périphériques: comparaison de quelques formations dans trois pays. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1995; 75 (Suppl I): 54 (Abstract).

181

McMahon R, Barton E, Piot M. On being in charge: a guide to management in primary health care. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO), 1992; 1-472.

182

Mercenier P. La place de la formation dans the développement des systèmes de santé. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1995; 75 (Suppl I): 89-90.

183

Mooren H. The identification of learning needs in a district health system. Antwerpen: Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), 1992; 1-44.

184

Pangu KA. Continuous training of medical auxiliary by supervision: methodological aspects. In: Diesfeld HJ, ed. Health research in developing countries. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1981: 79-86.

185

Unger JP. The training of district medical officers in the organization of health services: a methodology tested in Senegal. Health Pol Plann 1989; 4: 148-156.

186

Hanquet G, Rigal J, Sondorp E, Vautier F. Human resources and training. In: MSF, ed. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997: 206-222.

187

Sandier RH. Training refugees to be health workers. In: Sandier RH, ed. Medical care of refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987: 43-47.

188

Lamboray JL, McLaughlin J, Niimi R, Knippenberg R. Health centres: from responsibility to accountability. Antwerp: ITG Press, 1997; 1-32.

189

Harrell-Bond BE, Voutira E, Leopold M. Counting the refugees: gifts, givers, patrons and clients. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 205-225.

190

Pangu KA, Van Lerberghe W. Financement et autofinancement des soins de santé en Afrique. In: Schmidt-Ehry B, Korte R, Hörner J, Aubert C, eds. Santé en Afrique; perspectives et stratégies de coopération; rapport du séminaire tenu à Lomé, République du Togo du 1 au 6 novembre 1987. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), 1988: 63-88.

191

Pangu KA, Van Lerberghe W. Self-financing and self-management of basic health services. World Health Forum 1990; 11: 451-454.

192

Hirnschall GO. Review of health and nutrition situation of Liberian refugees in the Forest Region in Guinea (May 5-23, 1990). Atlanta: CDC 1991; 1-23.

193

Davis A. Recommendations regarding design, supervision and use of the refugee community based information system. N'Zérékoré: MSF 1995; 1-7.

194

Dusauchoit T. Rapport de mission Guinée (10/1-20/1/97). Brussels: Médecins Sans Frontières 1997; 1-49.

195

Van Lerberghe W, Van Balen H, Kegels G. Typologie et performances des hôpitaux de premier recours en Afrique sub-Saharienne. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 1992; 72 (Suppl 2): 1-51.

196

Masumbuko B, Sovogui J. Enquêtes nutritionnelles et de couverture vaccinale anti-rougeoleuse chez les enfants guinéens et réfugiés de Guéckédou. Guéckédou: DPS-GTZ 1996; 1-16.

197

Le Lann O. Enquête nutritionnelle anthropométrique sur la population réfugiée dans les camps de la préfecture de Macenta. Macenta: Action Contre la Faim 1996; 1-19.

198

Van Damme W, De Brouwere V, Boelaert M, Van Lerberghe W. Effects of a refugee-assistance programme on host population in Guinea as measured by obstetric interventions. Lancet 1998; 351: 1609-1613.

199

Glass R, Gates W, Nieburg P, et al. Rapid assessment of health status and preventive-medicine needs of newly arrived Kampuchean refugees, Sa Kaeo, Thailand. Lancet 1980; 1: 868-872.

200

Porignon D, Soron'gane EM, Lokombe TE, Katulanya I, Van Lerberghe W. How robust are district health systems? Coping with crisis and disasters in Rutshuru, Democratic Republic of Congo. Trop Med Int Health 1998; 3: 559-565.

201

Shears P, Berry AM, Murphy R, Nabil MA. Epidemiological assessment of the health and nutrition of Ethiopian refugees in emergency camps in Sudan, 1985. Br Med J 1987; 295: 314-318.

202

Steketee RW, Mulholland K. Primary care medicine in the refugee relief program of eastern Sudan. Disasters 1982; 6: 176-182.

