|Violence against Women (World Bank, 1994, 84 pages)|
Actions for the national secretariat on women
1. In consultation with women's NGOS working on gender violence issues, develop e national initiative against violence against women. (Countries that do not have a high-level office dedicated to advancing the status of women should consider establishing one.)
2. Provide financial and technical support to NGOs that provide services to and perform advocacy on behalf of victims of violence, especially those working from a feminist perspective. Work with women's NGOs to develop strategies to expand the availability of services for victims-from both governmental and non-governmental sources-including shelters, crisis centers, legal assistance, counseling, and support groups.
3. Work with other ministries to implement a coordinated campaign against violence against women, including all of the activities outlined below.
4. Work to improve women's access to productive resources, including land, credit, wage employment, and child care.
5. Sponsor a national media campaign designed to communicate social norms that define violence against women as unacceptable.
Actions for the ministry of health
1. Establish and implement model protocols for the early identification and referral of abuse victims in health care settings, including emergency rooms and primary care facilities such as family planning and prenatal clinics. Train staff in counseling, examining victims, and collecting legal evidence for prosecution.
2. Undertake research on the incidence and prevalence of gender-related violence, the percentage of women presenting indifferent health settings who are abused, the mental health consequences of violence, and the health care costs of domestic violence and rape.
3. Integrate questions on gender violence into national health surveys and into ongoing research in such areas as AIDS, sexuality, and family planning. Colombia incorporated questions on family violence into its Demographic and Health Survey, and the Philippines is planning to do likewise. The module needs to be improved and its use funded.
4. Introduce consciousness-raising material and training on the dynamics of abuse (including culture bound practices that are harmful) into the curricula and professional licensing exams for such health care workers as doctors, psychologists, nurses, and midwives. Integrate similar themes into the training of community based health promoters.
5. Establish, through research, a clinical profile detailing injuries, location, and other symptoms-of women presenting with abuse to help health workers identify victims.
6. Incorporate themes related to all forms of gender-based violence and sex role stereotyping into radio shows, soap operas, and other educational materials now being used to promote family planning, AIDS education, awl other health themes.
7. In collaboration with the ministry of justice, sponsor sensitivity training for forensic doctors on violence against women and on bow to collect and document evidence of assault, sexual abuse, and rape.
8. Discourage destructive drinking and illicit drug use among adolescents and adults by sponsoring educational programs and skills training on resisting peer pressure.
9. Expand treatment programs for individuals addicted to drugs and alcohol.
10. Implement treatment and reeducation programs for perpetrators.
Actions for the ministry of justice
1. Sponsor legislation that specifically criminalizes domestic violence, marital rape, and other crimes against women. Eliminate inappropriate legal responses, such as the "honor defense," which exculpates perpetrators of wife murder and infanticide.
2. Reform existing laws to facilitate prosecution of genderbased crimes such as rape and domestic assault. Amend laws that interfere with the ability of women to escape violent relationships (for example, barriers to divorce).
3. Document how laws related to gender violence are (or are not) enforced, detailing the frequency of prosecution, arrest rates, judgments, and sentences.
4. Amend laws and regulations, as needed, to allow any licensed health care provider to examine and collect evidence of physical and sexual assault for legal purposes.
5. Extend and improve medical and legal services provided by the state for victims of violence in both urban and rural areas.
6. Require all crime statistics to be broken down by gender (for both the perpetrator and the victim). Information should also be recorded on the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim to help identify the gendered nature of violent crime.
7. Support NGOs providing human rights education and legal literacy training for women.
8. Implement training programs on gender based violence for the police, prosecutors, and judges.
9. Incorporate gender-awareness training and analysis into law school curriculum.
10. Take measures to increase the number of women police officers, lawyers, prosecutors, and judges. Ensure the availability of female officers and forensic doctors for gender-violence-related investigations and exams.
Actions for the ministry of education
1. Remove gender bias and gender stereotyping from school curriculum and teaching materials.
2. Integrate gender awareness training, parenting skills, and nonviolent conflict resolution into school curricula
3. Work with the media to portray positive images of equitable relationships and to remove gratuitous violence from the media.
4. Provide gender-awareness training to teachers and educators and teach them to recognize the signs of abuse.