203

Elias CJ, Alexander BH, Sokly T. Infectious disease control in a long-term refugee camp: the role of epidemiologic surveillance and investigation. Am J Public Health 1990; 80: 824-828.

204

Mercer A. Mortality and morbidity in refugee camps in Eastern Sudan: 1985-90. Disasters 1992; 16: 28-42.

205

Hakewill P, Moren A. Monitoring and evaluation of relief programmes. Trop Doct 1991; 21 (suppl I): 24-28.

206

Dubourg D. Enquête de satisfaction des soins. N'Zérékoré: MSF 1995; 1-78.

207

Van Damme W. Do refugees belong in camps? Experiences from Goma and Guinea. Lancet 1995; 346: 360-362.

208

Van Damme W, Boelaert M, Van Lerberghe W, Harrell-Bond BE. What should be done in acute emergencies? [Letter]. Lancet 1996; 348: 1663.

209

Macrae J, Zwi AB, Forsythe V. Aid policy in transition: a preliminary analysis of 'post'-conflict rehabilitation of the health sector. Journal of International Development 1995; 7: 669-684.

210

Van Brabant K. Bad borders make bad neighbours. The political economy of relief and rehabilitation in the Somali region 5, eastern Ethiopia. London, Overseas Development Institute. Network Paper 1994; 4: 1-96.

211

Frerks GE, Kirkby SJ, Emmel ND, O'Keefe P, Convery I, Kliest TJ. A 'disaster' continuum. Disasters 1995; 19: 362-366.

212

Kelly C. Disaster continuum. Disasters 1996; 20: 276-277.

213

Kelly C. Disaster-to-development continuum. Disasters 1998; 22: 174-175.

214

Kirkby SJ, O'Keefe P, Convery I, Howell D. Disaster and development. Disasters 1997; 21: 177-180.

215

Anderson MB, Woodrow PJ. Rising from the ashes. Development strategies in times of disaster. Boulder & San Francisco: Westview Press, 1989; 1-338.

216

Ibrahim MM, Omar HM, Persson LA, Wall S. Child mortality in a collapsing African society. Bull World Health Organ 1996; 74: 547-552.

217

Soeters R. Pitfalls with weight for height measurements. Trop Doct 1986; 16: 173-176.

218

Harrell-Bond BE, Van Damme W. The health of refugees: are traditional medicines an answer? Curare 1997; 11: 385-392.

Chapter 7

1

Geary LM. The late disastrous epidemic: medical relief and the Great Famine. In: Morash C, Hayes R, eds. Fearful realities. New perspectives on the famine. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1996: 49-59.

2

CDC. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: recommendations for public health issues. MMWR 1992; 41: 1-76.

3

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Prevention of excess mortality in refugee and displaced populations in developing countries. JAMA 1990; 263: 3296-3302.

4

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. The public health aspects of complex emergencies and refugee situations. Annu Rev Public Health 1997; 18: 283-312.

5

Médecins sans Frontières. Refugee health. An approach to emergency situations. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997; 1-380.

6

Perrin P. Handbook on war and public health. Geneva: ICRC, 1996; 1-446.

7

Goma Epidemiology Group. Public health impact of Rwandan refugee crisis: what happened in Goma, Zaire, in July, 1994? Lancet 1995; 345: 339-344.

8

Glass R, Cates W, Nieburg P, et al. Rapid assessment of health status and preventive-medicine needs of newly arrived Kampuchean refugees, Sa Kaeo, Thailand. Lancet 1980; 1: 868-872.

9

Shears P, Berry AM. Murphy R, Nabil MA. Epidemiological assessment of the health and nutrition of Ethiopian refugees in emergency camps in Sudan, 1985. Br Med J 1987; 295: 314-318.

10

Editorial. The health of refugees. Lancet 1985; 1: 673-674.

11

Harrell-Bond BE. Pitch the tents. An alternative to refugee camps. New Republic 1994; Sept 19&26: 15-19.

12

Van Damme W. Do refugees belong in camps? Experiences from Goma and Guinea. Lancet 1995; 346: 360-362.

13

Cosgrave J. Refugee density and dependence: practical implications of camp size. Disasters 1996; 20: 261-270.

14

Kelly C. Disaster-to-development continuum. Disasters 1998; 22: 174-175.

15

Zetter R, Henry CJK. The nutrition crisis among refugees. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 201-380.

16

Van Damme W, Boelaert M, Van Lerberghe W, Harrell-Bond BE. What should be done in acute emergencies? [Letter]. Lancet 1996; 348: 1663.

17

Boelaert M, Englebert M, Hanquet G, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Refugee relief rations [Letter]. Lancet 1997; 349: 1775.

18

CDC. Outbreak of pellagra among Mozambican refugees-Malawi, 1990. MMWR 1991; 40: 209-213.

19

Desenclos JC, Berry AM, Padt R, Farah B, Segala C, Nabil AM. Epidemiological patterns of scurvy among Ethiopian refugees. Bull World Health Organ 1989; 67: 309-316.

20

Malfait P, Moren A, Dillon JC, et al. An outbreak of pellagra related to changes in dietary niacin among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 504-511.

21

WHO. Scurvy and food aid among refugees in the Horn of Africa. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1989; 64: 85-87.

22

Goyens P, Porignon D, Soron'gane EM, Tonglet R, Hennart P, Vis HL. Humanitarian aid and health services in Eastern Kivu, Zaire: collaboration or competition? J Ref Stud 1996; 9: 268-280.

23

Porignon D, Noterman JP, Hennart P, Tonglet R, Soron'gane EM, Lokombe TE. The role of the Zairian health services in the Rwandan refugee crisis. Disasters 1995; 19: 356-360.

24

Collins S. Ignoring the host: the impact of recent refugee crises on health infrastructure in Ngara district, Tanzania. Amsterdam: Médecins Sans Frontières 1996; 1-89.

25

Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health. JAMA 1993; 270: 600-605.

26

Van Damme W, De Brouwere V, Boelaert M, Van Lerberghe W. Effects of a refugee-assistance programme on host population in Guinea as measured by obstetric interventions. Lancet 1998; 351:1609-1613.

27

Hansen A. Managing refugees: Zambia's response to Angolan refugees 1966-1977. Disasters 1979; 3: 375-380.

28

Kibreab G. The state of the art review of refugee studies in Africa. Uppsala: 1991; 1-83.

29

Hilderbrand K, Van Erps J, Hody B, Arbyn M. Angolan refugees in Shaba, Zaire 1984-1990: a case study of management imbroglio. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 336-342.

30

Kuhlman T. Burden or boon? A study of Eritrean refugees in the Sudan. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1990; 1-203.

31

WHO. Emergency and humanitarian action. Geneva: WHO, 1996; 1-64.

32

de Waal A. Famine mortality: a case study of Darfur, Sudan 1984-5. Pop Stud 1989; 43: 5-24.

33

de Waal A. Famine that kills: Darfur, Sudan 1984-1985. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989; 1-258.

34

Szreter S. Economic growth, disruption, deprivation, disease, and death: on the importance of the politics of public health for development. Pop Dev Rev 1997; 23: 693-728.

35

Szreter S, Mooney G. Urbanization, mortality, and the standard of living debate; new estimates of the expectation of life at birth in nineteenth-century British cities. Economic History Review 1998; LI: 84-112.

36

Ibrahim MM, Omar HM, Persson LA, Wall S. Child mortality in a collapsing African society. Bull World Health Organ 1996; 74; 547-552.

37

McKeown T. The role of medicine: dream, mirage or nemesis? London: Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trust, 1976; 1-180.

38

Evans RG, Stoddart GL. Producing health, consuming health care. Soc Sci Med 1990; 31: 1347-1363.

39

Cassel J. The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. Am J Epidemiol 1976; 104: 107-123.

40

House JS, Landis KR, Umberson D. Social relationships and health. Science 1988; 241: 540-545.

41

Doyal L, Gough I. A theory of human need. Houndsmille, Basingstoke, Hampshire & London: MacMillan, 1991; 1-365.

42

Kunz EF. The refugee in flight: kinetic models and forms of displacement. Int Migrat Rev 1973; 7: 125-146.

43

Kunz EF. Exile and resettlement: refugee theory. Int Migrat Rev 1981; 15: 42-51.

44

Harrell-Bond BE. Imposing aid; emergency assistance to refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986; 1-440.

45

Voutira E, Harrell-Bond BE. In search of the locus of trust: the social world of the refugee camp. Oxford 1992; 1-13.

46

Wilson KB. Enhancing refugees' own food acquisition strategies. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 226-246.

47

Black R, Sessay M. Forced migration, land-use change and political economy in the Forest Region of Guinea. African Affairs 1997; 96: 587-605.

48

Black R. Putting refugees in camps. Forced Migration Review 1998; 2: 4-7.

49

Dualeh MW. Do refugees belong in camps? Lancet 1995; 346: 1369-1370.

50

Van der Borght S, Philips M. Do refugees belong in camps? Lancet 1995; 346: 907-908.

51

Harrell-Bond BE, Voutira E, Leopold M. Counting the refugees: gifts, givers, patrons and clients. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 205-225.

52

Rufin JC. Le piège humanitaire. Paris: Hachette/Pluriel, 1986; 1-372.

53

Chambers R. Hidden losers? The impact of rural refugees and refugee programs on poorer hosts. Int Migrat Rev 1986; 20: 245-263.

54

Reed BA, Habicht J-P. Sales of food aid as sign of distress, not excess. Lancet 1998; 351: 128-130.

55

Waldron SR. Blaming the refugees. Refugee Issues 1987; 3: 1-19.

56

Hilderbrand K, Boelaert M, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Food rations for refugees [Letter]. Lancet 1998; 351: 1213-1214.

57

Ritmeijer K. Refugees' food acquisition strategies in times of inadequate rations; the case of Mauritanian refugees in Senegal. Amsterdam: Médecins Sans Frontières 1.991; 1-9.

58

Hathaway JC. New directions to avoid hard problems: the distortion of the palliative role of refugee protection. J Ref Stud 1995; 8: 288-304.

59

Ogata S. Refugee children. Guidelines on protection and care. Geneva: UNHCR, 1994; 1-182.

60

Anon. 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Br Med J 1997; 315: 1455-1456.

61

UNHCR. Handbook on procedures and criteria for determining refugee status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the status of refugees. Geneva: UNHCR, 1992; 1-93.

62

Hampton J. Internally displaced people. A global survey. Global IDP survey of the Norwegian Refugee Council. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd, 1998; 1-240.

63

Immigration and Refugee Services of America. World Refugee Survey 1996: an annual assessment of conditions affecting refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced people. Washington: USCR 1996; 1-203.

64

Moore P, Marfin A, Quenemoen L, et al. Mortality rates in displaced and resident populations of central Somalia during 1992 famine. Lancet 1993; 341: 935-938.

65

Porignon D, Soron'gane EM, Lokombe TE, Katulanya I, Van Lerberghe W. How robust are district health systems? Coping with crisis and disasters in Rutshuru, Democratic Republic of Congo. Trop Med Int Health 1998; 3: 559-565.

66

Borton J, Brusset E, Hallam A. The international response to conflict and genocide: lessons from the Rwanda experience. 3. Humanitarian aid and effects. Millwood, D, Copenhagen: Steering Committee of the Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda 1996; 1-169.

67

Eriksson J. The international response to conflict and genocide: lessons from the Rwanda experience. Synthesis report. Millwood, D. Copenhagen: Steering Committee of the Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda 1996; 1-81.

68

Anthony AC. Rights and obligations of rural refugees in Tanzania: a case study of Mpanda District. Afr Rev 1990; 17: 21-41.

69

CDC. Health status of displaced persons following Civil War-Burundi, December 1993-January 1994. MMWR 1994; 43: 701-703.

70

Mbago MC. Some correlates of child mortality in the refugee populated regions in Tanzania. J Biosoc Sci 1994; 26: 451-467.

71

Government of Tanzania. The Tanzania refugees policy implementation record and the Tanzania position on the Rwanda and Burundi refugees related problems, 1995; 1-16.

72

Sommers M. Representing refugees: the role of elites in Burundi refugee society. Disasters 1995; 19: 19-25.

73

CDC. Risque d'épidémie de typhus dans les camps de réfugiés rwandais. Relevé Epidémiol Hebd 1994; 69: 259.

74

Dolan C, Tollman S, Nkuna VG, Gear JSS. The links between legal status and environmental health: a case study of Mozambican refugees and their hosts in the Mpumalanga (Eastern Transvaal) Lowveld, South Africa. Health and Human Rights 1997; 2: 63-86.

75

Wilson KB. Internally displaced, refugees and returnees from and in Mozambique. Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet 1994; 1-61.

76

Dodge CP. Health implications of war in Uganda and Sudan. Soc Sci Med 1990; 31: 691-698.

77

Orach C, Bukenya B, Mbona T.N. Morbidity & mortality among hospitalised Sudanese refugees in West Nile district of Uganda. Tropical Health 1994; IV: 16-19.

78

Davis AP. Targeting the vulnerable in emergency situations: who is vulnerable? Lancet 1996; 348: 868-871.

79

Mulholland K. Cholera in Sudan: an account of an epidemic in a refugee camp in eastern Sudan, May-June 1985. Disasters 1985; 9: 247-258.

80

Shears P. Nutrition studies of Ugandan refugees in Sudan and Rwanda. A report on surveys using the mid-upper arm circumference method. Trop Geogr Med 1985; 37: 359-361.

81

Downing R. A tale of two clinics-primary health care in refugee settings: lessons from Sudan and Somalia. Soc Sci Med 1989; 28: 1053-1058.

82

Mercer A. Mortality and morbidity in refugee camps in Eastern Sudan: 1985-90. Disasters 1992; 16: 28-42.

83

Young H. A case study of the Chadian refugees in Western Sudan: the impact of the food assessment mission. J Ref Stud 1992; 5: 327-335.

84

Desenclos JC, Michel D, Tholly F, Magdi I, Pecoul B, Desve G. Mortality trends among refugees in Honduras, 1984-1987. Int J Epidemiol 1990; 19: 367-373.

85

Gardner P, Rohde JE, Majumdar MB. Health priorities among Bangladesh refugees. Lancet 1972; 1: 834-836.

86

Hickman R. Deteriorating health of refugee children in India. Lancet 1971; 2: 917-918.

87

Pastakia B. Relief for Bangladesh refugees in India. Lancet 1972; 2: 1139.

88

Seaman J. Relief work in a refugee camp for Bangladesh refugees in India. Lancet 1972; 2: 866-870.

89

Dahlberg K. Medical care of Cambodian refugees. JAMA 1980; 243: 1062-1065.

90

Elias CJ, Alexander BH, Sokly T. Infectious disease control in a long-term refugee camp: the role of epidemiologic surveillance and investigation. Am J Public Health 1990; 80: 824-828.

91

Lamberts AE. Medicine on the Cambodian border: Khao I Dang. JAMA 1987; 258: 203.

92

O'Sullivan J, O'Sullivan G, Ebrahim S. Primary health care in Ubon refugee camp. Br Med J 1980; 280: 779-781.

Abbreviations & Acronyms

95% CI

95% Confidence Interval

ANC

Antenatal Care

CFR

Case Fatality Rate

OTC

Cholera Treatment Centre

EMA

Emergency Medical Assistance

EPI

Expanded Programme on Immunisations

FG

Francs Guinéens

FLHS

First Line Health Service

GTZ

Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit

MOH

Ministry of Health

MOI

Major Obstetric Intervention

MSF

Médecins Sans Frontières

MUAC

Mid-Upper Arm Circumference

NGO

Non-Governmental Organisation

NPFL

National Patriotic Front of Liberia

PARLS

Programme d'Assistance aux Réfugiés Libériens et Sierra-Léonais

PEV/SSP/ME

Programme Elargi de Vaccinations/Soins de Santé Primaires/Médicaments Essentiels

PHC

Primary Health Care

PMC

Proportion of Malnourished Children at the curative clinic

SFP

Supplementary Feeding Programme

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

W/H

Weight-for-Height

WFP

World Food Programme